“You shall love
καὶ τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν.
Luke indicated that the lawyer said that they should love their neighbor (καὶ τὸν πλησίον σου) as themselves (ὡς σεαυτόν), using the second person plural. There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:3, where Mark indicated that Jesus, not the lawyer, replied that the 2nd commandment was like the 1st one. since it was about love. Not only were they to love God, but they were to love their neighbors as themselves. There were no other commandments greater than these 2 commandments of love. Everything was based on the love of God and neighbor. Matthew, chapter 22: 38-39 had Jesus reply also, not the lawyer, that they were to love their neighbors as themselves, since all the commandments of the law and the prophets hung on these two commandments. This second commandment was based on Leviticus, chapter 19:11-18, that has become the basic fundamental cornerstone of Judaism and Christianity. Leviticus further explained the Ten Commandments and your neighbor. They were not to steal or deal falsely with their neighbor. They should not lie, swear, or defraud their neighbor. They were not to keep the wages of a laborer, or revile the deaf or the blind. They should not render an unjust judgment, since they should treat the poor and the great with equal justice. They should not slanderer or profit from the blood of their neighbors. They were not to hate in their heart any of their relatives. They should not take vengeance or bear a grudge, because they should love their relatives and neighbors as themselves. All the commandments of the law and the prophets depended on these two commandments of loving God and your neighbor. Do you love your neighbor?
“If you lend
To those from whom
What credit is that
Lend to sinners,
As much again.”
καὶ ἐὰν δανίσητε παρ’ ὧν ἐλπίζετε λαβεῖν, ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν; καὶ ἁμαρτωλοὶ ἁμαρτωλοῖς δανίζουσιν ἵνα ἀπολάβωσιν τὰ ἴσα.
Luke indicated that Jesus continued that if they lent money (καὶ ἐὰν δανίσητε παρ’) to those from whom they hoped to receive it back (παρ’ ὧν ἐλπίζετε λαβεῖν), what credit or gift was that to them (ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν). Even sinners lend to sinners (καὶ ἁμαρτωλοὶ ἁμαρτωλοῖς δανίζουσιν), to receive as much back again (ἵνα ἀπολάβωσιν τὰ ἴσα). Matthew, chapter 5:42, had something similar about lending money. If someone wished to borrow money from them, they should not refuse them or turn them away. These were tough difficult recommendations, but actually based on the Torah. People were expected to give charity and at the same time offer interest free loans. How generous are you with your money?
Do not ask
For them again.”
καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντος τὰ σὰ μὴ ἀπαίτει.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that if anyone was taking away their goods (καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντος τὰ σὰ), they were not to ask for them back again (μὴ ἀπαίτει). Matthew, chapter 5:42, was somewhat similar when he indicated that Jesus said that if someone wished to borrow money from you, you should not refuse them or turn them away (καὶ τὸν θέλοντα ἀπὸ σοῦ δανίσασθαι μὴ ἀποστραφῇς). These were tough difficult recommendations, but actually based on the Torah. Would you be so tolerant?
“The inner thoughts
Will be revealed.
Your own soul too.”
καὶ σοῦ δὲ αὐτῆς τὴν ψυχὴν διελεύσεται ῥομφαία, ὅπως ἂν ἀποκαλυφθῶσιν ἐκ πολλῶν καρδιῶν διαλογισμοί.
Luke explained that Simeon warned Mary about her future suffering. This is often thought of as the beginning of the many sorrows that Mary will endure because of her son, Jesus. Luke said that a sword would pierce or go through the soul of Mary (καὶ σοῦ δὲ αὐτῆς τὴν ψυχὴν διελεύσεται ῥομφαία). Simeon said that the inner thoughts of many would be revealed (ὅπως ἂν ἀποκαλυφθῶσιν ἐκ πολλῶν καρδιῶν διαλογισμοί). Thus, the later medieval devotion to the Sorrowful Mother Mary is based on this passage and further developed in this gospel of Luke.
“‘The second commandment is.
‘You shall love
There is no other commandment
Greater than these.’”
δευτέρα αὕτη Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. μείζων τούτων ἄλλη ἐντολὴ οὐκ ἔστιν.
There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:39-40, and Luke, chapter 10:27, but in a more condensed version. This was based on Leviticus, chapter 19:18. A further explanation of the commandments in Leviticus ends with this basic fundamental concept of love your neighbor as yourself, which became the cornerstone of Judaism and Christianity. They were not to hate in their heart anyone of their relatives. They should reprove their neighbor, but not take vengeance on him. They were not to bear a grudge, because they should love them as themselves. Mark said that Jesus replied that the 2nd commandment (δευτέρα αὕτη) was like the 1st one about love. Not only were they to love God, but they were to love their neighbors as themselves (Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν). There were no other commandments greater than these 2 commandments of love (μείζων τούτων ἄλλη ἐντολὴ οὐκ ἔστιν). Everything was based on the love of God and neighbor.
“When they had crucified Jesus,
They divided his garments
By casting lots.
Then they sat down there.
They kept watch
σταυρώσαντες δὲ αὐτὸν διεμερίσαντο τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ βάλλοντες κλῆρον,
καὶ καθήμενοι ἐτήρουν αὐτὸν ἐκεῖ.
The first verse is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 15:24, but there is nothing about keeping watch. Luke, chapter 12:34, mentioned the dividing of Jesus’ garments by chance. John, chapter 19:23-25, has a longer detailed description about the division of the garments of Jesus. The first cinemascope movie in 1953 was called the “The Robe,” based on a 1942 novel with the same name that got its inspiration from this biblical passage. When the Roman soldiers had put Jesus on the cross for his crucifixion (σταυρώσαντες δὲ), they divided his garments among themselves (αὐτὸν διεμερίσαντο τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ), by casting lots for them (βάλλοντες κλῆρον), which was a common practice. A number of old manuscripts have an additional phrase about the fulfillment of a prophecy was in John’s account. Thus, what might have been spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled (ἵνα πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ προφήτου). They divided my garments among themselves (Διεμερίσαντο τὰ ἱμάτιά μου ἑαυτοῖς). For my clothing, they cast lots (καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἱματισμόν μου ἔβαλον κλῆρον). This was from Psalm 22:18, when David was in distress. Then these Roman guards sat down (καὶ καθήμενοι) to keep watch over, guard, or observe Jesus there (ἐτήρουν αὐτὸν ἐκεῖ).
You brood of vipers!
How can you
ὄφεις, γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, πῶς φύγητε ἀπὸ τῆς κρίσεως τῆς γεέννης;
This attack on the Pharisees and Scribes is somewhat similar to the attack that John the Baptist had against the Pharisees and Sadducees earlier in Matthew, chapter 3:7. When they came to be baptized by John, he was critical of both the Pharisees and the Sadducees. He told them that they were like a group of vipers or poisonous snakes (Γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν), who would kill young people. Here there is no mention of the Sadducees. But the Pharisees and Scribes are called snakes (ὄφεις) and a brood of vipers or a group of poisonous snakes (γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν). Jesus wanted to know how they could escape (πῶς φύγητε) being sentenced to Gehenna or hell (ἀπὸ τῆς κρίσεως τῆς γεέννης). The Greek word for hell “γέενναν” or the English Gehenna was based on the Hebrew word Gehinnom that was the name of the valley south of Jerusalem where burning child sacrifices would take place.
“‘What do you think
Of the Messiah Christ?
Whose son is he?’
They said to him.
‘The son of David.’”
λέγων Τί ὑμῖν δοκεῖ περὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ; τίνος υἱός ἐστιν; λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Τοῦ Δαυείδ
This was a simple question. There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:33, but a more complex question. In Luke, chapter 20:41, it is almost word for word like Mark, as Jesus seemed to indicate that the Christ was the son of David. Here Jesus posed the question (λέγων) about what they thought about the Messiah Christ as the son (Τί ὑμῖν δοκεῖ περὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ; τίνος υἱός ἐστιν). The Pharisees responded (λέγουσιν) that the Messiah Christ would be the son of David (αὐτῷ Τοῦ Δαυείδ). This was the traditional Jewish response based on Psalm 110:1 that the messiah would be the son or descendant of David.
“The second commandment
Is like it.
‘You shall love
On these two commandments
Hang all the law
And the prophets.’”
δευτέρα ὁμοία αὐτῇ Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν.
ἐν ταύταις ταῖς δυσὶν ἐντολαῖς ὅλος ὁ νόμος κρέμαται καὶ οἱ προφῆται.
There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:31, almost word for word, and Luke, chapter 20:27, but in a more condensed version. This was based on Leviticus, chapter 19:18. A further explanation of the commandments in Leviticus ends with this basic fundamental concept of love your neighbor as yourself, which became the cornerstone of Judaism and Christianity. They were not to hate in their heart anyone of their relatives. They should reprove their neighbor, but not take vengeance on him. They were not to bear a grudge, because they should love them as themselves. Jesus replied that the 2nd commandment was like the 1st one (δευτέρα ὁμοία αὐτῇ) since it was about love. Not only were they to love God, but they were to love their neighbors as themselves (Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν). All the commandments of the law (ὅλος ὁ νόμος) and the prophets (καὶ οἱ προφῆται) hang (κρέμαται) on these two commandments (ἐν ταύταις ταῖς δυσὶν ἐντολαῖς).
There are fourteen Pauline epistles, letters generally attributed to the apostle Paul. The Greek name for a letter was epistle (ἐπιστολὴ). Nine of these Pauline epistles were addressed to seven Christian Churches that he had visited. 1 Thessalonians, from the early 50s CE, is perhaps the oldest document of the New Testament. 2 Thessalonians dates from the early to late 60s CE. The letter to the Romans was composed between 53-57 CE. 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians date from 53-57 CE also. The letter to the Galatians comes from the late 50s CE), while the letter to the Colossians dates from the late 50s to the early 60s CE. The letters to the churches of the Ephesians and the Philippians comes from the early 60s CE. A lot of Christian theology has been based on the reflections of these letters that were describing what was happening in their early Christian communities.