not know Jesus!’”
ὁ δὲ ἠρνήσατο
λέγων Οὐκ οἶδα αὐτόν, γύναι.
that Peter denied this accusation (ὁ δὲ ἠρνήσατο λέγων). He said to the woman that he did not know
Jesus (Οὐκ οἶδα αὐτόν, γύναι), just as Jesus had predicted. John,
chapter 18:17, has a simple denial by Peter, when this young servant girl of the
high priest came up to him and said that he had been with Jesus. Mark,
chapter 14:68, said that Peter denied this (ὁ δὲ ἠρνήσατο), just like Luke.
Peter said that he did not know or even understand what she was talking
about (λέγων Οὔτε οἶδα οὔτε ἐπίσταμαι σὺ τί λέγεις). Then Peter walked away into the forecourt,
the porch, or gateway to the courtyard (καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἔξω εἰς τὸ προαύλιον). Some ancient Orthodox manuscripts had the cock
crow at this point (καὶ ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν).
Matthew, chapter 26:70, said
that Peter denied that he knew Jesus in front of all of them (ὁ δὲ ἠρνήσατο ἔμπροσθεν
πάντων). He said that he did not know
what she was talking about (λέγων Οὐκ οἶδα τί λέγεις). This first denial story of Peter, the great
leader and follower of Jesus, was in all 4 gospels. Not all leaders are perfect. Do you think that leaders should be perfect?
a maid servant
stared at him.
δὲ αὐτὸν παιδίσκη τις καθήμενον πρὸς τὸ φῶς καὶ ἀτενίσασα αὐτῷ εἶπεν Καὶ οὗτος
σὺν αὐτῷ ἦν.
that a maid servant or a young slave girl saw Peter (ἰδοῦσα δὲ αὐτὸν παιδίσκη τις)
sitting in the light from the fire (καθήμενον πρὸς τὸ φῶς). She intensely stared at him (καὶ ἀτενίσασα αὐτῷ). Then she said that this man, meaning Peter,
was also with Jesus (εἶπεν Καὶ οὗτος σὺν αὐτῷ ἦν). John,
chapter 18:16-17, had less about the servant-girl and simply said she was an
unnamed and undescribed woman. Mark, chapter 14:66-67, said that Peter
was sitting outside in the high priest’s lower courtyard (Καὶ ὄντος τοῦ Πέτρου
κάτω ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ). Then a young
servant-girl or maid of the high priest came up to him (ἔρχεται μία τῶν παιδισκῶν
τοῦ ἀρχιερέως). Peter was warming
himself in the high priest’s courtyard fire (καὶ ἰδοῦσα τὸν Πέτρον
θερμαινόμενον). This young servant girl
or maid of the high priest was looking or staring at Peter (ἐμβλέψασα αὐτῷ). She said to Peter (λέγει) that he had been
with Jesus, the man from Nazareth (Καὶ σὺ μετὰ τοῦ Ναζαρηνοῦ ἦσθα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ). Matthew,
chapter 26:69, said that Peter was sitting outside in the high priest’s
courtyard (Ὁ δὲ Πέτρος ἐκάθητο ἔξω ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ).
Then a young servant girl or maid of the high priest came up to him (καὶ
προσῆλθεν αὐτῷ μία παιδίσκη). She said
that Peter had been with Jesus, the Galilean (λέγουσα Καὶ σὺ ἦσθα μετὰ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ
Γαλιλαίου). This young girl had spotted
Peter with Jesus. She knew that Jesus
was from Nazareth in Galilee. Now she
recognized Peter, since she may have seen Jesus and his followers somewhere
beforehand. People judge you by your
company. Have you ever been picked out
in a crowd?
they had kindled
sat among them.”
δὲ πῦρ ἐν μέσῳ τῆς αὐλῆς καὶ συνκαθισάντων ἐκάθητο ὁ Πέτρος μέσος αὐτῶν.
that when they had kindled or started a fire (περιαψάντων δὲ πῦρ) in the middle
of the courtyard (ἐν μέσῳ τῆς αὐλῆς) of the high priest, they all sat down
together (καὶ συνκαθισάντων ἐκάθητο). Peter
sat among them (ὁ Πέτρος μέσος αὐτῶν).
This was not a good idea on the part of Peter. In John,
chapter 18:15-16, Peter was with another disciple, who helped him to get into
the courtyard. Mark, chapter 14:54, said that Peter had followed Jesus (καὶ ὁ
Πέτρος…ἠκολούθησεν αὐτῷ), but at a distance (ἀπὸ μακρόθεν), as in Luke.
Peter even went right into the courtyard of the high priest (ἕως ἔσω εἰς
τὴν αὐλὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως). Then he sat
with the guards or servants of the high priest (καὶ ἦν συνκαθήμενος μετὰ τῶν ὑπηρετῶν). Mark
said that Peter was there to warm himself (καὶ θερμαινόμενος) at the fire (πρὸς
τὸ φῶς) in the courtyard, as in Luke
here. Matthew, chapter 26:58 said that Peter had followed Jesus (ὁ δὲ
Πέτρος ἠκολούθει αὐτῷ), but at a distance (ἀπὸ μακρόθεν), just like Mark and Luke. Peter even went as far
as the courtyard of the high priest (ἕως τῆς αὐλῆς τοῦ ἀρχιερέως). Then he went inside the courtyard (καὶ εἰσελθὼν
ἔσω) and sat with the guards or servants (ἐκάθητο μετὰ τῶν ὑπηρετῶν) of the
high priest in order to see what was going to happen in the end (ἰδεῖν τὸ
τέλος). He was curious to see what was
going to happen to Jesus. Thus, Peter
was careless in entering the courtyard and sitting with the servants and guards
of the high priest. This might end up
being a problem for him. Have you ever
“Then they seized Jesus.
They led him away.
They brought him
Into the high priest’s house.
At a distance.”
δὲ αὐτὸν ἤγαγον καὶ εἰσήγαγον εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως· ὁ δὲ Πέτρος ἠκολούθει
Luke said that they seized Jesus (Συλλαβόντες). They then led him away (δὲ αὐτὸν ἤγαγον). They brought him (καὶ εἰσήγαγον) into the
high priest’s house (εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως). Peter followed at a distance (ὁ δὲ Πέτρος
ἠκολούθει μακρόθεν). Luke was vague about who this high
priest was and who the “they” were. Mark, chapter 14:53, simply said that
they took Jesus to the high priest (Καὶ ἀπήγαγον τὸν Ἰησοῦν πρὸς τὸν ἀρχιερέα),
without mentioning his name or saying it was his house. Apparently, the chief priests (οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς),
the elder presbyters (καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι), and the Scribes (καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς)
had all gathered or assembled there (καὶ συνέρχονται πάντες). John,
chapter 18:13-14, said that they brought Jesus to the house of the
father-in-law of Caiaphas, Annas, who had been the high priest of Jerusalem
from 6-15 CE, before he was removed by the Romans at the age of 36, even though
he lived to the age of 61. Thus, he had
a lot of influence on things. John remarked that Caiaphas had said it
was better for one person to die for the people. Caiaphas was the high priest from 18-36 CE
since he had married the daughter of Annas.
Matthew, chapter 26:57, said
that those who had seized, arrested, or captured Jesus (Οἱ δὲ κρατήσαντες τὸν
Ἰησοῦν) took him to the house of Caiaphas, the high priest (ἀπήγαγον πρὸς
Καϊάφαν τὸν ἀρχιερέα). Apparently, the
Scribes and the elder presbyters had gathered or assembled there (ὅπου οἱ
γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι συνήχθησα).
Was this an official meeting of the Jerusalem Sanhedrin? Probably not, because these official meetings
could not be held during the festival days or during the Passover. On the other hand, some kind of informal
meeting was possible, especially if it was at the house of the former high
priest Annas. However, there was no
mention of the Pharisees or the Sadducees being there either. This could have been the house of Caiaphas or
Annas, while Luke and Mark simply said that it was the house
of the high priest. Have you ever been to
an unofficial meeting?
I was with you
this is your hour!
power of darkness!”
ὄντος μου μεθ’ ὑμῶν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ οὐκ ἐξετείνατε τὰς χεῖρας ἐπ’ ἐμέ· ἀλλ’ αὕτη ἐστὶν
ὑμῶν ἡ ὥρα καὶ ἡ ἐξουσία τοῦ σκότους.
indicated that Jesus said that he was every day (καθ’ ἡμέραν ὄντος μου) in the Temple
(ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ) with them (μεθ’ ὑμῶν).
However, they never laid any hands on him (οὐκ ἐξετείνατε τὰς χεῖρας ἐπ’
ἐμέ). However, now it was their hour (ἀλλ’
αὕτη ἐστὶν ὑμῶν ἡ ὥρα), the hour of the power of darkness (καὶ ἡ ἐξουσία τοῦ
σκότους). John, chapter 18, does not have anything like this. This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:55-56 and Mark, chapter 14:49-50. Mark
indicated that Jesus said that day after day or every day, he had sat in the
Temple teaching (καθ’ ἡμέραν ἤμην πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ διδάσκων), but they did
not seize or arrest him (καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ με). All this was taking place so that some
unnamed scriptures might be fulfilled (ἀλλ’ἵνα πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαὶ). All the disciples went away or deserted Jesus
(καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν). They all escaped or
fled from Jesus (ἔφυγον πάντες). Jesus
had told them all earlier that night that this was going to happen. Only Mark
had the incident about the naked man. Matthew indicated that day after day or
every day, Jesus had sat in the Temple teaching (καθ’ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ ἐκαθεζόμην
διδάσκων), but they had not seized or arrested him (καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ
με). All this took place or happened (Τοῦτο
δὲ ὅλον γέγονεν) so that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled (ἵνα
πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαὶ τῶν προφητῶν). Once
again, there was no indication of which scriptural prophets he was referring
to. Then all the disciples deserted him
as they escaped or fled from Jesus (Τότε οἱ μαθηταὶ πάντες ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἔφυγον). Luke
was the only one who mentioned an hour or power of darkness, dominance of the
evil spirits. However, he did not say
that disciples fled or abandoned Jesus, like Mark and Matthew. Would you abandon Jesus in this situation?
you come out
I were a bandit?”
δὲ Ἰησοῦς πρὸς τοὺς παραγενομένους ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ στρατηγοὺς τοῦ ἱεροῦ
καὶ πρεσβυτέρους Ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν ἐξήλθατε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων;
indicated that Jesus spoke (Εἶπεν δὲ Ἰησοῦς) to the chief priests (ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἀρχιερεῖς),
the officers of the Temple police (καὶ στρατηγοὺς τοῦ ἱεροῦ), the elders or presbyters
(καὶ πρεσβυτέρους), and all who had come out against him (πρὸς τοὺς
παραγενομένους). He asked them how come
they came out (ἐξήλθατε) with swords (μετὰ μαχαιρῶν) and wooden clubs (καὶ
ξύλων), as if he was a bandit or robber (Ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν)? John,
chapter 18, did not have any conversation like this. Matthew,
chapter 26:55, and Mark, chapter
14:48, were almost word for word. Mark indicated that Jesus finally
responded to those arresting him (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς). He wanted to know why they had come out with
swords and clubs to capture or arrest him (ἐξήλθατε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων συλλαβεῖν
με), as though he was a bandit or robber (Ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν)? Matthew
recounted that at that hour (Ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ), Jesus spoke to the crowds (εἶπεν
ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοῖς ὄχλοις), as he normally did.
Why had they come out with swords and clubs to capture or arrest him (ἐξήλθατε
μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων συλλαβεῖν με), as though he was a bandit or robber (Ὡς ἐπὶ
λῃστὴν)? Why was it that he had suddenly
become like a robber or bandit, when he had been teaching openly in many
synagogues? Only Luke specifically mentioned the chief priests, the officers of the
Temple, and the elders were there. How would
you treat a bandit or robber?
more of this!’
δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Ἐᾶτε ἕως τούτου· καὶ ἁψάμενος τοῦ ὠτίου ἰάσατο αὐτόν.
uniquely indicated that Jesus responded (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν) that they
were to leave things alone (Ἐᾶτε ἕως τούτου), since there would be no more of this
sword fighting. He touched the ear (καὶ ἁψάμενος
τοῦ ὠτίου) of the one who had lost his ear.
Then Jesus healed him (ἰάσατο αὐτόν).
Only Luke, among the gospel
writers, indicated that Jesus healed the ear that was swiped off, since the
other biblical writers kept the narrative going, without any reference to this
healing. Would you heal someone who was
of the disciples
εἷς τις ἐξ αὐτῶν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως τὸν δοῦλον καὶ ἀφεῖλεν τὸ οὖς αὐτοῦ τὸ δεξιόν.
that one of the disciples struck (καὶ ἐπάταξεν) a certain slave of the high
priest (τοῦ ἀρχιερέως τὸν δοῦλον) from among those with Judas (εἷς τις ἐξ αὐτῶν). He swiped off his right ear (καὶ ἀφεῖλεν τὸ οὖς
αὐτοῦ τὸ δεξιόν). John, chapter 18:10-11, explicitly named Peter, not one of those
with Jesus, as the one who cut off the ear of the high priest’s slave. In fact, the slave had the name of Malchus. Jesus reprimanded Peter for his actions. This incident can be found in a similar way
in Matthew, chapter 26:51, and Mark, chapter 14:47, who are almost word
for word to each other. Mark said that one of these unnamed
apostles was standing nearby Jesus (εἷς δέ τις τῶν παρεστηκότων). He then drew his sword (σπασάμενος τὴν
μάχαιραν) and struck a slave of the high priest (ἔπαισεν τὸν δοῦλον τοῦ ἀρχιερέως). He cut his ear off (καὶ ἀφεῖλεν αὐτοῦ τὸ ὠτάριον). Matthew
said that one of these unnamed disciples with Jesus (καὶ ἰδοὺ εἷς τῶν μετὰ Ἰησοῦ)
stretched out his hand (ἐκτείνας τὴν χεῖρα).
He then drew his sword (ἀπέσπασεν τὴν μάχαιραν αὐτοῦ) and struck a slave
of the high priest (καὶ πατάξας τὸν δοῦλον τοῦ ἀρχιερέως). He cut his ear off (ἀφεῖλεν αὐτοῦ τὸ ὠτίον). Obviously, this could have started a major
battle. Also, this indicated that these
apostles were armed and ready to do battle, if necessary. Have you ever seen anyone lose his ear?
δὲ οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν τὸ ἐσόμενον εἶπαν Κύριε, εἰ πατάξομεν ἐν μαχαίρῃ;
Only Luke uniquely indicated
that those people around Jesus (δὲ οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν) saw (ἰδόντες) what was coming
(τὸ ἐσόμενον). They asked Jesus the Lord
(εἶπαν Κύριε), whether they should strike with a sword (εἰ πατάξομεν ἐν μαχαίρῃ). The other gospel writers did not mention
anyone asking about defending Jesus.
However, it would have seemed appropriate, since Luke did not have Jesus seized yet.
Some of the disciples wanted to naturally defend Jesus with swords. Have you ever tried to defend anyone with a sword
said to Judas.
with a kiss
you are betraying
Son of Man?”
Ἰησοῦς δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἰούδα, φιλήματι τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδως;
Luke indicated that Jesus asked Judas (οῦς δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἰούδα) if it was with a kiss (φιλήματι) that he was going to betray the Son of Man (τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδως)? Luke had just this abbreviated comment of Jesus before Judas kissed Jesus. In John, chapter 18, there was no Judas kiss at all. It is interesting to note that John left this out in his otherwise well detailed description. However, both Mark, chapter 14:44-45, and Matthew, chapter 26:48-49 were similar to each other, with more details. Mark said that this betrayer or deliverer of Jesus, Judas, had given the crowd a sign (δεδώκει δὲ ὁ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν σύσσημον αὐτοῖς). Judas had told them that the one that he kissed (λέγων Ὃν ἂν φιλήσω) would be the man to seize or hold (αὐτός ἐστιν·κρατήσατε αὐτὸν). They were to lead him away securely under guard (καὶ ἀπάγετε ἀσφαλῶς). Judas had this all set up, so that there would be no mistaken identity, as regards Jesus. Mark said that Judas suddenly came up to Jesus (καὶ ἐλθὼν εὐθὺς προσελθὼν αὐτῷ). Then Judas called Jesus “Rabbi (λέγει Ῥαββεί)!” Then he kissed Jesus (καὶ κατεφίλησεν αὐτόν). Matthew said that this betrayer of Jesus (ὁ δὲ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν), Judas, had given the crowd a sign (ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς σημεῖον). Judas had told them that the one that he kissed (λέγων Ὃν ἂν φιλήσω) would be the man to seize or hold (αὐτός ἐστιν· κρατήσατε αὐτόν). Thus, Judas suddenly came up to Jesus (καὶ εὐθέως προσελθὼν τῷ Ἰησοῦ). Then he said “Greetings (εἶπεν Χαῖρε)! Rabbi (Ῥαββεί)!” Then he kissed Jesus (καὶ κατεφίλησεν αὐτόν). Notice that both Matthew and Mark used the Jewish title of Rabbi. The kiss would have been the normal greeting, since it was certainly used by Christ’s followers, as indicated in the Pauline letters. Yet it might also have been a practical way for others to recognize Jesus in the dark. In John, chapter 18:4-11, there was a long dialogue of Jesus with those who came to get him, before he was arrested. Mark said that Jesus did not respond to Judas at all. They just put their hands upon him or grabbed Jesus (οἱ δὲ ἐπέβαλαν τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῷ). Then they seized or arrested Jesus without any kind of conversation at all (καὶ ἐκράτησαν αὐτόν). Here in Luke, Jesus reprimanded Judas for betraying him with a kiss. Only in Matthew, chapter 26:50, did Jesus respond to Judas. He remarked that Jesus called Judas “Friend!” (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἑταῖρε) sarcastically. Jesus wanted to know what Judas was there to do (ἐφ’ ὃ πάρει). What did he want? The answer came quickly, as others came forward and put their hands upon or grabbed Jesus (τότε προσελθόντες ἐπέβαλον τὰς χεῖρας ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰησοῦν). They seized or arrested him (καὶ ἐκράτησαν αὐτόν). Do you greet people with a kiss?