Peter’s denial (Lk 22:57-22:57)

“But Peter denied it.

He said.


I do not know Jesus!’”

ὁ δὲ ἠρνήσατο λέγων Οὐκ οἶδα αὐτόν, γύναι.

Luke said that Peter denied this accusation (ὁ δὲ ἠρνήσατο λέγων).  He said to the woman that he did not know Jesus (Οὐκ οἶδα αὐτόν, γύναι), just as Jesus had predicted.  John, chapter 18:17, has a simple denial by Peter, when this young servant girl of the high priest came up to him and said that he had been with Jesus.  Mark, chapter 14:68, said that Peter denied this (ὁ δὲ ἠρνήσατο), just like Luke.  Peter said that he did not know or even understand what she was talking about (λέγων Οὔτε οἶδα οὔτε ἐπίσταμαι σὺ τί λέγεις).  Then Peter walked away into the forecourt, the porch, or gateway to the courtyard (καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἔξω εἰς τὸ προαύλιον).  Some ancient Orthodox manuscripts had the cock crow at this point (καὶ ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν).  Matthew, chapter 26:70, said that Peter denied that he knew Jesus in front of all of them (ὁ δὲ ἠρνήσατο ἔμπροσθεν πάντων).  He said that he did not know what she was talking about (λέγων Οὐκ οἶδα τί λέγεις).  This first denial story of Peter, the great leader and follower of Jesus, was in all 4 gospels.  Not all leaders are perfect.  Do you think that leaders should be perfect?

This man was with Jesus (Lk 22:56-22:56)

“Then a maid servant

Saw Peter


By the light

Of the fire.

She stared at him.

She said.

‘This man also

Was with Jesus.’”

ἰδοῦσα δὲ αὐτὸν παιδίσκη τις καθήμενον πρὸς τὸ φῶς καὶ ἀτενίσασα αὐτῷ εἶπεν Καὶ οὗτος σὺν αὐτῷ ἦν.

Luke said that a maid servant or a young slave girl saw Peter (ἰδοῦσα δὲ αὐτὸν παιδίσκη τις) sitting in the light from the fire (καθήμενον πρὸς τὸ φῶς).  She intensely stared at him (καὶ ἀτενίσασα αὐτῷ).  Then she said that this man, meaning Peter, was also with Jesus (εἶπεν Καὶ οὗτος σὺν αὐτῷ ἦν).  John, chapter 18:16-17, had less about the servant-girl and simply said she was an unnamed and undescribed woman.  Mark, chapter 14:66-67, said that Peter was sitting outside in the high priest’s lower courtyard (Καὶ ὄντος τοῦ Πέτρου κάτω ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ).  Then a young servant-girl or maid of the high priest came up to him (ἔρχεται μία τῶν παιδισκῶν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως).  Peter was warming himself in the high priest’s courtyard fire (καὶ ἰδοῦσα τὸν Πέτρον θερμαινόμενον).  This young servant girl or maid of the high priest was looking or staring at Peter (ἐμβλέψασα αὐτῷ).  She said to Peter (λέγει) that he had been with Jesus, the man from Nazareth (Καὶ σὺ μετὰ τοῦ Ναζαρηνοῦ ἦσθα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ).  Matthew, chapter 26:69, said that Peter was sitting outside in the high priest’s courtyard (Ὁ δὲ Πέτρος ἐκάθητο ἔξω ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ).  Then a young servant girl or maid of the high priest came up to him (καὶ προσῆλθεν αὐτῷ μία παιδίσκη).  She said that Peter had been with Jesus, the Galilean (λέγουσα Καὶ σὺ ἦσθα μετὰ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Γαλιλαίου).  This young girl had spotted Peter with Jesus.  She knew that Jesus was from Nazareth in Galilee.  Now she recognized Peter, since she may have seen Jesus and his followers somewhere beforehand.  People judge you by your company.  Have you ever been picked out in a crowd?

Peter in the courtyard (Lk 22:55-22:55)

“When they had kindled

A fire

In the middle

Of the courtyard,

They sat down together.

Peter sat among them.”

περιαψάντων δὲ πῦρ ἐν μέσῳ τῆς αὐλῆς καὶ συνκαθισάντων ἐκάθητο ὁ Πέτρος μέσος αὐτῶν.

Luke said that when they had kindled or started a fire (περιαψάντων δὲ πῦρ) in the middle of the courtyard (ἐν μέσῳ τῆς αὐλῆς) of the high priest, they all sat down together (καὶ συνκαθισάντων ἐκάθητο).  Peter sat among them (ὁ Πέτρος μέσος αὐτῶν).  This was not a good idea on the part of Peter.  In John, chapter 18:15-16, Peter was with another disciple, who helped him to get into the courtyard.  Mark, chapter 14:54, said that Peter had followed Jesus (καὶ ὁ Πέτρος…ἠκολούθησεν αὐτῷ), but at a distance (ἀπὸ μακρόθεν), as in Luke.  Peter even went right into the courtyard of the high priest (ἕως ἔσω εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως).  Then he sat with the guards or servants of the high priest (καὶ ἦν συνκαθήμενος μετὰ τῶν ὑπηρετῶν).  Mark said that Peter was there to warm himself (καὶ θερμαινόμενος) at the fire (πρὸς τὸ φῶς) in the courtyard, as in Luke here.  Matthew, chapter 26:58 said that Peter had followed Jesus (ὁ δὲ Πέτρος ἠκολούθει αὐτῷ), but at a distance (ἀπὸ μακρόθεν), just like Mark and Luke.  Peter even went as far as the courtyard of the high priest (ἕως τῆς αὐλῆς τοῦ ἀρχιερέως).  Then he went inside the courtyard (καὶ εἰσελθὼν ἔσω) and sat with the guards or servants (ἐκάθητο μετὰ τῶν ὑπηρετῶν) of the high priest in order to see what was going to happen in the end (ἰδεῖν τὸ τέλος).  He was curious to see what was going to happen to Jesus.  Thus, Peter was careless in entering the courtyard and sitting with the servants and guards of the high priest.  This might end up being a problem for him.  Have you ever been careless?

They seized Jesus (Lk 22:54-22:54)

“Then they seized Jesus.

They led him away.

They brought him

Into the high priest’s house.

Peter followed

At a distance.”

Συλλαβόντες δὲ αὐτὸν ἤγαγον καὶ εἰσήγαγον εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως· ὁ δὲ Πέτρος ἠκολούθει μακρόθεν.

Luke said that they seized Jesus (Συλλαβόντες).  They then led him away (δὲ αὐτὸν ἤγαγον).  They brought him (καὶ εἰσήγαγον) into the high priest’s house (εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως).  Peter followed at a distance (ὁ δὲ Πέτρος ἠκολούθει μακρόθεν).  Luke was vague about who this high priest was and who the “they” were.  Mark, chapter 14:53, simply said that they took Jesus to the high priest (Καὶ ἀπήγαγον τὸν Ἰησοῦν πρὸς τὸν ἀρχιερέα), without mentioning his name or saying it was his house.  Apparently, the chief priests (οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς), the elder presbyters (καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι), and the Scribes (καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς) had all gathered or assembled there (καὶ συνέρχονται πάντες).  John, chapter 18:13-14, said that they brought Jesus to the house of the father-in-law of Caiaphas, Annas, who had been the high priest of Jerusalem from 6-15 CE, before he was removed by the Romans at the age of 36, even though he lived to the age of 61.  Thus, he had a lot of influence on things.  John remarked that Caiaphas had said it was better for one person to die for the people.  Caiaphas was the high priest from 18-36 CE since he had married the daughter of Annas.  Matthew, chapter 26:57, said that those who had seized, arrested, or captured Jesus (Οἱ δὲ κρατήσαντες τὸν Ἰησοῦν) took him to the house of Caiaphas, the high priest (ἀπήγαγον πρὸς Καϊάφαν τὸν ἀρχιερέα).  Apparently, the Scribes and the elder presbyters had gathered or assembled there (ὅπου οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι συνήχθησα).  Was this an official meeting of the Jerusalem Sanhedrin?  Probably not, because these official meetings could not be held during the festival days or during the Passover.  On the other hand, some kind of informal meeting was possible, especially if it was at the house of the former high priest Annas.  However, there was no mention of the Pharisees or the Sadducees being there either.  This could have been the house of Caiaphas or Annas, while Luke and Mark simply said that it was the house of the high priest.  Have you ever been to an unofficial meeting?

Jesus had been daily in the Temple (Lk 22:53-22:53)

“When I was with you

Day after day

In the Temple,

You did not

Lay hands

On me.

But this is your hour!

The power of darkness!”

καθ’ ἡμέραν ὄντος μου μεθ’ ὑμῶν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ οὐκ ἐξετείνατε τὰς χεῖρας ἐπ’ ἐμέ· ἀλλ’ αὕτη ἐστὶν ὑμῶν ἡ ὥρα καὶ ἡ ἐξουσία τοῦ σκότους.

Luke indicated that Jesus said that he was every day (καθ’ ἡμέραν ὄντος μου) in the Temple (ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ) with them (μεθ’ ὑμῶν).  However, they never laid any hands on him (οὐκ ἐξετείνατε τὰς χεῖρας ἐπ’ ἐμέ).  However, now it was their hour (ἀλλ’ αὕτη ἐστὶν ὑμῶν ἡ ὥρα), the hour of the power of darkness (καὶ ἡ ἐξουσία τοῦ σκότους).  John, chapter 18, does not have anything like this.  This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:55-56 and Mark, chapter 14:49-50.  Mark indicated that Jesus said that day after day or every day, he had sat in the Temple teaching (καθ’ ἡμέραν ἤμην πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ διδάσκων), but they did not seize or arrest him (καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ με).  All this was taking place so that some unnamed scriptures might be fulfilled (ἀλλ’ἵνα πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαὶ).  All the disciples went away or deserted Jesus (καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν).  They all escaped or fled from Jesus (ἔφυγον πάντες).  Jesus had told them all earlier that night that this was going to happen.  Only Mark had the incident about the naked man.  Matthew indicated that day after day or every day, Jesus had sat in the Temple teaching (καθ’ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ ἐκαθεζόμην διδάσκων), but they had not seized or arrested him (καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ με).  All this took place or happened (Τοῦτο δὲ ὅλον γέγονεν) so that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled (ἵνα πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαὶ τῶν προφητῶν).  Once again, there was no indication of which scriptural prophets he was referring to.  Then all the disciples deserted him as they escaped or fled from Jesus (Τότε οἱ μαθηταὶ πάντες ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἔφυγον).  Luke was the only one who mentioned an hour or power of darkness, dominance of the evil spirits.  However, he did not say that disciples fled or abandoned Jesus, like Mark and Matthew.  Would you abandon Jesus in this situation?

Against a robber (Lk 22:52-22:52)

“Then Jesus said

To the chief priests,

The officers

Of the Temple police,

And the elders,

Who had come

For him.

‘Have you come out

With swords

And clubs

As if I were a bandit?”

Εἶπεν δὲ Ἰησοῦς πρὸς τοὺς παραγενομένους ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ στρατηγοὺς τοῦ ἱεροῦ καὶ πρεσβυτέρους Ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν ἐξήλθατε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων;

Luke indicated that Jesus spoke (Εἶπεν δὲ Ἰησοῦς) to the chief priests (ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἀρχιερεῖς), the officers of the Temple police (καὶ στρατηγοὺς τοῦ ἱεροῦ), the elders or presbyters (καὶ πρεσβυτέρους), and all who had come out against him (πρὸς τοὺς παραγενομένους).  He asked them how come they came out (ἐξήλθατε) with swords (μετὰ μαχαιρῶν) and wooden clubs (καὶ ξύλων), as if he was a bandit or robber (Ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν)?  John, chapter 18, did not have any conversation like this.  Matthew, chapter 26:55, and Mark, chapter 14:48, were almost word for word.  Mark indicated that Jesus finally responded to those arresting him (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς).  He wanted to know why they had come out with swords and clubs to capture or arrest him (ἐξήλθατε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων συλλαβεῖν με), as though he was a bandit or robber (Ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν)?  Matthew recounted that at that hour (Ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ), Jesus spoke to the crowds (εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοῖς ὄχλοις), as he normally did.  Why had they come out with swords and clubs to capture or arrest him (ἐξήλθατε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων συλλαβεῖν με), as though he was a bandit or robber (Ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν)?  Why was it that he had suddenly become like a robber or bandit, when he had been teaching openly in many synagogues?  Only Luke specifically mentioned the chief priests, the officers of the Temple, and the elders were there.  How would you treat a bandit or robber?

Jesus healed the ear (Lk 22:51-22:51)

“But Jesus said,

Answering them.

‘No more of this!’

He touched

His ear.

Jesus healed him.”

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Ἐᾶτε ἕως τούτου· καὶ ἁψάμενος τοῦ ὠτίου ἰάσατο αὐτόν.

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus responded (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν) that they were to leave things alone (Ἐᾶτε ἕως τούτου), since there would be no more of this sword fighting.  He touched the ear (καὶ ἁψάμενος τοῦ ὠτίου) of the one who had lost his ear.  Then Jesus healed him (ἰάσατο αὐτόν).  Only Luke, among the gospel writers, indicated that Jesus healed the ear that was swiped off, since the other biblical writers kept the narrative going, without any reference to this healing.  Would you heal someone who was attacking you?