No one knew what was going on (Jn 13:28-13:28)

“Now no one


At the table


Why Jesus said this

To Judas.”

τοῦτο δὲ οὐδεὶς ἔγνω τῶν ἀνακειμένων πρὸς τί εἶπεν αὐτῷ·

Then John uniquely indicated that no one (τοῦτο δὲ οὐδεὶς) of those reclining at the table (τῶν ἀνακειμένων) knew (ἔγνω) why Jesus said this to Judas (πρὸς τί εἶπεν αὐτῷ).  Apparently, no one understood why Jesus had told Judas to do something quickly.  They were about to speculate on what he was going to do.  Do you understand what other people are doing all the time?

Do it quickly! (Jn 13:27-13:27)

“After Judas

Had received

The piece of bread,

Satan entered

Into him.

Jesus said to him.

‘Do quickly

What you are going to do!’”

καὶ μετὰ τὸ ψωμίον τότε εἰσῆλθεν εἰς ἐκεῖνον ὁ Σατανᾶς. λέγει οὖν αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς Ὃ ποιεῖς ποίησον τάχιον.

Then John indicated that after Judas had received this piece of bread (καὶ μετὰ τὸ ψωμίον τότε), Satan (ὁ Σατανᾶς.) entered into him (εἰσῆλθεν εἰς ἐκεῖνον).  Jesus (Ἰησοῦς) said to him (λέγει οὖν αὐτῷ) to go quickly (ποίησον τάχιον), and do what he was going to do (Ὃ ποιεῖς).  Matthew, 26:25, indicated that Judas (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ Ἰούδας), the one who was betraying Jesus (ὁ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν εἶπεν), addressed Jesus, calling him Rabbi (Ῥαββε), and not just teacher or lord.  Judas said that it surely was not him (εἶπεν Μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι).  However, Jesus replied that he had said it, so it must be so (λέγει αὐτῷ Σὺ εἶπας).  This was a clear identification of Judas as the betrayer.  Jesus wanted him to get it done as quickly as possible.  Should bad things be done quickly?

Jesus gave the piece of bread to Judas (Jn 13:26-13:26)

“Jesus answered.

‘It is the one

To whom

I give

This piece of bread,

When I have dipped it

In the dish.’


He dipped

The piece of bread.

He took it.

He gave it

To Judas,

The son of Simon Iscariot.”

ἀποκρίνεται οὖν ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ἐκεῖνός ἐστιν ᾧ ἐγὼ βάψω τὸ ψωμίον καὶ δώσω αὐτῷ. βάψας οὖν τὸ ψωμίον λαμβάνει καὶ δίδωσιν Ἰούδᾳ Σίμωνος Ἰσκαριώτου.

Then John indicated that Jesus answered this beloved disciple (ἀποκρίνεται οὖν ὁ Ἰησοῦς).  He said that it is the one (Ἐκεῖνός ἐστιν) to whom I give (καὶ δώσω αὐτῷ) this piece of bread (τὸ ψωμίον) when I have dipped (ᾧ ἐγὼ βάψω) it in the dish.  John was the only Greek biblical writer use this Greek word ψωμίον, that means a fragment, morsel, or a bit.  Thus, Jesus dipped the piece of bread (βάψας οὖν τὸ ψωμίον).  Then he took it (λαμβάνει) and gave it (καὶ δίδωσιν) to Judas (Ἰούδᾳ), the son of Simon Iscariot (Σίμωνος Ἰσκαριώτου).  John had this dipping of the hand in the bowl for bread in a conversation between Jesus and the beloved disciple.  Mark, chapter 14:20, said that Jesus told his apostles (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) that clearly the betrayer was one of the 12 apostles (Εἷς τῶν δώδεκα).  In fact, he said that it was one of those who were dipping into the bowl or the deep platter with him (ὁ ἐμβαπτόμενος μετ’ ἐμοῦ εἰς τὸ τρύβλιον).  There was no question that the betrayer was among them in this room.  Matthew, chapter 26:23-24, said that while they were eating (καὶ ἐσθιόντων), Jesus gave a solemn declaration (εἶπεν Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν).  He said that one of his 12 leading disciples or apostles would betray him (ὅτι εἷς ἐξ ὑμῶν παραδώσει με).  Jesus said (ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν) that the one who dipped his hand into the bowl or the deep platter with him (Ὁ ἐμβάψας μετ’ ἐμοῦ τὴν χεῖρα ἐν τῷ τρυβλίῳ) would betray him (οὗτός με παραδώσει).  Luke, chapter 22:21, indicated that Jesus said that the one who was going to betray him (παραδιδόντος με) was with him (μετ’ ἐμοῦ), since his hand (πλὴν ἰδοὺ ἡ χεὶρ τοῦ) was on the table (ἐπὶ τῆς τραπέζης).  Whether this was a public declaration or a private conversation is not clear.  However, what is clear is that the one sitting there with them would betray Jesus.  Have you ever betrayed a friend?

Who is it? (Jn 13:25-13:25)


While reclining

Next to Jesus,

The beloved disciple

Asked him.


Who is it?’”

ἀναπεσὼν ἐκεῖνος οὕτως ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος τοῦ Ἰησοῦ λέγει αὐτῷ Κύριε, τίς ἐστιν;

Then John uniquely indicated that this beloved disciple (ἐκεῖνος), while reclining next to Jesus or leaning (ἀναπεσὼν) on the breast of Jesus (ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος τοῦ Ἰησοῦ), asked Jesus (λέγει αὐτῷ), calling him Lord (Κύριε), “Who is it (τίς ἐστιν)?”  John followed through on the suggestion from Peter.  This beloved disciple was next to Jesus, so he asked him to tell him who it was that would betray Jesus.  Have you ever asked a favor from a friend?

Who is Jesus talking about? (Jn 13:24-13:24)

“Simon Peter

Motioned to

This beloved disciple

To ask Jesus

About whom

He was speaking.”

νεύει οὖν τούτῳ Σίμων Πέτρος καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Εἰπὲ τίς ἐστιν περὶ οὗ λέγει.

Then John uniquely indicated that Simon Peter (Σίμων Πέτρος) motioned to the beloved disciple (νεύει οὖν τούτῳ) to ask Jesus (καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ) about whom he was speaking (περὶ οὗ λέγει).  Who was it (Εἰπὲ τίς ἐστιν)?  John was the only canonical evangelist to use the word νεύει, that means to nod, make a sign, or beckon.  Peter wanted to know who was going to betray Jesus.  He hoped that John, the beloved disciple beside Jesus, would inform him.  Peter was dependent on John for this information.  Who do you get your information from?

The beloved disciple (Jn 13:23-13:23)

“One of his disciples,

The one whom Jesus loved,

Was reclining

Next to Jesus.”

ἦν ἀνακείμενος εἷς ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ κόλπῳ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, ὃν ἠγάπα ὁ Ἰησοῦς·

Then John uniquely indicated there was a new person among his disciples.  He said that one of Jesus’ disciples (εἷς ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ), was reclining (ἦν ἀνακείμενος) next to Jesus or in his bosom (ἐν τῷ κόλπῳ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ).  However, this one disciple was the one whom Jesus loved (ὃν ἠγάπα ὁ Ἰησοῦς).  This is the first instance of this phraseology, but this title of beloved disciple will occur again, but only in this gospel.  They were sitting on reclining chaises that were low to the ground.  Who is this beloved disciple?  Many speculate that it is John himself, the author of this gospel.  Apparently, he was a close disciple or beloved apostle to Jesus.  He was sitting next to Jesus.  Was he the son of Zebedee and brother of James?  The traditional belief is that they are one and the same, the beloved disciple, who was close to Jesus and the author of this fourth gospel.  Do you have a favorite friend?

The disciples were uncertain (Jn 13:22-13:22)

“The disciples began

To look at each other.

They were uncertain

About whom

Jesus was speaking.”

ἔβλεπον εἰς ἀλλήλους οἱ μαθηταὶ ἀπορούμενοι περὶ τίνος λέγει.

Then John indicated that the disciples (οἱ μαθηταὶ) began to look at each other (ἔβλεπον εἰς ἀλλήλους).  They were uncertain or perplexed (ἀπορούμενοι) about whom Jesus was speaking (περὶ τίνος λέγει).  The synoptics had something similar, but the disciples were more proactive.  Mark, chapter 14:19, said that the twelve apostles began to be greatly distressed or pained (ἤρξαντο λυπεῖσθαι) on hearing that one of them was going to betray Jesus.  They said to Jesus, one after another (καὶ λέγειν αὐτῷ εἷς κατὰ εἷς) that it was surely not any of them.  Each one declared in the first person singular “Surely!  Not I! (Μήτι ἐγώ)!”  Matthew, chapter 26:22, was similar, almost word for word, to Mark.  The twelve disciples became greatly distressed or pained (καὶ λυπούμενοι σφόδρα) on hearing that one of them was going to betray Jesus.  They began to say to Jesus, one after another (ρξαντο λέγειν αὐτῷ εἷς ἕκαστος) that it was surely not any of them.  Each one declared in the first person singular “It is not I, Lord (Μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι, Κύριε)!”  Matthew had the title “Lord” but Mark did not.  Luke, chapter 22:23, said that the twelve apostles began to question one another (καὶ αὐτοὶ ἤρξαντο συνζητεῖν πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς).  They said which one of them could or would do this (τὸ τίς ἄρα εἴη ἐξ αὐτῶν ὁ τοῦτο μέλλων πράσσειν)?  John simply said the apostles were uncertain about whom Jesus was speaking about, closer to Luke.  There was no bid fuss like in Matthew and Mark.  No one came forward to say that he was the betrayer of Jesus.  Would you admit it, if you were going to betray someone?