The men spoke (Lk 24:5-24:5)

“The women

Were terrified.

They bowed their faces

To the ground.

But the men

Said to them.

‘Why do you look

For the living

Among the dead?

He is not here.

But he has risen.’”

ἐμφόβων δὲ γενομένων αὐτῶν καὶ κλινουσῶν τὰ πρόσωπα εἰς τὴν γῆν, εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτάς Τί ζητεῖτε τὸν ζῶντα μετὰ τῶν νεκρῶν; οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε, ἀλλὰ ἠγέρθη.

Luke said that these women were terrified (ἐμφόβων δὲ γενομένων αὐτῶν).  They bowed their faces to the ground (καὶ κλινουσῶν τὰ πρόσωπα εἰς τὴν γῆν).  But the 2 men asked them (εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτάς) why they were looking for the living among the dead (Τί ζητεῖτε τὸν ζῶντα μετὰ τῶν νεκρῶν)?  They said that Jesus was not there because he had risen (οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε, ἀλλὰ ἠγέρθη).  John, chapter 20:13-14, had the 2 men turn into Jesus.  Mark, chapter 16:6, remarked that this man with the white clothes said to the 3 women (ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐταῖς) that they were not to be afraid or amazed (Μὴ ἐκθαμβεῖσθε).  He knew that they were looking for or seeking Jesus of Nazareth (Ἰησοῦν ζητεῖτε τὸν Ναζαρηνὸν), who had been crucified (τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον).  He told them that Jesus had risen (ἠγέρθη).  He was not there (οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε).  This man told them to look (ἴδε) and see the place where Jesus had been laid out in the tomb (ὁ τόπος ὅπου ἔθηκαν αὐτόν).  Matthew, chapter 28:5-6, remarked that the angel said to the women (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπεν ταῖς γυναιξίν) to not be afraid (Μὴ φοβεῖσθε ὑμεῖς).  He knew that they were looking for or seeking Jesus, who had been crucified (οἶδα γὰρ ὅτι Ἰησοῦν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον ζητεῖτε).  He told them that Jesus was not there (οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε), because he had risen as he said he would (ἠγέρθη γὰρ καθὼς εἶπεν).  The angel of the Lord invited them to see the place where Jesus had been laid out in the tomb (δεῦτε ἴδετε τὸν τόπον ὅπου ἔκειτο).  Despite a variety of messengers, the message was the same.  Jesus was not there, because he had risen from the dead.  Do you believe that Jesus rose from the dead?


Two men were there (Lk 24:4-24:4)

“While they were perplexed

About this,


Two men

In dazzling clothes

Stood beside them.”

καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἀπορεῖσθαι αὐτὰς περὶ τούτου καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες δύο ἐπέστησαν αὐταῖς ἐν ἐσθῆτι ἀστραπτούσῃ·

Luke said that while these women were perplexed about all this (καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἀπορεῖσθαι αὐτὰς περὶ τούτου), that suddenly two men (καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες δύο) in dazzling clothes (ἐν ἐσθῆτι ἀστραπτούσῃ) stood beside them (ἐπέστησαν αὐταῖς).  As these women from Galilee were confused or troubled, these 2 men in dazzling clothes, like angels, were standing in the tomb to explain everything to them.  John, chapter 20:11-13, also had 2 angels talk to Mary Magdalene in the tomb, much like the 2 men here in LukeMark, chapter 16:5 said that as the 3 women entered the tomb (καὶ εἰσελθοῦσαι εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον), they saw one young man (εἶδον νεανίσκον) sitting on the right side in the tomb (καθήμενον ἐν τοῖς δεξιοῖς).  He was wearing a white robe (περιβεβλημένον στολὴν λευκήν).  Thus, these 3 women were astonished or greatly amazed (καὶ ἐξεθαμβήθησαν) at what they saw.  Matthew, chapter 28:2-3, was the only one to explicitly describe the actions of a single angel at the tomb.  Matthew said that an angel of the Lord (ἄγγελος γὰρ Κυρίου) descended from heaven (καταβὰς ἐξ οὐρανοῦ).  He came and rolled back the stone (καὶ προσελθὼν ἀπεκύλισεν τὸν λίθον), so that he was sitting on this stone (καὶ ἐκάθητο ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ).  He looked like a bright flash of lightning (ἦν δὲ ἡ εἰδέα αὐτοῦ ὡς ἀστραπὴ) because his clothing was as white as snow (καὶ τὸ ἔνδυμα αὐτοῦ λευκὸν ὡς χιών).  Once again, Matthew was more dramatic in his descriptions.  What would you do if some angels appeared to you?

No body there (Lk 24:3-24:3)

“But when they went in,

They did not find

The body

Of Jesus,

The Lord.”

εἰσελθοῦσαι δὲ οὐχ εὗρον τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ.

Only Luke uniquely said that when the women went into the tomb (εἰσελθοῦσαι δὲ), they did not find (δὲ οὐχ εὗρον) the body (τὸ σῶμα) of Jesus, the Lord (τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ).  Luke was the only canonical gospel that explicitly said that the body of Jesus was gone.  It became obvious, but these women of Galilee noticed it before anything else happened.  What would you do if the body you were visiting was gone?

The stone was rolled away (Lk 24:2-24:2)

“They found

The stone

Rolled away

From the tomb.”

εὗρον δὲ τὸν λίθον ἀποκεκυλισμένον ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου,

Luke said that these unnamed women found (εὗρον δὲ) that the stone had been rolled away (τὸν λίθον ἀποκεκυλισμένον) from the tomb entrance (ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου).  John, chapter 20:1, said the stone had been removed when Mary Magdalene got there.  Mark, chapter 16:3-4, said that there was a discussion about rolling back the stone as the 3 women had been saying to themselves or talking to one another (καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἑαυτάς).  They wondered who would roll away the stone for them (ίς ἀποκυλίσει ἡμῖν τὸν λίθον) at the entrance to the tomb (ἐκ τῆς θύρας τοῦ μνημείου)?  This was a legitimate question for these 3 women.  However, just like in the other gospel stories, Mark said that when the 3 women looked up (καὶ ἀναβλέψασαι), they saw (θεωροῦσιν) that the stone had already been rolled away (ὅτι ἀνακεκύλισται ὁ λίθος), even though it was very large (ἦν γὰρ μέγας σφόδρα).  Matthew, chapter 28:2, was the only one who had any activity at the tomb.  He uniquely said that suddenly there was a great seismic earthquake (καὶ ἰδοὺ σεισμὸς ἐγένετο μέγας).  Matthew also uniquely had an earthquake at the death of Jesus, chapter 27:54.  Now he had another earthquake at the resurrection of Jesus.  These earthquakes symbolized that something important was happening.  Thus, another problem was solved, since no one had to move the stone at the entrance to the tomb.  Have you ever been to a tomb?

The women make an early morning visit to the tomb of Jesus (Lk 24:1-24:1)

“But on the first day

Of the week,

At very early dawn,

The women came

To the tomb.

They took the spices

That they had prepared.”

τῇ δὲ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων ὄρθρου βαθέως ἐπὶ τὸ μνῆμα ἦλθον φέρουσαι ἃ ἡτοίμασαν ἀρώματα.

Luke said that on the first day of the week (τῇ δὲ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων), at very early dawn (ὄρθρου βαθέως), they came to the tomb (ἐπὶ τὸ μνῆμα ἦλθον).  They took with them the spices that they had prepared (φέρουσαι ἃ ἡτοίμασαν ἀρώματα).  Who are they?  From the preceding verse, they were the unnamed women of Galilee.  There is no confusion about the day of the week when the empty tomb was first found.  All 4 gospel stories, Matthew, chapter 28:1, Luke, chapter 24:1, John, chapter 20:1, and Mark, chapter 16:1-2, have this visit to the tomb take place in the early morning of the first day of the week, Sunday.  Interesting enough the same Greek word was used for the day Sabbath and the week “σαββάτων.”  Thus, this would have been the 3rd day since the death of Jesus on Friday.  John, chapter 20:1, said that it was Mary Magdalene alone who came to the tomb.  Mark, however, mentioned 3 specific women.  Mark said that when the Sabbath was over (Καὶ διαγενομένου τοῦ σαββάτου), Mary Magdalene (Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ) and the other Mary (καὶ Μαρία), the mother of James (ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου), as well as Salome (καὶ Σαλώμη) probably the mother of the sons of Zebedee, James and John, came to the tomb.  This Salome may have been a sister of half-sister of Mary, the Mother of Jesus.  These 3 named women brought spices (ἠγόρασαν ἀρώματα), so that they might go and anoint Jesus (ἵνα ἐλθοῦσαι ἀλείψωσιν αὐτόν).  Mark said that this took place very early on the first day of the week (καὶ λίαν πρωῒ τῇ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων) when the sun had risen (ἀνατείλαντος τοῦ ἡλίου).  Matthew, chapter 28:1, said that after the sabbath (Ὀψὲ δὲ σαββάτων), as the first day of the week was dawning (τῇ ἐπιφωσκούσῃ εἰς μίαν σαββάτων), Mary Magdalene (ἦλθεν Μαριὰμ ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ) and the other Mary (καὶ ἡ ἄλλη Μαρία) went to see or experience the tomb (θεωρῆσαι τὸν τάφον).  Matthew had 2 named women visit the tomb.  The idea of visiting a tomb or grave site would not have been out of the question, since this was a common practice at that time.  In all these stories, there was either one or more women, no men, who came to the tomb.  Only Luke did not mention Mary Magdalene by name, while the others did.  Would you get up early in the morning to visit a gravesite tomb?

Rest on the Sabbath (Lk 23:56-23:56)

“Then they returned.

They prepared spices

And ointments.

On the Sabbath,

They rested

According to the commandment.”

ὑποστρέψασαι δὲ ἡτοίμασαν ἀρώματα καὶ μύρα. Καὶ τὸ μὲν σάββατον ἡσύχασαν κατὰ τὴν ἐντολήν,

Only Luke uniquely said that the women returned (ὑποστρέψασαι).  They prepared spices and ointments (δὲ ἡτοίμασαν ἀρώματα καὶ μύρα).  However, as good observant Jews, they rested on the Sabbath (Καὶ τὸ μὲν σάββατον ἡσύχασαν), according to the commandments (κατὰ τὴν ἐντολήν).  Spices and ointments will show up when they go to the tomb in the other canonical gospel stories.  What would you prepare to visit a gravesite?

The women watch (Lk 23:55-23:55)

“The women

Who had come

With Jesus

From Galilee


They saw the tomb,

And how his body

Was laid.”

Κατακολουθήσασαι δὲ αἱ γυναῖκες, αἵτινες ἦσαν συνεληλυθυῖαι ἐκ τῆς Γαλιλαίας αὐτῷ, ἐθεάσαντο τὸ μνημεῖον καὶ ὡς ἐτέθη τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ,

Luke said that the women who had come from Galilee with Jesus (δὲ αἱ γυναῖκες, αἵτινες ἦσαν συνεληλυθυῖαι ἐκ τῆς Γαλιλαίας αὐτῷ) followed Joseph (Κατακολουθήσασαι).  They saw the tomb (ἐθεάσαντο τὸ μνημεῖον), and how the body of Jesus was laid (καὶ ὡς ἐτέθη τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ).  There was no mention of the names of any of these women.  In fact, there is no indication of any women at the tomb in John, chapter 19.  However, Mark, chapter 15:47, said that Mary Magdalene (ἡ δὲ Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ) and Mary, the mother of Joseph (καὶ Μαρία ἡ Ἰωσῆτος) saw where the body was laid (ἐθεώρουν ποῦ τέθειται).  Matthew, chapter 27:61, said that Mary Magdalene (Ἦν δὲ ἐκεῖ Μαριὰμ ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ) and the other Mary (καὶ ἡ ἄλλη Μαρία) were there, sitting opposite of the tomb (καθήμεναι ἀπέναντι τοῦ τάφου).  Thus, these women from Galilee, particularly Mary Magdalene, knew where Jesus was buried.  Have you ever watched a burial service?