The Son of Man must suffer (Mk 8:31-8:31)

“Then Jesus

Began to teach them

That the Son of Man

Must undergo

Great suffering.

He will be rejected

By the elders,

By the chief priests,

And by the Scribes.

He will be killed.

After three days,

He will rise again.”

 

Καὶ ἤρξατο διδάσκειν αὐτοὺς ὅτι δεῖ τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου πολλὰ παθεῖν, καὶ ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι ὑπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ τῶν γραμματέων καὶ ἀποκτανθῆναι καὶ μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας ἀναστῆναι

 

Jesus began to talk about his future suffering that can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 16:21, Luke, chapter 9:22, and here.  Notice that Mark and the other synoptics do not blame the Pharisees or the Sadducees for the suffering and death of Jesus.  There also was no mention of the Roman authorities.  Jesus began to teach them (Καὶ ἤρξατο διδάσκειν αὐτοὺς) that it was necessary that the Son of Man (ὅτι δεῖ τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) undergo many great sufferings (καὶ πολλὰ παθεῖν).  Here in Mark, Jesus used the term Son of Man to refer to himself not Jesus Christ as in Matthew.  He was going to be rejected (καὶ ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι) by the elders or presbyters (ἀπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων), the chief priests (καὶ ἀρχιερέων), and the Scribes (καὶ γραμματέων).  Eventually, he would be killed (καὶ ἀποκτανθῆναι).  There was no mention of Jesus going to Jerusalem here.  After 3 days (καὶ μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας), he would rise again (ἀναστῆναι).  Clearly, this was a prediction about the future of Jesus and his suffering, death, and resurrection.

Advertisements

Jesus says to tell no one (Mk 8:30-8:30)

“Jesus sternly

Ordered them

Not to tell

Anyone

About him.”

 

καὶ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδενὶ λέγωσιν περὶ αὐτοῦ.

 

This warning about the messianic secret can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 16:20, Luke, chapter 9:21, and here.  However, this warning came right after Peter’s response in Mark and Luke, since they did not have the unique Matthew reward for Peter.  Jesus, in some ironic way, did not want the people to know that he was the Messiah or the Christ.  Thus, the name “Jesus Christ” did not take hold until after his death and resurrection.  Mark said that Jesus sternly ordered, instructed, or charged his disciples (καὶ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς) that they were not to tell anyone about Jesus (ἵνα μηδενὶ λέγωσιν περὶ αὐτοῦ) that he was the Christ or the Israelite Messiah.  Only the elite followers of Jesus knew that he was the Christ messiah, much like a gnostic special knowledge.

Peter responds (Mk 8:29-8:29)

The response of Peter can be found in all four gospels, Matthew, chapter 16:16, Luke, chapter 9:20, and John, 6:69, but all slightly different.  The name of Peter is sometimes just Peter.  Are the Greek “Christ” and the Hebrew “Messiah” the same?  Matthew is the only one who had Peter say that Jesus was the son of the living God.  Matthew is also the only one that mentioned the special relationship that Peter had with his Father in heaven.  Peter gave a strong positive response in all four versions.  Mark said that Peter replied (ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος) to the question of Jesus immediately.  He said that Jesus was the Christ (λέγει αὐτῷ Σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστὸς) or the Messiah that they were expecting in Israel.  Matthew had Jesus respond to Peter, but that was not in Mark.  Peter, as the leader of this new group of Jesus followers, asserted this important belief about Jesus.  For the first time, Jesus is called the Christ, the Messiah.  Here Peter, in the name of the nascent Christian community, proclaimed that Jesus was the Messiah, the Christ.

Jesus asks then point blank (Mk 8:29-8:29)

“He asked them.

‘But who do you say

That I am?’

 

καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπηρώτα αὐτούς Ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι;

 

This same question can be found in Matthew, chapter 16:15, and Luke, chapter 9:20.  Mark said that Jesus was questioning his disciples (καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπηρώτα αὐτούς) who was it that they thought or said that he was (Ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι).  Jesus thus put them to the test.  This was not about what others said or thought, but about their understanding of Jesus.  Who did they think Jesus was?

The prophet (Mk 8:28-8:28)

“They answered him.

‘John the Baptist!’

Others say.

‘Elijah!’

Still others.

‘One of the prophets.’”

 

οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ λέγοντες ὅτι Ἰωάνην τὸν Βαπτιστήν, καὶ ἄλλοι Ἡλείαν, ἄλλοι δὲ ὅτι εἷς τῶν προφητῶν.

 

This same response can be found in Matthew, chapter 16:14, and Luke, chapter 9:19, but there are slight differences.  Matthew is the only one who explicitly mentioned Jeremiah, who was a Judean prophet active from 626 BCE to 587 BCE, around the time of the destruction of the Temple.  Mark and Luke only had the more generic term of one of the prophets, rather than any individual prophet.  Mark said that the disciples responded to him (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ λέγοντες) that some people said he was John the Baptist (ὅτι Ἰωάνην τὸν Βαπτιστήν).  Others said Elijah (καὶ ἄλλοι δὲ Ἡλείαν).  This Elijah was a 9th century BCE northern Israel prophet whose work can be found in the Old Testament Books of 1 Kings, 2 Kings, and 1 Chronicles.  Finally, other people said that he was one of the many prophets (ἄλλοι δὲ ὅτι εἷς τῶν προφητῶν).  No one called him the Messiah or Christ.

Who do people say I am? (Mk 8:27-8:27)

“Jesus went on

With his disciples,

To the villages

Of Caesarea Philippi.

On the way,

Jesus asked

His disciples,

‘Who do people say

That I am?’”

 

Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς κώμας Καισαρίας τῆς Φιλίππου· καὶ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ ἐπηρώτα τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ λέγων αὐτοῖς Τίνα με λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι εἶναι;

 

Now this question about who Jesus is can be found in Matthew, chapter 16:13, and Luke, chapter 9:18, but there are slight differences.  In Luke, he is not in Caesarea Philippi, but in Mark and Matthew, Jesus was approaching this area near the city, but without entering the city itself.  Jesus asked his closest disciples who they thought that he was.  Caesarea Philippi was an ancient gentile Roman city, about 25 miles north of the Sea of Galilee at the southeastern base of Mount Hermon, where there was a shrine to the Greek god Pan.  This city may have appeared in the Old Testament under the name Baal Gad in the valley of Lebanon.  Today, it is located in the Golan Heights.  Mark said that Jesus with his disciples (Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ) was on his way (καὶ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ ἐπηρώτα τοὺς μαθητὰς) towards the villages of Caesarea Philippi (εἰς τὰς κώμας Καισαρίας τῆς Φιλίππου).  Then he asked or questioned his disciples (αὐτοῦ λέγων αὐτοῖς) about who did people or men think that he was (Τίνα με λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι εἶναι).  Jesus wanted to know what his disciples were thinking.  In Matthew, he asked them about the Son of Man, but not here.

Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Herod (Mk 8:15-8:15)

“Jesus cautioned them.

He said.

‘Watch out!

Beware of the yeast

Of the Pharisees

And the yeast

Of Herod.’”

καὶ διεστέλλετο αὐτοῖς λέγων Ὁρᾶτε, βλέπετε ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ τῆς ζύμης Ἡρῴδου.

 

This saying about the yeast of the Pharisees and Herod can be found in Matthew, chapter 16:6, and Luke, chapter 12:1, but there are slight differences.  Matthew mentioned the Sadducees, while Mark was the only one to mention Herod, the Roman appointed political leader in Galilee.  Mark said that Jesus cautioned or instructed his disciples (καὶ διεστέλλετο αὐτοῖς).  They were to watch out for and be aware (Ὁρᾶτε, βλέπετε) of the yeast of the Pharisees (πὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων) and the yeast of Herod (καὶ τῆς ζύμης Ἡρῴδου).  This was a clear rebuff of both the Pharisees and Herod.  Their growing yeast, leaven, or power was expanding.  Like earlier in this chapter, there was no mention of the Scribes.