“Jesus said to them.
‘When you pray,
Your kingdom come!’”
εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς Ὅταν προσεύχησθε, λέγετε Πάτερ, ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου
Luke indicated that Jesus responded to his disciples (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς). He told them how to pray (Ὅταν προσεύχησθε). They were to say Father (λέγετε Πάτερ)! Hallowed or holy be your name (ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά)! Your kingdom come (σου· ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου)! Matthew, chapter 6:9, also had the “Lord’s Prayer,” “The Our Father,” with slightly different variations, perhaps indicating a Q source. However, the text here in Luke is shorter than Matthew, since Matthew had 7 demands or requests of God, but Luke had only 5. The first part of the prayer was about the glory of God himself, the Father. Jesus simply tells them to pray this way. The Greek word for praying προσεύχεσθε means an exchange of wishes. Jesus opened this prayer with a call to their common “our” Father (Πάτερ ἡμῶν) who was in the heavens (ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς). Luke did not have “Our Father who was in heaven,” since that only appeared in the later Byzantine text of Luke, but simply “Father”. The heavenly father was a major theme throughout Matthew. His name should be holy (Ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου), just as in the Hebrew scriptures where the name of Yahweh was holy, especially Psalm 105:1-5. His kingdom should come (ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου). Then Matthew had the unique statement about the will of the Father should be done (γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου) here on earth (καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς), just as it is done in heaven (ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ). Obviously following the will of God, Yahweh, was a common theme of Judaic life. The followers of Jesus would not be exempt from following the will of their heavenly Father. However, Luke did not mention this in his prayer to the Father, except that it was in the later Byzantine text also. Do you know the Lord’s prayer by heart?
To another village.”
καὶ ἐπορεύθησαν εἰς ἑτέραν κώμην.
Luke had a simple solution to this problem in his unique story of Jesus on the way to Jerusalem in Samaria. They simply went on to another Samaritan village that might be more hospitable. Luke said that Jesus traveled on (καὶ ἐπορεύθησαν) to another village (εἰς ἑτέραν κώμην). However, a Byzantine text had Jesus say that the Son of Man (ὁ γὰρ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) had not come to destroy human life (οὐκ ἦλθεν ψυχὰς ἀνθρώπων ἀπολέσαι), but to save it (ἀλλὰ σῶσαι). Thus, this little adventure into Samaria that only Luke described came to an end. Have you ever been in an area where you were not well received?
“But Jesus turned.
He rebuked them.”
στραφεὶς δὲ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς.
However, Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus turned around (στραφεὶς) to these two apostles. He was not going to have any fire from heaven. He rebuked both James and John (δὲ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς). This was not the first or last time that Jesus would be upset with his apostles. A Byzantine text added that Jesus said something to them. He said that they did not know (Οὐκ οἴδατε) what spirit was in them (οἵου πνεύματός ἐστε ὑμεῖς). Do you think that you have ever upset God?
“Jesus sent them out
The kingdom of God
And to heal.”
καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς κηρύσσειν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ ἰᾶσθαι,
Luke said that Jesus sent these 12 apostles out to preach (καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς κηρύσσειν) the kingdom of God (τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ) and to heal people (καὶ ἰᾶσθαι). A Byzantine text added to heal the sick people (τοὺς ἀσθενοῦντας). There was no exact equivalent in the other synoptic stories. Mark did not mention anything about preaching, while Matthew, chapter 10:7, mentioned that they should preach the kingdom of heaven to the house of Israel only. Is preaching important for Christians?
Had been suffering
From flowing blood
For twelve years.
Although she had spent
All that she had
Could cure her.”
καὶ γυνὴ οὖσα ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος ἀπὸ ἐτῶν δώδεκα, ἥτις οὐκ ἴσχυσεν ἀπ’ οὐδενὸς θεραπευθῆναι
This episode about the woman with flowing blood interrupted the story about the synagogue leader and his dying daughter. However, it can be found in Matthew, chapter 9:20, Mark, chapter 5:25, and Luke here. Thus, Mark might be the source. Luke said that a woman had been suffering from flowing blood (καὶ γυνὴ οὖσα ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος) for 12 years (ἀπὸ ἐτῶν δώδεκα). Although she had spent all that she had on physicians (ἰατροῖς προσαναλώσασα ὅλον τὸν βίον), no one could cure her (ἥτις οὐκ ἴσχυσεν ἀπ’ οὐδενὸς θεραπευθῆναι). This phrase about spending all her money on physicians was only in the Byzantine text. Mark, like Luke, who probably followed him, said that she had suffered from flowing blood, rather than hemorrhages. All agree that she had been suffering for 12 years with this bleeding. Mark and Luke had a more elaborate story, about her background. Mark said that she had endured or greatly suffered much under many physicians. Thus, she had spent all her money. Instead of helping her get better, she had actually become worse. She was in a desperate situation. Interesting enough, the word that Matthew used for hemorrhages (αἱμορροοῦσα) is only found there, but nowhere else in the biblical literature. Mark and Luke said that she had flowing blood. All agree that she had been suffering for 12 years with this bleeding. Could you suffer something for 12 years?
“Pray for those
Who abuse you!”
προσεύχεσθε περὶ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς
Luke indicated that Jesus asked his followers to pray (προσεύχεσθε) for those who were abusing or mistreating them (περὶ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς), using the second person plural. There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 5:44, where a Byzantine text added that these followers of Jesus were asked to pray for those who were abusing them (καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς), just like here. These early Christians were asked to pray for people who were taking advantage of them.
Who curse you!”
εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς,
Luke indicated that Jesus said to his followers to bless those (εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς) who cursed them (καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς), using the second person plural. There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 5:44, where a Byzantine text added that these followers of Jesus were asked to bless those cursing them (εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς), just like here. These early Christians were asked to be generous to their enemies and persecutors.