“Some of the Pharisees
In the crowd
Said to Jesus.
Order your disciples
καί τινες τῶν Φαρισαίων ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν Διδάσκαλε, ἐπιτίμησον τοῖς μαθηταῖς σου.
Only Luke mentioned this problem with the Pharisees. Some of the Pharisees (καί τινες τῶν Φαρισαίων) who were in the crowd (ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου) spoke to Jesus (εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν), calling him teacher (Διδάσκαλε). They asked him to contain, rebuke, or order his disciples to stop (ἐπιτίμησον τοῖς μαθηταῖς σου) with their shouts. Notice that Luke mentioned that these Pharisees were in the crowd with his disciples. They also were respectful, calling Jesus a teacher. However, they wanted his disciples to stop this public display of affection for Jesus. They felt that only Jesus could put an end to this boisterous celebration. Have you ever been to an outdoor religious celebration?
“The crowds said.
Is the coming king
In the name of the Lord!
Peace in heaven!
Glory in the highest heaven!’”
λέγοντες Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος, ὁ Βασιλεὺς ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου· ἐν οὐρανῷ εἰρήνη καὶ δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις.
Luke indicated that the crowds said (λέγοντες) that blessed was the coming king (ὁ ἐρχόμενος, ὁ Βασιλεὺς) in the name of the Lord (ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου·)! Peace in heaven (ν οὐρανῷ εἰρήνη)! Glory in the highest heaven (ν οὐρανῷ εἰρήνη)! This was high praise for Jesus. He was the king coming in the name of the Lord so that there would be peace in heaven and glory in the highest heaven. Matthew, chapter 21:9, and Mark, chapter 11:9-10, are similar, while John, chapter 12:13, is closer to Luke, but with slight differences. Mark said that they were all shouting out “Hosanna” (Ὡσαννὰ)!” Jesus was the blessed one who came in the name of the Lord (Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου). Mark said that they were shouting blessed is the coming kingdom (Εὐλογημένη ἡ ἐρχομένη βασιλεία) of our ancestor or father David (οῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Δαυείδ). He did not actually call Jesus the son of David, as Matthew did. These hosannas should reach to the highest heaven (Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις). Matthew indicated that they were all shouting out (ἔκραζον λέγοντες) Hosanna to the Son of David (Ὡσαννὰ τῷ υἱῷ Δαυείδ)! He was the blessed one who came in the name of the Lord (Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου). These hosannas should reach to the highest heaven (Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις). Hosanna was a Hebrew term of praise asking God to save them. This saying came from the Hallel chants that was used in the Passover celebration, based on Psalm 118:26. Later it became part of the Roman Catholic “Sanctus” chant in the Eucharistic celebration. This event has become the great Palm Sunday celebration, the triumphant entrance of Jesus into Jerusalem. Actually, only John, chapter 12:13, called these palm branches. John repeated what Luke had said. Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the Lord! Peace in heaven! Glory in the highest heaven! He, like Luke here, did not have any Hosannas in this praise of Jesus. Do you like the term and song “Hosanna”?
“As Jesus was now approaching
The Mount of Olives,
The whole multitude
Of the disciples
To praise God joyfully
With a loud voice
For all the deeds
That they had seen.”
ἐγγίζοντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἤδη πρὸς τῇ καταβάσει τοῦ ὄρους τῶν Ἐλαιῶν ἤρξαντο ἅπαν τὸ πλῆθος τῶν μαθητῶν χαίροντες αἰνεῖν τὸν Θεὸν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ περὶ πασῶν ὧν εἶδον δυνάμεων,
Luke said that as Jesus was now approaching the path descending down (ἐγγίζοντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἤδη πρὸς τῇ καταβάσει) from the Mount of Olives (τοῦ ὄρους τῶν Ἐλαιῶν), the whole multitude of the disciples began (ἤρξαντο ἅπαν τὸ πλῆθος τῶν μαθητῶν) to praise God joyfully (χαίροντες αἰνεῖν τὸν Θεὸν) with a loud voice (φωνῇ μεγάλῃ) for all the deeds of power that they had seen (περὶ πασῶν ὧν εἶδον δυνάμεων). This is a unique use of the word, καταβάσει that means descent. Luke was the only writer who said that it was this descent of the Mount of Olives where all this took place. He also mentioned that only his disciples who was praising Jesus for all that he had done. Both Matthew, chapter 21:9, and Mark, chapter 11:8-9, are very similar but with slight differences. Mark said that the crowds or the people were in front of (οἱ προάγοντες) and behind Jesus (καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες). They were all shouting out (ἔκραζον). Matthew said that the crowds were in front of him and behind him (οἱ δὲ ὄχλοι οἱ προάγοντες αὐτὸν καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες), as they were all shouting out (ἔκραζον). John, chapter 12:13, on the other hand, simply said that they were shouting out. Have you ever been in a crowd that was shouting out things?
“As Jesus rode along,
People kept spreading
On the road.”
πορευομένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ὑπεστρώννυον τὰ ἱμάτια ἑαυτῶν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ.
Luke said that as Jesus rode (πορευομένου δὲ αὐτοῦ) along the road on this colt, people kept spreading their cloaks (ὑπεστρώννυον τὰ ἱμάτια ἑαυτῶν) on the road (ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ). Once again, the word ὑπεστρώννυον, that means to spread under, was unique to Luke, and not found elsewhere in the Greek biblical literature. However, both Matthew, chapter 21:8, and Mark, chapter 11:8 were more similar to each other than to Luke. They added the idea of branches on the road that was not here in Luke. Mark said that many people (καὶ πολλοὶ) spread out their outer garments, cloaks, or coats on the road (τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν ἔστρωσαν εἰς τὴν ὁδόν). Meanwhile, others were cutting down leafy branches from the surrounding fields (ἄλλοι δὲ στιβάδας, κόψαντες ἐκ τῶν ἀγρῶν), also spreading out these branches on the road. Matthew emphasized the large crowds. He said that a very large crowd of people (ὁ δὲ πλεῖστος ὄχλος) spread out their outer garments or coats on the road (ἔστρωσαν ἑαυτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ,). Meanwhile, others were cutting down branches from the surrounding trees (ἄλλοι δὲ ἔκοπτον κλάδους ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων). They also spread out these branches on the road (καὶ ἐστρώννυον ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ). This idea of laying garments on the road can be found in 2 Kings, chapter 9:13, to protect the feet of the king. Clearly, this was an attempt to connect Jesus with the Davidic kingship. Was Jesus to be the new king of Israel as a son of David? This event has become the basis for the great Palm Sunday celebration, the triumphant entrance of Jesus into Jerusalem. Actually, only John, chapter 12:13, called these palm branches. Do you like the palms on Palm Sunday?
“Then they brought
On the colt.
They set Jesus
On the colt.”
καὶ ἤγαγον αὐτὸν πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν, καὶ ἐπιρίψαντες αὐτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια ἐπὶ τὸν πῶλον ἐπεβίβασαν τὸν Ἰησοῦν.
Luke indicated that they two disciples brought the colt to Jesus (καὶ ἤγαγον αὐτὸν πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν). They threw their cloaks on the colt (καὶ ἐπιρίψαντες αὐτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια ἐπὶ τὸν πῶλον). They then set Jesus on the colt (ἐπεβίβασαν τὸν Ἰησοῦν). Both Matthew, chapter 21:7, and Mark, chapter 11:7, are similar. Mark said that the two disciples brought or led this colt (καὶ φέρουσιν τὸν πῶλον) back to Jesus (πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν). They placed their outer garments, cloaks, or coats on this colt (καὶ ἐπιβάλλουσιν αὐτῷ τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν). Then Jesus sat on the colt (καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν). Jesus had an animal to ride on. In Matthew, they put their outer garments or coats on them (καὶ ἐπέθηκαν ἐπ’ αὐτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια). Then Jesus sat on them (καὶ ἐπεκάθισεν ἐπάνω αὐτῶν). This is where the two animals concept falls apart, since Jesus could not sit on two animals at the same time. Thus, the Mark and Luke stories and the prophet Zechariah are right about one young colt donkey, not a donkey and a colt. Jesus was ready for his grand entrance into Jerusalem. How would you prepare for a great entrance?
‘The Lord needs it.’”
οἱ δὲ εἶπαν ὅτι Ὁ Κύριος αὐτοῦ χρείαν ἔχει.
Luke indicated that their response (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν) was simple and precise. “The Lord needs it (Ὁ Κύριος αὐτοῦ χρείαν ἔχει).” Was this some sort of secret password to show who they were? This is similar to Mark, chapter 11:6, where Mark said that the response of these two disciples was what they had been prepared to say. They told these bystanders (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτοῖς) what Jesus had told them to say (καθὼς εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς). Thus, these people in this town allowed these unnamed disciples to take the colt with them (καὶ ἀφῆκαν αὐτούς). Mission accomplished! How would these bystanders know about the master?
“As they were untying
Its owners asked them.
‘Why are you untying
λυόντων δὲ αὐτῶν τὸν πῶλον εἶπαν οἱ κύριοι αὐτοῦ πρὸς αὐτούς Τί λύετε τὸν πῶλον;
Luke said that that as these two disciples were untying the young colt (λυόντων δὲ αὐτῶν τὸν πῶλον), its owners or masters asked them (εἶπαν οἱ κύριοι αὐτοῦ πρὸς αὐτούς) why were they untying this colt (Τί λύετε τὸν πῶλον)? This is similar to Mark, chapter 11:5, since Matthew had nothing about this. Mark said that some of the bystanders (καί τινες τῶν ἐκεῖ ἑστηκότων), not the owners, spoke to Jesus’ two unnamed disciples (ἔλεγον αὐτοῖς). They asked them what they were doing (Τί ποιεῖτε)? Why were they untying the colt (λύοντες τὸν πῶλον)? Jesus had told them to expect these kinds of questions. Would you question someone who was taking your animal?
Those who were sent
They found it
As he had told them.”
ἀπελθόντες δὲ οἱ ἀπεσταλμένοι εὗρον καθὼς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς.
Luke indicated that these two sent unnamed disciples (δὲ οἱ ἀπεσταλμένοι) left (ἀπελθόντες) and found things (εὗρον καθὼς) just as Jesus had told them (καθὼς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς). Everything was going according to the plan laid out by Jesus. Matthew, chapter 21:6, and Mark, chapter 11:4, are somewhat similar. Mark indicated that the two disciples went away or departed (καὶ ἀπῆλθον). They did just as Jesus had directed or commanded them to do. They found a colt tied near a door (καὶ εὗρον πῶλον δεδεμένον πρὸς θύραν), outside in the open street (ἔξω ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀμφόδου). Then they untied it (καὶ λύουσιν αὐτόν). Everything seemed to be going according to plan. In Matthew, chapter 21:6, the two disciples went out (πορευθέντες δὲ οἱ μαθηταὶ). They did just as Jesus had directed or commanded them to do (καὶ ποιήσαντες καθὼς συνέταξεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς). They brought the donkey and the colt back (ἤγαγον τὴν ὄνον καὶ τὸν πῶλον) to Jesus. However, Matthew, chapter 21:4-5, preceded this with a quotation from Zechariah, chapter 9:9, one of the 12 minor prophets that lived in the 6th century BCE under Persian rule. This prophet Zechariah had said that the new king would be humble, mild, or gentle, but mounted on a donkey and a colt. However, this was a misreading of the prophet, since Zechariah had spoken of a young colt donkey, not two separate animals. Matthew used this passage to show how Jesus was the expected Israelite king, the prince of peace. Matthew’s intention was clear. Jesus was the expected messiah king. Have you ever misread something?
“If anyone asks you.
‘Why are you untying it?’
Just say this!
‘The Lord needs it.’”
καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμᾶς ἐρωτᾷ Διὰ τί λύετε; οὕτως ἐρεῖτε ὅτι Ὁ Κύριος αὐτοῦ χρείαν ἔχει.
Luke indicated that Jesus told them if anyone asked them (καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμᾶς ἐρωτᾷ) why they were untying this colt (Διὰ τί λύετε), they were to simply say to them (οὕτως ἐρεῖτε) that the Lord needs it (ὅτι Ὁ Κύριος αὐτοῦ χρείαν ἔχει). Both Matthew, chapter 21:3, and Mark, chapter 11:3, are similar with slight differences. Mark indicated that Jesus said that if anyone asked them (καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ) about what they were doing (Τί ποιεῖτε τοῦτο), in this stealing of a young tied up colt, they were to say (εἴπατε) that the Lord needs to have this animal (Ὁ Κύριος αὐτοῦ χρείαν ἔχει). Mark indicated that they also were to say that Jesus would immediately send it back (αὐτὸν ἀποστέλλει πάλιν ὧδε), which was not in the other two gospel accounts. In Matthew, Jesus said that if anyone said anything to them about this donkey stealing (καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ τι), they were to say (ἐρεῖτε) to that person that the Lord needs these animals (Ὁ Κύριος αὐτῶν χρείαν ἔχει), as if that was some sort of clandestine password. Was this a secret disciple of Jesus in this village? According to Jesus, they would immediately let them take both the donkey and the young colt (εὐθὺς δὲ ἀποστελεῖ αὐτούς), even though they had been tied up and belonged to someone else. Matthew was the only one with a donkey besides the colt. Do you have a friend with a secret password?