“Then the Lord
Does not each of you,
On the Sabbath,
Untie his ox
Or his donkey
From the stall?
Do you not
Lead it away
To give it water?’”
ἀπεκρίθη δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Κύριος καὶ εἶπεν Ὑποκριταί, ἕκαστος ὑμῶν τῷ σαββάτῳ οὐ λύει τὸν βοῦν αὐτοῦ ἢ τὸν ὄνον ἀπὸ τῆς φάτνης καὶ ἀπαγαγὼν ποτίζει;
Luke uniquely said that the Lord, not Jesus, answered this synagogue leader (ἀπεκρίθη δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Κύριος). He called them hypocrites (καὶ εἶπεν Ὑποκριταί) in the second person plural. He asked each of them (ἕκαστος ὑμῶν) whether they had untied their ox (οὐ λύει τὸν βοῦν αὐτοῦ) or donkey (ἢ τὸν ὄνον) from the stall or manger (ἀπὸ τῆς φάτνης) and led them away (καὶ ἀπαγαγὼν) to give them water (ποτίζει) on the Sabbath (τῷ σαββάτῳ)? Despite the sacredness of the Sabbath, they took care of their farm animals by providing water for them, as Jesus questioned how they handled their animals on the Sabbath. What are you Sabbath practices?
“You shall love
καὶ τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν.
Luke indicated that the lawyer said that they should love their neighbor (καὶ τὸν πλησίον σου) as themselves (ὡς σεαυτόν), using the second person plural. There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:3, where Mark indicated that Jesus, not the lawyer, replied that the 2nd commandment was like the 1st one. since it was about love. Not only were they to love God, but they were to love their neighbors as themselves. There were no other commandments greater than these 2 commandments of love. Everything was based on the love of God and neighbor. Matthew, chapter 22: 38-39 had Jesus reply also, not the lawyer, that they were to love their neighbors as themselves, since all the commandments of the law and the prophets hung on these two commandments. This second commandment was based on Leviticus, chapter 19:11-18, that has become the basic fundamental cornerstone of Judaism and Christianity. Leviticus further explained the Ten Commandments and your neighbor. They were not to steal or deal falsely with their neighbor. They should not lie, swear, or defraud their neighbor. They were not to keep the wages of a laborer, or revile the deaf or the blind. They should not render an unjust judgment, since they should treat the poor and the great with equal justice. They should not slanderer or profit from the blood of their neighbors. They were not to hate in their heart any of their relatives. They should not take vengeance or bear a grudge, because they should love their relatives and neighbors as themselves. All the commandments of the law and the prophets depended on these two commandments of loving God and your neighbor. Do you love your neighbor?
Will you be exalted
You will be
καὶ σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ; ἕως τοῦ Ἅιδου καταβήσῃ.
Next Luke had Jesus take on Capernaum, his new home and headquarters in Galilee. Capernaum (καὶ σύ, Καφαρναούμ) will not be exalted to heaven (μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ). Instead, it will be brought down to Hades or hell (ἕως τοῦ Ἅιδου καταβήσῃ). Once again, Jesus used the second person plural. Matthew, chapter 11:23, had a similar statement, indicating a possible common Q source. Jesus questioned them. Would they be exalted or raised up to heaven? No! In fact, they would be cast down to the unseen world of Hades, the traditional Greek word for hell. Matthew then even compared Capernaum to Sodom. If the mighty miracles that were done in Capernaum were done in Sodom, Sodom might have remained until the present day. Then Jesus gave a solemn pronouncement that it would be more tolerable for the land of Sodom than for the people of Capernaum. Jesus warned these three towns, within 10 miles of each other. They had not repented, despite his teaching and the many miracles there. Something must have happened in Capernaum because it had been his base of operations in Galilee. Have you ever turned on the town where you had lived?
“But at the judgment,
It will be
Than for you.”
πλὴν Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται ἐν τῇ κρίσει ἢ ὑμῖν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that at the judgment (ἐν τῇ κρίσει), it would be more tolerable (ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται) for Tyre (πλὴν Τύρῳ) and Sidon (καὶ Σιδῶνι), than for Chorazin and Bethsaida (ἢ ὑμῖν), using the second person plural. Matthew, chapter 11:22, also indicated the same, perhaps because of a common Q source. Matthew had Jesus utter this solemn pronouncement that the non-Jewish cities of Tyre and Sidon would be more tolerated on the day of judgment than the Galilean towns of Chorazin and Bethsaida. Jesus was upset at these 2 towns for their lack of repentance, despite his many teachings and deeds there. Are there certain towns that you do not like?
“Do to others
As you would have them
Do to you!”
καὶ καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι, ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως.
Luke indicated that Jesus said to his followers to do the same to others (ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως), like they would wish other men to do to them (καὶ καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι). Once again, this was in the second person plural imperative. Matthew, chapter 7:12, has something similar, perhaps indicating a common Q source. This saying is often known throughout the world as the philosophical golden rule. Matthew said that whatever you wanted other men to do to you (Πάντα οὖν ὅσα ἐὰν θέλητε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι), you should do to them the same (οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς). Matthew emphasized that this was already in the Hebrew Torah, the Law and among the various Judaic prophets, while Luke never mentioned the Law and the prophets. Pure and simple, treat other people the way that you would want to be treated.
“Give to everyone
Who begs from you!”
παντὶ αἰτοῦντί σε δίδου,
Luke indicated that Jesus said that they should give (δίδου) to everyone who begs from them (παντὶ αἰτοῦντί σε), in the second person plural. Matthew, chapter 5:42, was almost the same, when he had Jesus say that if anyone begs from them, give him something (τῷ αἰτοῦντί σε δός). In other words, never refuse a beggar. Never turn down a request, a petition, or a demand. Be generous!
Who takes away
Do not withhold
Even your shirt!”
καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντός σου τὸ ἱμάτιον καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα μὴ κωλύσῃς.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that if anyone wanted to take away their coat (καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντός σου τὸ ἱμάτιον), they should also offer them their shirt or tunic (καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα μὴ κωλύσῃς). Once again Luke had Jesus use the second person plural to address his followers. A similar saying to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 5:40, where he also indicated that the followers of Jesus should be kind people. We might even call these activities unusual acts of kindness. In Matthew, Jesus said that not only should they give a person their inner tunic coat (τὸν χιτῶνά σου λαβεῖν), but also their outer cloak as well (ἄφες αὐτῷ καὶ τὸ ἱμάτιον). This seems like they would give all the clothes off their back, since most people did not own more than 2 coats. There should be no end to their generosity.
On the cheek,
Offer the other also!”
τῷ τύπτοντί σε ἐπὶ τὴν σιαγόνα πάρεχε καὶ τὴν ἄλλην,
Luke indicated that Jesus said that if anyone struck them (τῷ τύπτοντί σε) on the cheek (ἐπὶ τὴν σιαγόνα), they were to offer the other cheek also (πάρεχε καὶ τὴν ἄλλην). Once again, Luke had Jesus use the second person plural to address his followers. Matthew, chapter 5:39, had the same saying, with different wording. If they were struck on the right cheek (ἀλλ’ ὅστις σε ῥαπίζει εἰς τὴν δεξιὰν σιαγόνα σου), they should turn the other cheek (στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην). A slap on the right cheek was usually a back handed slap, since most people were right handed. Jesus himself would be struck on the cheek in the passion narrative. They would be true followers of Jesus, if they did not resist, as in the passion story. This is one of the strongest arguments for Christian pacifism.
“Pray for those
Who abuse you!”
προσεύχεσθε περὶ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς
Luke indicated that Jesus asked his followers to pray (προσεύχεσθε) for those who were abusing or mistreating them (περὶ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς), using the second person plural. There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 5:44, where a Byzantine text added that these followers of Jesus were asked to pray for those who were abusing them (καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς), just like here. These early Christians were asked to pray for people who were taking advantage of them.
Who curse you!”
εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς,
Luke indicated that Jesus said to his followers to bless those (εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς) who cursed them (καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς), using the second person plural. There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 5:44, where a Byzantine text added that these followers of Jesus were asked to bless those cursing them (εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς), just like here. These early Christians were asked to be generous to their enemies and persecutors.