Encourage one another (Heb 3:13)

“But encourage

One another

Every day,

As long as it is called today.


None of you

May be hardened

By the deceitfulness

Of sin.”

ἀλλὰ παρακαλεῖτε ἑαυτοὺς καθ’ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν, ἄχρις οὗ τὸ Σήμερον καλεῖται, ἵνα μὴ σκληρυνθῇ τις ἐξ ὑμῶν ἀπάτῃ τῆς ἁμαρτίας·

This author said, “But encourage (ἀλλὰ παρακαλεῖτε) one another (ἑαυτοὺς) every day (καθ’ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν), as long as it is called today (ἄχρις οὗ τὸ Σήμερον καλεῖται).  Thus (ἵνα), none of you may be hardened (μὴ σκληρυνθῇ τις ἐξ ὑμῶν) by the deceitfulness (ἀπάτῃ) of sin (τῆς ἁμαρτίας).”  This author wanted the Jewish Christians to exhort and encourage each other every day.  They should have a sense of community.  Thus, they should treat every new day as a new today to repeat their encouragements.  The whole purpose of these pep talks was to make sure that none of them hardened their hearts or fell into deceitful sin.  There was this continual negative positive relationship, goodness and godliness versus sin and evil.  Do you encourage people?

Follow Scripture (chapter 3)

Paul pointed out that Timothy had learned from childhood about the importance of sacred writings. They are very useful for instruction in the faith about Jesus Christ.  All scripture is inspired by God.  Therefore, it can be used for correction and training.  Thus, there is great value in sacred scripture.  Everyone should be proficient in the word of God, ready for every good work.  How proficient are you in the word of God?

False asceticism (chapter 4)

Paul wanted Timothy to guard the truth in the Church in the face of the apostasy of some people who were renouncing their faith in Jesus Christ.  They were paying attention to deceitful spirits and the teachings of the demons.  They were lying hypocrites.  They had burnt consciences.  They were forbidding marriage.  They wanted abstinence from food that God has created.  Those who believe and know the truth receive food with thanksgiving.  Everything that God has created is good.  They should not reject it but give thanks for God’s creation.  Everything is sanctified by God’s word and prayer.  Do you accept food because God has created it?

Believing brothers, not enemies (2 Thess. 3:15)

“Do not regard them

As enemies,

But admonish them

As a believing brother.”

καὶ μὴ ὡς ἐχθρὸν ἡγεῖσθε, ἀλλὰ νουθετεῖτε ὡς ἀδελφόν.

Paul said, “Do not (καὶ μὴ) regard them (ἡγεῖσθε) as enemies (ὡς ἐχθρὸν), but admonish them (ἀλλὰ νουθετεῖτε) as a believing brother (ὡς ἀδελφόν).”  Paul had a final remark about this situation in Thessalonica.  These Christian idlers or unruly believers were not enemies, but brotherly believers.  Thus, they should be esteemed or regarded as fellow erring brothers, not as mortal enemies.  These idle Christians were not enemies but just unruly brothers.  How do you treat people who do not agree with you as erring brothers or mortal enemies?

Love and steadfastness (2 Thess. 3:5)

“May the Lord

Direct your hearts

To the love

Of God

And to the steadfastness

Of Christ.”

Ὁ δὲ Κύριος κατευθύναι ὑμῶν τὰς καρδίας εἰς τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ εἰς τὴν ὑπομονὴν τοῦ Χριστοῦ.

Paul said, “May the Lord (Ὁ δὲ Κύριος) direct (κατευθύναι) your hearts (ὑμῶν τὰς καρδίας) to the love (εἰς τὴν ἀγάπην) of God (τοῦ Θεοῦ) and to the steadfastness (καὶ εἰς τὴν ὑπομονὴν) of Christ (τοῦ Χριστοῦ).”  Paul concluded his prayer by asking the Lord to direct the hearts of these Thessalonians to the love of God and the persistence and endurance of Jesus Christ.  Their hearts had to be set on God’s love.  They could rely on Jesus Christ in the long run.  Paul’s prayer for them was complete.  How do you pray for other people?

The day of the Lord (2 Thess. 1:10)

“Christ will come

On that day

To be glorified

By his saints

And to be marveled at

Among all

Who have believed,

Because they have believed

Our testimony

To you.”

ὅταν ἔλθῃ ἐνδοξασθῆναι ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις αὐτοῦ καὶ θαυμασθῆναι ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς πιστεύσασιν, ὅτι ἐπιστεύθη τὸ μαρτύριον ἡμῶν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς, ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ.

Paul said, “Christ will come (ὅταν ἔλθῃ) on that day (ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ) to be glorified (ἐνδοξασθῆναι) by his saints (ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις αὐτοῦ) and to be marveled at (καὶ θαυμασθῆναι) among all who have believed (ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς πιστεύσασιν), because they have believed (ὅτι ἐπιστεύθη) our testimony (τὸ μαρτύριον ἡμῶν) to you (ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς).”  Only this letter to the Thessalonians used this unique word ἐνδοξασθῆναι, that means to glorify, acknowledge the glory belonging to, or recognize as glorious.  Paul indicated that Jesus Christ, the Lord, would come on the day of wrath.  Then he would be glorified by all this holy saints here on earth.  They would marvel at his presence because they have believed the testimony that Paul had given them.  Do you believe the gospel testimony?

Give relief (2 Thess. 1:7)

“This is intended

To give relief

To you,

The afflicted,

As well as to us.

The Lord Jesus

Will be revealed

From heaven

With his mighty angels.”

καὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς θλιβομένοις ἄνεσιν μεθ’ ἡμῶν, ἐν τῇ ἀποκαλύψει τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ ἀπ’ οὐρανοῦ μετ’ ἀγγέλων δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ

Paul said, “This is intended to give relief (ἄνεσιν) to you (καὶ ὑμῖν), the afflicted or oppressed (τοῖς θλιβομένοις), as well as to us (μεθ’ ἡμῶν). The Lord Jesus (τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ) will be revealed (ἐν τῇ ἀποκαλύψει) from heaven (ἀπ’ οὐρανοῦ) with his mighty powerful angels (μετ’ ἀγγέλων δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ).”  Paul indicated that the day of judgment, the day of the second coming of Jesus Christ was to give relief to those who were oppressed like the Thessalonians and Paul and his companions.  The Lord Jesus would be revealed as coming from heaven with all his powerful angels.  Paul began his description of the Jewish day of wrath as portrayed by the many Jewish prophets.  However, the Lord Jesus, not the Lord Yahweh, would come to bring his vengeance on the evil doers, those opposed to the early followers of Jesus Christ.  Will judgment day be a day of relief for you?

We boast about you (2 Thess. 1:4)


We ourselves

Boast about you

Among the churches of God

For your steadfastness

And faith

During all your persecutions

And afflictions

That you are enduring.”

ὥστε αὐτοὺς ἡμᾶς ἐν ὑμῖν ἐνκαυχᾶσθαι ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τοῦ Θεοῦ ὑπὲρ τῆς ὑπομονῆς ὑμῶν καὶ πίστεως ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς διωγμοῖς ὑμῶν καὶ ταῖς θλίψεσιν αἷς ἀνέχεσθε,

Paul said, “Therefore, we ourselves (ὥστε αὐτοὺς ἡμᾶς) boast (ἐνκαυχᾶσθαι) about you (ἐν ὑμῖν) among the churches of God (ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τοῦ Θεοῦ) for your steadfast perseverance (ὑπὲρ τῆς ὑπομονῆς ὑμῶν) and faith (καὶ πίστεως) during all your persecutions (ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς διωγμοῖς ὑμῶν) and afflictions (καὶ ταῖς θλίψεσιν) that you are enduring (αἷς ἀνέχεσθε).”  Only the Pauline letters use this word ἐνκαυχᾶσθαι, that means to boast, glory, or proudly.  Paul and his companions were boasting among the various churches of God about their steadfast perseverance in their faith in Jesus Christ during the various persecutions and tribulations that they suffered and endured in Thessalonica.  Paul had mentioned this in his First letter to the Thessalonians, chapter 1:6.  In spite of great difficulties (ἐν θλίψει πολλῇ), they received the word of God.  Paul himself had some difficulties with the Jews in Thessalonica in Acts, chapter 17:5-9.  It was not smooth sailing in Thessalonica despite their great faith in Jesus Christ.  Do you preserve in your faith despite some difficulties?

Date of this letter in the early 60s

This letter may have been written by Paul at Rome during his imprisonment.  Paul likely wrote it at roughly the same time that he wrote Philemon and Ephesians, since all three letters were sent with Tychicus and Onesimus.  A date of 62 CE assumes that the imprisonment Paul spoke about is his Roman imprisonment that followed his voyage to Rome.  Other scholars have suggested that it was written from Caesarea while he was in prison there or even earlier from Ephesus.  If the letter is not considered to be an authentic part of the Pauline corpus, then it might be dated during the late first century, possibly as late as 90 CE.  However, everything seems to point to a Roman imprisonment in the early 60s CE.  Certainly, it was written in the second half of the first century after the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

False prophets and false teachers (2 Pet 2:1)

“But false prophets

Also arose

Among the people.

Just as there will be

False teachers

Among you.

They will secretly

Bring in

Destructive heretical opinions.

They will even deny

The Master

Who bought them.

They will bring

Swift destruction

On themselves.”

Ἐγένοντο δὲ καὶ ψευδοπροφῆται ἐν τῷ λαῷ, ὡς καὶ ἐν ὑμῖν ἔσονται ψευδοδιδάσκαλοι, οἵτινες παρεισάξουσιν αἱρέσεις ἀπωλείας, καὶ τὸν ἀγοράσαντα αὐτοὺς δεσπότην ἀρνούμενοι, ἐπάγοντες ἑαυτοῖς ταχινὴν ἀπώλειαν·

This author said, “But false prophets also (δὲ καὶ ψευδοπροφῆται) arose (Ἐγένοντο) among the people (ἐν τῷ λαῷ).  Just as (ὡς καὶ) there will be (ἔσονται) false teachers (ψευδοδιδάσκαλοι) among you (ἐν ὑμῖν).  They (οἵτινες) will secretly bring in (παρεισάξουσιν) destructive heretical opinions (αἱρέσεις ἀπωλείας).  They will even deny (ἀρνούμενοι) the Master (δεσπότην) who bought them (καὶ τὸν ἀγοράσαντα αὐτοὺς).  They will bring (ἐπάγοντες) swift (ταχινὴν) destruction (ἀπώλειαν) on themselves (ἑαυτοῖς).”  Among the canonical Greek New Testament writings, these three words only appeared in 2 Peter, ψευδοδιδάσκαλοι, a false teacher or teacher of false things, and the word, παρεισάξουσιν, that means to introduce or to bring in secretly, as well as the word ταχινὴν, that means swift, quick, or impending.  This author warned his readers that there had been false prophets among the Israelites.  Thus, today, there would be false teachers among the Christian believers who would secretly bring in destructive heretical opinions, ones that were different from the orthodox views about Jesus Christ.  In some cases, they might even deny that Jesus Christ, the Master who had bought them with his sacrifice on the cross.  However, they did not have to worry.  These trouble makers, with their different personal opinions would suffer a swift destruction.  There was no indication of what kind of destruction they would suffer.  Do you believe that there are destructive heretical views about Jesus Christ today?

Holy Spirit, not human will (2 Pet 1:21)

“No prophecy

Ever came

By human will,

But by men,

Moved by

The Holy Spirit,

Who spoke from God.”

οὐ γὰρ θελήματι ἀνθρώπου ἠνέχθη προφητεία ποτέ, ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου φερόμενοι ἐλάλησαν ἀπὸ Θεοῦ ἄνθρωποι.

This author said “No (οὐ) prophecy (προφητεία) ever (ποτέ) came (ἠνέχθη) by human will (γὰρ θελήματι ἀνθρώπου), but (ἀλλὰ) by men (ἄνθρωποι), moved by (φερόμενοι) the Holy Spirit (ὑπὸ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου), who spoke (ἐλάλησαν) from God (ἀπὸ Θεοῦ).”  This author clearly stated that no prophecy came from human will.  Humans were not the authors of divine prophecy.  The only people who were able to speak prophecies were those who were carried or moved by the Holy Spirit.  Once they were filled with the Holy Spirit, they spoke words coming from God.  There was a distinction between human desires and the word of God.  Do you believe that prophecy is divinely inspired?

Not one’s own interpretation (2 Pet 1:20)

“First of all,

You must understand this.

All prophecy

Of scripture

Is not a matter

Of one’s own interpretation.”

τοῦτο πρῶτον γινώσκοντες, ὅτι πᾶσα προφητεία γραφῆς ἰδίας ἐπιλύσεως οὐ γίνεται·

This author said, “First of all (πρῶτον), you must understand (γινώσκοντες) this (τοῦτο).  All (ὅτι πᾶσα) prophecy (προφητεία) of scripture (γραφῆς) is not (οὐ γίνεται) a matter of one’s own interpretation (ἰδίας ἐπιλύσεως).”  Among the canonical Greek New Testament writings, this is the only time that this word appeared in 2 Peter, ἐπιλύσεως, that means a release, an interpretation, solution, or explanation.  This author made clear to his readers.  There was only one way to interpret prophetic scripture, the orthodox way, since there was no room for personal individual interpretations.  Do you believe in personal individual interpretations of the Bible?

The lamp in a dark place (2 Pet 1:19)

“We have the prophetic message

More fully confirmed.

You will do well

To be attentive

To this,

As a lamp


In a dark place,

Until this day dawns

And the morning star

Rises in your hearts.”

καὶ ἔχομεν βεβαιότερον τὸν προφητικὸν λόγον, ᾧ καλῶς ποιεῖτε προσέχοντες ὡς λύχνῳ φαίνοντι ἐν αὐχμηρῷ τόπῳ, ἕως οὗ ἡμέρα διαυγάσῃ καὶ φωσφόρος ἀνατείλῃ ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν·

This author said, “We have (καὶ ἔχομεν) the prophetic message (τὸν προφητικὸν λόγον) more fully confirmed (βεβαιότερον).  You will do well (ᾧ καλῶς ποιεῖτε) to be attentive (προσέχοντες) to this, as a lamp (ὡς λύχνῳ) shining (φαίνοντι) in a dark place (ἐν αὐχμηρῷ τόπῳ), until (ἕως) this day (οὗ ἡμέρα) dawns (διαυγάσῃ) and the morning star (καὶ φωσφόρος) rises (ἀνατείλῃ) in your hearts (ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν).”  Among the canonical Greek New Testament writings, this is the only time that these two words appeared in 2 Peter, αὐχμηρῷ,that means dingy, murky, obscure, or dark, and the word, φωσφόρος, that means light-bringing, the morning star, or radiant.  This author referred to a prophetic message that could be an allusion to the Hebrew prophets or a message of the Holy Spirit to the apostles.  They should pay attention to these prophetic messages.  These messages would help them like a lit lamp in a dark dingy obscure place.  Matthew often quoted the lamp as the light inside the dark world.  Someday, the morning star, Jesus Christ, would rise in their hearts.  It would be like the dawning of a new day for them.  Is Jesus Christ in your hearts?

We heard this voice (2 Pet 1:18)

“We ourselves


This voice

From heaven,

While we were with him

On the holy mountain.”

καὶ ταύτην τὴν φωνὴν ἡμεῖς ἠκούσαμεν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἐνεχθεῖσαν σὺν αὐτῷ ὄντες ἐν τῷ ἁγίῳ ὄρει.

This author said, “We ourselves heard (ἡμεῖς ἠκούσαμεν) this voice (καὶ ταύτην τὴν φωνὴν) from heaven (ἐξ οὐρανοῦ), while we were with him (ἐνεχθεῖσαν σὺν αὐτῷ) on the holy mountain (ἐν τῷ ἁγίῳ ὄρει).”  This author clearly indicates that he was one of the three people with Jesus at the transfiguration as found in the synoptics, Matthew, chapter 17:1-8, Mark, chapter 9:2-8, and Luke, chapter 9:28-36.  The three people with Jesus were Peter, James, and John, who experienced the transfiguration of Jesus with Moses and Elijah.  This author, presumably Peter, said that he had heard this voice from heaven when he was with Jesus on the holy mountain.  There was no ambiguity here.  The holy mountain may be an illusion to Mount Sinai.  Something wonderful had happened at the transfiguration of Jesus on this holy mountain with the three apostles.  This author was one of them.  Do you believe that Peter is the author of this letter?

This is my Son! (2 Pet 1:17)

“Jesus Christ



And glory

From God

The Father

When that voice

Was conveyed to him

By the majestic glory,

Such as follows,

‘This is my Son,

My beloved,

With whom I am

Well pleased.’”

λαβὼν γὰρ παρὰ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς τιμὴν καὶ δόξαν φωνῆς ἐνεχθείσης αὐτῷ τοιᾶσδε ὑπὸ τῆς μεγαλοπρεποῦς δόξης Ὁ Υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός μου οὗτός ἐστιν, εἰς ὃν ἐγὼ εὐδόκησα,—

This author said, “Jesus Christ received (λαβὼν γὰρ) honor (τιμὴν) and glory (καὶ δόξαν) from God (παρὰ Θεοῦ) the Father (Πατρὸς) when that voice (φωνῆς) was conveyed (ἐνεχθείσης) to him (αὐτῷ) by the majestic glory (ὑπὸ τῆς μεγαλοπρεποῦς δόξης), such as follows (τοιᾶσδε), ‘This is (οὗτός ἐστιν) my Son (Ὁ Υἱός μου), my beloved (ὁ ἀγαπητός μου), with whom (εἰς ὃν) I am well pleased (εἰς ὃν ἐγὼ εὐδόκησα).’”  Among the canonical Greek New Testament writings, this is the only time that this word appeared in 2 Peter, τοιᾶσδε, that means such, of this kind, or such as follows, and the word, μεγαλοπρεποῦς, that means befitting a great one, magnificent, superb, transcendent, or majestic.  This author made a reference to the words of the transfiguration of Jesus as found in the synoptics.  Luke, chapter 9:35 had the voice say that “this is my Son, my Chosen one”.  Mark, chapter 9:7, said that there was a voice that said “Jesus was his Son, the beloved one.”  However, there was nothing about being the chosen one.  The idea of a heavenly voice or a voice from a cloud had a very strong tradition in the Jewish writings of the Hebrew Bible, especially among the prophets and Moses.  In Matthew, chapter 17:5, this voice said that “Jesus was his most beloved Son, in whom he was well pleased”, much like here.  This saying was based on Psalm 2:7, “You are my son.  Today I have begotten you.”  This alluded to David, but the followers of Jesus Christ changed this original meaning about David to Jesus as the messianic fulfillment of this psalm.  Do you believe that Jesus Christ was the beloved son of God?

Eyewitness (2 Pet 1:16)

“We did not follow

Cleverly devised myths

When we made known

To you

The power

And the coming

Of our Lord,

Jesus Christ,

But we have been


Of his majesty.”

οὐ γὰρ σεσοφισμένοις μύθοις ἐξακολουθήσαντες ἐγνωρίσαμεν ὑμῖν τὴν τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ δύναμιν καὶ παρουσίαν, ἀλλ’ ἐπόπται γενηθέντες τῆς ἐκείνου μεγαλειότητος.

This author stated “We did not (οὐ γὰρ) follow (ἐξακολουθήσαντες) cleverly devised (σεσοφισμένοις) myths (μύθοις) when we made known (ἐγνωρίσαμεν) to you (ὑμῖν) the power (δύναμιν) and the coming (καὶ παρουσίαν) of our Lord (τὴν τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν), Jesus Christ (Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ), but (ἀλλ’) we have been (γενηθέντες) eyewitnesses (ἐπόπται) of his majesty (τῆς ἐκείνου μεγαλειότητος).”  Among the canonical Greek New Testament writings, this is the only time that these words appeared in 2 Peter, ἐξακολουθήσαντες, that means to follow up, imitate, or follow after, as well as the word, ἐπόπται, that means a looker-on, a spectator, or an eyewitness.  This author maintained that he was an eyewitness to the magnificent majesty, power, and the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.  This is the only time that this term “eyewitness” was used, but it was common among the Greek mystery religions.  He indicated that he did not follow the clever sophisticated myths that the gnostic religions used.  When he talked about the power and majesty of Jesus Christ in his coming, he indicated that he was an actual eyewitness to these events in the life of Jesus Christ.  No other Canonical NT writer made that claim.  Do you believe an eyewitness account of anything?

Remember these things (2 Pet 1:15)

“I will make every effort,

So that after my departure,

You may be able

At any time

To recall

These things.”

σπουδάσω δὲ καὶ ἑκάστοτε ἔχειν ὑμᾶς μετὰ τὴν ἐμὴν ἔξοδον τὴν τούτων μνήμην ποιεῖσθαι.

This author said, “I will make every effort (σπουδάσω δὲ), so that after (ἔχειν) my departure (μετὰ τὴν ἐμὴν ἔξοδον), you (ὑμᾶς) may be able (ποιεῖσθαι) at any time (καὶ ἑκάστοτε) to recall (μνήμην) these things (τὴν τούτων).”  Among the canonical Greek New Testament writings, this is the only time that these words appeared in 2 Peter, ἑκάστοτε, each time, always, or at every time, as well as the word, μνήμην, that means memory, remembrance, or mention.  This author used some unique vocabulary to explain what was going to happen after he had died.  He said that he was trying to make it easier for them after his death.  Thus, he was making every effort to help them remember all the things that he had told them.  He felt that he was going to die soon.  He did not want them to forget all the things that he had told them about Jesus Christ.  Have you forgotten what people told you about Jesus Christ growing up?

Soon I will die (2 Pet 1:14)

“I know

That I will put away

My body soon.


Our Lord,

Jesus Christ,

Has made it clear

To me.”

εἰδὼς ὅτι ταχινή ἐστιν ἡ ἀπόθεσις τοῦ σκηνώματός μου, καθὼς καὶ ὁ Κύριος ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς ἐδήλωσέν μοι·

This author said, “I know (εἰδὼς) that I will put away (ἐστιν ἡ ἀπόθεσις) my body (τοῦ σκηνώματός μου) soon (ὅτι ταχινή).  Indeed (καθὼς), Our Lord (καὶ ὁ Κύριος ἡμῶν), Jesus Christ (Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς), has made clear it (ἐδήλωσέν) to me (μοι).”  Among the canonical Greek New Testament writings, this is the only time that this word appeared in 2 Peter, ταχινή, that means swift, quick, or impending.  This author indicated that our Lord Jesus Christ had made it perfectly clear to him that he would have to put away his human tabernacle or his earthly tent body soon.  He was going to die in the near future because Jesus had told him so.  Do you have any idea when you will die?

Refresh your memory (2 Pet 1:13)

“I think

That it is right,

As long as I am

In this body,

To refresh

Your memory.”

δίκαιον δὲ ἡγοῦμαι, ἐφ’ ὅσον εἰμὶ ἐν τούτῳ τῷ σκηνώματι, διεγείρειν ὑμᾶς ἐν ὑπομνήσει,

This author said “I think (δὲ ἡγοῦμαι) it is right (δίκαιον), as long as (ἐφ’ ὅσον) I am in this body (ἐν τούτῳ τῷ σκηνώματι), to refresh (διεγείρειν) your memory (ὑμᾶς ἐν ὑπομνήσει,).”  This author pointed out that he thought that it was right for him to refresh or stir up their memories.  He would continue to do this as long as he was alive in his earthly tent or dwelling, or his body.  He would continue to remind them about Jesus Christ as long as he lived on this earth.  Do you refresh your memory about Jesus Christ?