“But before all this occurs,
They will arrest you.
They will persecute you.
They will hand you over
You will be brought
Because of my name.”
πρὸ δὲ τούτων πάντων ἐπιβαλοῦσιν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῶν καὶ διώξουσιν, παραδιδόντες εἰς τὰς συναγωγὰς καὶ φυλακάς, ἀπαγομένους ἐπὶ βασιλεῖς καὶ ἡγεμόνας ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀνόματός μου
Luke indicated that Jesus said that before all this occurred (πρὸ δὲ τούτων πάντων), they would arrest or lay hands on his disciples (ἐπιβαλοῦσιν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῶν). They would persecute them (καὶ διώξουσιν) and hand them over (παραδιδόντες) to the synagogues (εἰς τὰς συναγωγὰς) and prisons (καὶ φυλακάς). They would be brought before kings (ἀπαγομένους ἐπὶ βασιλεῖς) and governors (καὶ ἡγεμόνας) because of the name of Jesus (ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀνόματός μου). There was something similar in Mark, chapter 13:9, and Matthew, chapter 24:9. Jesus said that his followers were going to be persecuted. Mark indicated that Jesus warned them that they should be self-aware (Βλέπετε δὲ ὑμεῖς ἑαυτούς). They would be handed over (παραδώσουσιν ὑμᾶς) to courts, councils, or synods (εἰς συνέδρια) and synagogues (καὶ εἰς συναγωγὰς), since some of the Jewish Christians were still part of Jewish social, political, and religious life. They would also be beaten (δαρήσεσθε). On the other hand, they would also have to stand before governors and kings (καὶ ἐπὶ ἡγεμόνων καὶ βασιλέων σταθήσεσθε) to give testimony as a witness to them about Jesus (ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ, εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς). This idea of the persecution of the Jesus followers was not a new theme for Matthew, because it was mentioned earlier in chapter 10:16-25, where Jesus was more reassuring, and chapter 16:24, where Jesus spoke about bearing the cross of death. Jesus said that his followers were going to be persecuted, distressed, or afflicted (τότε παραδώσουσιν ὑμᾶς εἰς θλῖψιν), even though there was no mention of this taking place in the synagogues in Matthew. No doubt about it, they were going to be handed over to be tortured and put to death (καὶ ἀποκτενοῦσιν ὑμᾶς). They would be hated and detested (καὶ ἔσεσθε μισούμενοι) by all the gentile nations (ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν ἐθνῶν) because of his name (διὰ τὸ ὄνομά μου). This was tough talk because it was not going to be easy to be a disciple of Jesus after he was gone. In the Acts of the Apostles, there are many instances of the early Christians being persecuted in prisons and being brought before various magistrates. Do you think it would be difficult to be persecuted because you were a Christian?
“This salt is fit
For the soil,
Nor for the manure pile.
Throw it away!
οὔτε εἰς γῆν οὔτε εἰς κοπρίαν εὔθετόν ἐστιν· ἔξω βάλλουσιν αὐτό. ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω
Luke indicated that Jesus said that this salt was fit (εὔθετόν ἐστιν) neither for the soil (οὔτε εἰς γῆν), nor for the manure pile (οὔτε εἰς κοπρίαν). It should be thrown away (ἔξω βάλλουσιν αὐτό). Let anyone with ears to hear (ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν), listen (ἀκουέτω)! This saying of Jesus can be found somewhat similar in Matthew, chapter 5:13, and Mark, chapter 9:50. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that tasteless salt was now useless, impotent, and not good for anything (εἰς οὐδὲν ἰσχύει ἔτι). The end result of this insipid salt was that it should either be thrown away (εἰ μὴ βληθὲν ἔξω) or have people trample it down (καταπατεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων). Mark indicated that Jesus then turned to his followers. He told them that they should have salt within themselves (ἔχετε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἅλα), not exactly the salt of the earth, but close enough. They should be at peace with one another (καὶ εἰρηνεύετε ἐν ἀλλήλοις). There was no indication here about throwing salt away because it had become useless, as in Matthew and Luke. Salt would bring about brotherly peace or love. Only Luke had the admonition to listen to what Jesus was saying. How much salt do you use?
“But I will warn you
Whom to fear.
Fear him who,
After he has killed you,
To cast you
I tell you!
ὑποδείξω δὲ ὑμῖν τίνα φοβηθῆτε· φοβήθητε τὸν μετὰ τὸ ἀποκτεῖναι ἔχοντα ἐξουσίαν ἐμβαλεῖν εἰς τὴν γέενναν. ναί, λέγω ὑμῖν, τοῦτον φοβήθητε.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that he would show them whom they ought to fear (ὑποδείξω δὲ ὑμῖν τίνα φοβηθῆτε). They were to fear those (φοβήθητε), who after killing them (τὸν μετὰ τὸ ἀποκτεῖναι), had the authority or power (ἔχοντα ἐξουσίαν) to cast them into hell or Gehenna (ἐμβαλεῖν εἰς τὴν γέενναν). Then with a solemn declaration (ναί, λέγω ὑμῖν), he said that those were the people they ought to fear (τοῦτον φοβήθητε). This is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:28, indicating a Q source. Jesus, via Matthew, warned his followers that they should fear or be afraid (φοβεῖσθε δὲ μᾶλλον) of the people who can destroy both their soul and their body (τὸν δυνάμενον καὶ ψυχὴν καὶ σῶμα ἀπολέσαι) by sending them to hell or Gehenna (ἐν γεέννῃ). Both Luke and Matthew used this Greek word for hell, “γεέννῃ,” or the English Gehenna that was based on the Hebrew word Gehinnom that was the name of the valley south of Jerusalem where burning child sacrifices would take place. However, only Matthew, not Luke, talked about the soul, ψυχὴν. Are you worried about going to hell?
The Wisdom of God said.
‘I will send them
They will kill
Some of them.’”
διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἡ σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶπεν Ἀποστελῶ εἰς αὐτοὺς προφήτας καὶ ἀποστόλους, καὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν ἀποκτενοῦσιν καὶ διώξουσιν,
Luke indicated that Jesus said that the Wisdom of God (διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἡ σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶπεν) said that he would send them prophets (Ἀποστελῶ εἰς αὐτοὺς προφήτας) and apostles (καὶ ἀποστόλους). However, they would kill (ἀποκτενοῦσιν) and persecute (καὶ διώξουσιν) some of them (καὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 23:34, perhaps a Q source, about the killing of prophets. Jesus said, via Matthew, that he was going to send them prophets, sages or wise men, and scribes, the heroes of the Hebrew Scripture and the Mosaic Law. However, instead of respecting them, they were going to kill some, crucify some, and flog or scourge some in their synagogues. They were going to go from town to town persecuting some also. Jesus had mentioned the possibility of death or crucifixion for his followers earlier. Luke had Jesus slightly more restrained here. He mentioned the Wisdom of God (ἡ σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ) as he had done earlier in chapter 7:35, either indicating Holy Scripture or the personification of wisdom. What do you know about the wisdom of God?
The wife of Chuza,
As well as many others,
Provided for them
Out of their resources.”
καὶ Ἰωάνα γυνὴ Χουζᾶ ἐπιτρόπου Ἡρῴδου καὶ Σουσάννα καὶ ἕτεραι πολλαί, αἵτινες διηκόνουν αὐτοῖς ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐταῖς.
Luke also uniquely mentioned Joanna (καὶ Ἰωάνα), the wife of Chuza (γυνὴ Χουζᾶ), Herod’s steward (ἐπιτρόπου Ἡρῴδου), and Susanna (καὶ Σουσάννα). He also said that many other women (καὶ ἕτεραι πολλαί) provided or ministered for them at table (αἵτινες διηκόνουν αὐτοῖς) out of their means, possessions, or resources (ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐταῖς). Joanna shows up again with Mary Magdalene in the resurrection story of Luke, chapter 24:10. She must have been a woman of means because her husband had an important role at the court of King Herod Antipas of Galilee as his head steward. The name Susanna only appears here among all the canonical gospels, but a Susanna played a role in the Book of Daniel. However, there were other women, not explicitly named, who provided for Jesus and his followers with their money or resources. In other words, there was a small entourage of women who traveled with Jesus, probably providing the food for him and his disciples, since they were not called disciples themselves. What should be the role of women as followers of Jesus?
Then you will be forgiven.”
ἀπολύετε, καὶ ἀπολυθήσεσθε·
Luke indicated that Jesus told his followers to forgive others (ἀπολύετε). Then they would be forgiven (καὶ ἀπολυθήσεσθε). This saying about forgiveness seems similar to Mark, chapter 11:25, and Matthew, chapter 6:14-15. Mark indicated that Jesus said that whenever they would stand and pray, they should forgive others, especially if they had anything against anyone. Then their heavenly Father would also forgive them. Matthew had Jesus say that their heavenly Father would forgive them if they forgave others for their missteps or trespasses. On the other hand, if they did not forgive others, their heavenly Father would not forgive them. This came right after the “Our Father” prayer in Matthew. Do you really forgive other people?
“Do not judge!
Then you will not be judged.”
καὶ μὴ κρίνετε, καὶ οὐ μὴ κριθῆτε·
This verse is almost the same as in Matthew, chapter 7:1. Thus, Jesus told his followers not to judge others (καὶ μὴ κρίνετε), so that they would not be judged (καὶ οὐ μὴ κριθῆτε). Jesus said that whatever judgments they made, they would be judged the same way. Do you judge people a lot?
“Do to others
As you would have them
Do to you!”
καὶ καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι, ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως.
Luke indicated that Jesus said to his followers to do the same to others (ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως), like they would wish other men to do to them (καὶ καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι). Once again, this was in the second person plural imperative. Matthew, chapter 7:12, has something similar, perhaps indicating a common Q source. This saying is often known throughout the world as the philosophical golden rule. Matthew said that whatever you wanted other men to do to you (Πάντα οὖν ὅσα ἐὰν θέλητε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι), you should do to them the same (οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς). Matthew emphasized that this was already in the Hebrew Torah, the Law and among the various Judaic prophets, while Luke never mentioned the Law and the prophets. Pure and simple, treat other people the way that you would want to be treated.
Who takes away
Do not withhold
Even your shirt!”
καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντός σου τὸ ἱμάτιον καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα μὴ κωλύσῃς.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that if anyone wanted to take away their coat (καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντός σου τὸ ἱμάτιον), they should also offer them their shirt or tunic (καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα μὴ κωλύσῃς). Once again Luke had Jesus use the second person plural to address his followers. A similar saying to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 5:40, where he also indicated that the followers of Jesus should be kind people. We might even call these activities unusual acts of kindness. In Matthew, Jesus said that not only should they give a person their inner tunic coat (τὸν χιτῶνά σου λαβεῖν), but also their outer cloak as well (ἄφες αὐτῷ καὶ τὸ ἱμάτιον). This seems like they would give all the clothes off their back, since most people did not own more than 2 coats. There should be no end to their generosity.
On the cheek,
Offer the other also!”
τῷ τύπτοντί σε ἐπὶ τὴν σιαγόνα πάρεχε καὶ τὴν ἄλλην,
Luke indicated that Jesus said that if anyone struck them (τῷ τύπτοντί σε) on the cheek (ἐπὶ τὴν σιαγόνα), they were to offer the other cheek also (πάρεχε καὶ τὴν ἄλλην). Once again, Luke had Jesus use the second person plural to address his followers. Matthew, chapter 5:39, had the same saying, with different wording. If they were struck on the right cheek (ἀλλ’ ὅστις σε ῥαπίζει εἰς τὴν δεξιὰν σιαγόνα σου), they should turn the other cheek (στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην). A slap on the right cheek was usually a back handed slap, since most people were right handed. Jesus himself would be struck on the cheek in the passion narrative. They would be true followers of Jesus, if they did not resist, as in the passion story. This is one of the strongest arguments for Christian pacifism.