Title (Prov 1:1-1:1)

“These are

The proverbs of Solomon,

Son of David,

The King of Israel.”

This introduction title to proverbs was a later addition to the main sections on the Proverbs of Solomon. However, it sets the tone for the whole work which is really poetic wisdom. This opening introduction clearly places Solomon, the Son of David, and King of Israel as the author as indicated in the stories about Solomon in 1 Kings, chapters 1-11. This adds value and prestige to these proverbs.

Outline of Proverbs

Outline of Proverbs

 

General Title

Title (Prov 1:1-1:1)

Introduction (Prov 1:2-1:6)

The beginning of knowledge (Prov 1:7-1:7)

 

I. Prologue – Recommendation of Wisdom

The wise children listen to their parents (Prov 1:8-1:10)

Watch your companions (Prov 1:10-1:19)

Wisdom cries out in public (Prov 1:20-1:23)

They refuse wisdom (Prov 1:24-1:33)

 

Parental advice (Prov 2:1-2:9)

Wisdom will save you from evil people (Prov 2:10-2:15)

Watch out for the loose woman (Prov 2:16-2:19)

The upright man (Prov 2:20-2:22)

 

Listen to your parents (Prov 3:1-3:2)

Be loyal and faithful (Prov 3:3-3:4)

Trust in Yahweh (Prov 3:5-3:8)

Honor Yahweh (Prov 3:9-3:10)

Accept the discipline of Yahweh (Prov 3:11-3:12)

Wisdom and happiness (Prov 3:13-3:18)

The wisdom of Yahweh (Prov 3:19-3:20)

Keep wisdom (Prov 3:21-3:26)

Treat other people well (Prov 3:27-3:35)

 

Parental wisdom teaching (Prov 4:1-4:9)

Have a long life (Prov 4:10-4:13)

Avoid the wicked (Prov 4:14-4:17)

The two ways (Prov 4:18-4:19)

Keep on the straight and narrow (Prov 4:20-4:27)

 

The loose woman (Prov 5:1-5:6)

Beware of female strangers (Prov 5:7-5:14)

The water fountain (Prov 5:15-5:18)

The wife of your youth (Prov 5:18-5:23)

 

Do not use your property as collateral (Prov 6:1-6:5)

Laziness (Prov 6:6-6:11)

The scoundrel (Prov 6:12-6:15)

Seven ugly vices (Prov 6:16-6:19)

The importance of paternal commandments (Prov 6:20-6:22)

Stay away from the adulterous women (Prov 6:24-6:35)

 

The importance of paternal advice (Prov 7:1-7:5)

The simple one (Prov 7:6-7:9)

The seduction of the prostitute (Prov 7:10-7:20)

The agreement with the prostitute (Prov 7:21-7:23)

The house of death (Prov 7:24-7:27)

 

Lady wisdom speaks (Prov 8:1-8:11)

A description of wisdom (Prov 8:12-8:21)

Creative wisdom (Prov 8:22-8:31)

Listen to instructions (Prov 8:32-8:36)

 

The invitation of wisdom to the banquet (Prov 9:1-9:6)

Scoffers (Prov 9:7-9:12)

The foolish woman (Prov 9:13-9:18)

 

 II.The Grand Collection of Solomon

Title (Prov 10:1-10:1)

The wise child (Prov 10:2-10:5)

The righteous and the wicked (Prov 10:6-10:11)

Hatred (Prov 10:12-10:18)

Use of words (Prov 10:19-10:21)

Blessings of Yahweh (Prov 10:22-10:29)

The lips of the righteous (Prov 10:30-10:32)

 

Integrity (Prov 11:1-11:4)

Righteousness (Prov 11:5-11:9)

City life (Prov 11:10-11:14)

Money (Prov 11:15-11:19)

Crooked minds (Prov 11:20-11:23)

Generosity (Prov 11:24-11:28)

The results of actions (Prov 11:29-11:31)

 

Discipline (Prov 12:1-12:1)

A good person (Prov 12:2-12:3)

The good wife (Prov 12:4-12:4)

The righteous (Prov 12:5-12:11)

Manual labor (Prov 12:12-12:14)

Fools (Prov 12:15-12:16)

Truth (Prov 12:17-12:22)

Clever ones (Prov 12:23-12:25)

The life of righteousness (Prov 12:26-12:28)

 

The lazy ones (Prov 13:1-13:4)

Righteousness (Prov 13:5-13:6)

Rich and poor (Prov 13:7-13:11)

Hope and knowledge (Prov 13:12-13:19)

Good companions (Prov 13:20-13:21)

Inheritance (Prov 13:22-13:25)

 

The wise ones (Prov 14:1-14:3)

Oxen (Prov 14:4-14:4)

Lies (Prov 14:5-14:8)

The wicked (Prov 14:9-14:13)

The perverse simple fools (Prov 14:14-14:19)

The neighbor (Prov 14:20-14:22)

Profit (Prov 14:23-14:25)

Fear of Yahweh (Prov 14:26-14:27)

The ruler king (Prov 14:28-14:35)

 

Gentle tongue (Prov 15:1-15:4)

The fools (Prov 15:5-15:7)

The wicked (Prov 15:8-15:12)

The glad heart (Prov 15:13-15:15)

The good diner (Prov 15:16-15:17)

Hot temper (Prov 15:18-15:19)

The wise child (Prov 15:20-15:23)

Path of life (Prov 15:24-15:25)

The wicked (Prov 15:26-15:30)

Listen to instruction (Prov 15:31-15:33)

 

The role of humans (Prov 16:1-16:4)

The role of Yahweh (Prov 16:5-16:9)

The role of the king (Prov 16: 10-16:15)

The value of wisdom (Prov 16:16-16:17)

Pride (Prov 16:18-16:21)

The pleasant words (Prov 16:22-16:26)

Perverse scoundrels (Prov 16:27-16:30)

Slow to anger (Prov 16:31-16:33)

 

Shared wealth (Prov 17:1-17:5)

Grandchildren (Prov 17:6-17:6)

Fools (Prov 17:7-17:10)

Evil men (Prov 17:11-17:15)

Fools, friends, and family (Prov 17:16-1:17)

The senseless (Prov 17:18-17:20)

The foolish children (Prov 17:21-17:28)

 

The fool (Prov 18:1-18:3)

Words of a fool (Prov 18:4-18: 8)

The strong tower of Yahweh (Prov 18:9-18:12)

The intelligent ones (Prov 18:13-18:17)

Casting Lots (Prov 18:18-18:21)

The good wife (Prov 18:22-18:24)

 

The poor (Prov 19:1-19:7)

Wisdom (Prov 19:8-19:9)

Royal power (Prov 19:10-19:12)

The prudent wife (Prov 19:13-19:14)

Laziness (Prov 19:15-19:17)

Discipline your child (Prov 19:18-19:22)

Fear of Yahweh (Prov 19:23-19:25)

The violent children (Prov 19:26-19:27)

Worthless mocking witness (Prov 19:28-19:29)

 

Wine (Prov 20:1-20:2)

Strife (Prov 20:3-20:6)

Righteous humans (Prov 20:7-20:10)

Yahweh knows (Prov 20:11-20:13)

Business transactions (Prov 20:14-20:17)

Advice (Prov 20:18-20:20)

Estates (Prov 20:21-20:24)

Religious vows (Prov 20:25-20:30)

 

Yahweh controls things (Prov 21:1-21:4)

Evil doers (Prov 21:5-21:8)

Troublesome people (Prov 21:9-21:11)

The righteous (Prov 21:12-21:15)

The results of actions (Prov 21:16-21:18)

Precious treasure (Prov 21:19-21:21)

The wise person (Prov 21:22-21:23)

The proud, the lazy, and the wicked (Prov 21:24-21:29)

The power of Yahweh (Prov 21:30-21:31)

 

Riches (Prov 22:1-22:4)

Be careful (Prov 22:5-22:8)

The generous ones (Prov 22:9-22:13)

Loose woman (Prov 22:14-22:16)

 

 III. The Collection of the Wise

The wise one speaks (Prov 22:17-22:19)

The thirty sayings (Prov 22:20-22:21)

Robbing the poor (Prov 22:22-22:23)

Stay away from the angry ones (Prov 22:24-22:25)

Debt pledges (Prov 22:26-22:27)

False boundaries (Prov 22:28-22:29)

 

Good eating manners (Prov 23:1-23:3)

Fleeting wealth (Prov 23:4-23:5)

Be careful who you eat with (Prov 23:6-23:8)

The fool (Prov 23:9-23:9)

Do not take advantage of others (Prov 23:10-23:11)

Be a good student (Prov 23:12-23:12)

Discipline your children (Prov 23:13-23:16)

Have hope (Prov 23:17-23:19)

Drunkards and gluttons (Prov 23:20-23:21)

Respect your parents (Prov 23:22-23:22)

Truth and wisdom (Prov 23:23-23:23)

Good children (Prov 23:24-23:26)

The prostitute (Prov 23:27-23:28)

The wine drinker (Prov 23:29-23:35)

 

The wicked (Prov 24:1-24:2)

Wisdom and knowledge (Prov 24:3-24:7)

Mischief makers (Prov 24:8-24:10)

The consequences of non-action (Prov 24:11-24:12)

Wisdom and honey (Prov 24:13-24:14)

The evil enemies (Prov 24:15-24:20)

Fear Yahweh (Prov 24:21-24:22)

 

 IV. Another Collection of the Wise

The wicked (Prov 24:23-24:26)

Take care of the fields (Prov 24:27-24:27)

Live with your neighbors (Prov 24:28-24:29)

Badly kept fields (Prov 24:30-24:32)

Sleep (Prov 24:33-24:34)

 

 V.Second Collection of Solomon

King Hezekiah copies (Prov 25:1-25:1)

The role of the kings (Prov 25:2-25:7)

Disputes with neighbors (Prov 25:7-25:10)

The importance of words (Prov 25:11-25:13)

Patience and honey (Prov 25:14-25:16)

Your neighbor (Prov 25:17-25:19)

Be careful of what you do (Prov 25:20-25:22)

Contentious woman (Prov 25:24-25:25)

Lack of self control (Prov 25:26-25:28)

 

Useless actions (Prov 26:1-26:3)

The comparisons of a fool (Prov 26:4-26:12)

The lazy man (Prov 26:13-26:16)

Stay out of trouble (Prov 26:17-26:19)

Whisperers (Prov 26:20-26:22)

Watch your tongue (Prov 26:23-26:28)

 

Do not boast (Prov 27:1-27:1)

Do not praise yourself (Prov 27:2-27:2)

Foolish jealousy (Prov 27:3-27:4)

Odd situations (Prov 27:5-27:7)

Good friends (Prov 27:8-27:10)

Wise and clever (Prov 27:11-27:12)

Pledges (Prov 27:13-27:13)

Contentious wife (Prov 27:14-27:16)

Good consequences (Prov 27:17-27:19)

Death and the fool (Prov 27:20-27:22)

Take care of your farm animals (Prov 27:23-27:27)

 

The wicked (Prov 28:1-28:1)

Just ruler (Prov 28:2-28:5)

The poor (Prov 28:6-28:7)

Inheritance (Prov 28:8-28:10)

The righteous (Prov 28:11-28:13)

The wicked ruler (Prov 28:14-28:17)

A faithful man (Prov 28:18-28:20)

The selfish misers (Prov 28:21-28:28)

 

The righteous in charge (Prov 29:1-29:4)

The righteous man (Prov 29:5-29:7)

The wise man (Prov 29:8-29:11)

The good and the bad king (Prov 29:12-29:14)

Discipline children (Prov 29:15-29:17)

Watch how people say things (Prov 29:18-29:20)

Difficult people (Prov 29:21-29:24)

Trust in Yahweh (Prov 29:25-29:27)

 

 VI. The Words of Agur

Agur (Prov 30:1-30:1)

The weary man (Prov 30:1-30:1)

Stupidity (Prov 30:2-30:3)

The questions (Prov 30:4-30:4)

The word of God (Prov 30:5-30:6)

Lying (Prov 30:7-30:8)

What shall I do? (Prov 30:8-30:9)

Servants (Prov 30:10-30:10)

Four types of sinners (Prov 30:11-30:14)

 

 VII. The Numerical Proverbs

The leech (Prov 30:15-30:16)

Your eyes (Prov 30:17-30:17)

Understanding (Prov 30:18-30:19)

Adultery (Prov 30:20-30:20)

Slaves, fools, and unloved wives (Prov 30:21-30:23)

Four small animals (Prov 30:24-30:28)

The stately strides (Prov 30:29-30:31)

Self discipline (Prov 30:32-30:33)

 

 VIII. The Words of Lemuel

Lemuel (Prov 31:1-31:1)

Be careful my son (Prov 31:2-31:3)

Strong drinks (Prov 31:4-31:7)

Speak out (Prov 31:8-31:9)

 

 IX. Acrostic Poem about the Perfect Woman,

The good wife (Prov 31:10-31:12)

The good wife provides food (Prov 31:13-31:15)

The good wife works hard (Prov 31:16-31:19)

Clothing for the family (Prov 31:20-31:23)

Hard working wife (Prov 31:24-31:25)

Praise for the perfect wife (Prov 31:26-31:27)

Fear Yahweh (Prov 31:28-31:31

Thank you – 23

December 31, 2015

Thank you – 23

 

As 2015 comes to an end, I have just finished blogging the book of Psalms. Every time I finish a book of the Bible, I send a thank you blog. I usually post five blogs a day covering about a chapter or two of the biblical books. So far I have posted 3,690 blogs about the individual paragraphs of the first five books of the Torah, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, as well as the so-called historical books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel, 1 Kings and 2 Kings, 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, Tobit, Judith, Esther, and 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees. I have also finished the Book of Job. I now have finished the 2nd book in the wisdom series, the Psalms. This makes the first 23 books of the Bible that are now complete with a commentary for each paragraph. It has taken me over two years to get this done.

About 300 people have emailed me that they are following this project in some form or another. 105 people receive an email subscription every day. About 15-20 people look at this site every day, but it has reached as high as 363 people on January 19, 2015, which was also the best week with 554 people that week. The best month was February, 2015, with 1,364 people. This past month, November, 2015, 664 people visited this site. There have been over 9,480 hits on this blog since its inception. I just want to thank all of you. For more information about the statistics of this web site, Word Press sent me a yearly compilation that I have published. About 6,800 people from 84 countries visited this web site in 2015.

I realized that 182 of you have left comments, but I have not responded to them. There have been also over 7,031 spam comments. Some of you might want to moderate my comments, which is fine with me. If you want to contact me directly, my email is efinne1540@gmail.com.

Since my last thank you note five months ago, 42 people have sent me emails about this blog site. 15 of you have sent me multiple emails. I want to thank all of you. Here is the list of the 42 people with their email addresses on Word Press. Thank you so very much.

 

Kezia
Glitchy Artist
Julio Lara
TheSeeds4Life
ricardolis22
Victoria B.
America On Coffee
BJ
David Qaoud
Charlie
Theantiramen
DarllMadden
Rakshanda Vyas
Gretiana
breybrey44
Awele Monchie
James Edward Sharp
Beejai
VaSanganyado
Steve Finnell
Stuart M. Perkins
Kosmogonic
Edmond Sanganyado
insideagirlheart
fullofrosesinspirationals
maxgor
aniketsharma12
angelalimaq
Cookingwithoutlimits
Frank Solank
SHUTTHATNEGATIVENOISEOFF!
kosmogonic
Inspiring Postcards
Realmarklandry
 PrayThroughHistory
beautybeyondbones
Santiago
Soren
Heraclitus
compromisedunavailability

 

 

Peace – love – joy

Eugene Finnegan

My understanding of the Psalms

Wow! I finally finished the psalms. It is only fitting that I complete my work on psalms on the last day of 2015. What a great mult-month experience this has been. I reviewd all these individual psalms with all their colorful but sometimes repetitive language. While the richness is unbelieveable, there are some common dominant themes, such as the steadfast love of Yahweh, praise for Yahweh, and help against enemies.

This Book of PsalmsTehillim, hymns of praise, is commonly referred to simply as the Psalms. This is the first book of the Hebrew Ketuvim, the Writings, which is the third section of the Hebrew Bible.  In the Christian Bibles, like the Bible of Jerusalem, Psalms comes after Job in the so-called poetic or wisdom literature.   The English title Psalms is derived from literal translation of the Greek psyalmoi, meaning instrumental music, as these words were accompanied with music.

This biblical book of the Psalms is an anthology of 150 individual Hebrew psalms.  Some have a title or musical indications at the beginning of them. Some are called songs, while others indicate the author or time of usage. When people speak about reading the Bible, they most likely refer to reading these psalms. These psalms have been part of Jewish and Christian worship services for thousands of years. A few psalms are long, but most are short, between 10-15 verses, with quite a few less than 10 verses long.

These psalms are usually identified by a sequence number, often preceded by the abbreviation Ps. The numbering of the psalms differs, mostly by one digit, because of Psalms 9 and 10. Everyone admits that Psalms 9 and 10 were originally a single acrostic poem. However, they have been separated by the Hebrew Masoretic text (600-900 CE), but rightly united by the Greek Septuagint and Latin Vulgate. As usual, the Roman Catholics and Greek Orthodox follow the Greek numbering of the Septuagint (200-132 BCE) and its translation by Jerome (347-420 CE). However, most Catholic modern translations often use the Hebrew numbering.

The Greek Septuaging bible, used in Eastern Orthodox churches, includes Psalm 151.  A Hebrew version of this psalm was also found in theDead Sea Scrolls.  Some versions of the bible used in the Syriac churches in the Middle East, include Psalms 152-155.  There are also the Pslams of Solomon, which are 18 psalms of Jewish Hebrew origin, but they only survive in Greek and Syriac translations. These and other indications suggest that the current Western Christian and Jewish collection of 150 psalms were selected from a wider set of psalms.

Most people consider the psalms the work of King David (1040-970 BCE). Although some titles carry the names of other individuals, the most common title mentioned 73 times was of course “of David.” However, this is only a little less than half of the 150 psalms. 13 of these references to David indicate an explicit incident in his life.  15 others have the title “Songs of Ascent.” Other people named include Asaph (12 times), the Korahites or sons of Korah (11 times), Solomon (2 times), and even Moses (1 time). Still many more have no title. Many titles indicate the use of stringed instruments or choral leaders.

What does it mean to say “of David”? The natural way to understand this is a claim of authorship to David. At minimum it might mean part of his collection of psalms. However, it could also mean ‘to David’ or ‘about David’. Finally, it could be a misguided claim to a Davidic authorship, added by a later editor. In fact, all the titles are later additions. There is some truth in all these views. Many scholars now accept that some psalms or parts of psalms may be by David, but there is no hard evidence for Davidic authorship of any particular psalm. However, the early Christian Greek writers of the New Testament directly attributed at least 6 pslams to David, Psalms 1, 16, 32, 69, 95, and 110.

The composition of the psalms in this Book of Psalms spans at least five centuries. The oldest may be Psalm 29, a hymn to Yahweh’s power in storms, which may have been adapted from an old local Canaanite hymn to Baal. Other psalms are clearly from the post-exilic period. The majority originated in the southern kingdom of Judah and are associated with the Temple in Jerusalem, where they probably functioned as songs during the Temple worship. Exactly how they did this is unclear,

This Book of Psalms is divided into five sections, each closing with a doxology. These divisions were probably introduced by the final editors to imitate the five-fold division of the Torah in the post-exilic period. The psalms are mostly praising or thanking Yahweh, as well as individual or collective supplications, prayers, or laments.

Most psalms are hymns. These are songs of praise for God’s work in creation or in history. They typically open with a call to praise, describe the motivation for praise, and conclude with a repetition of the call. They celebrate the enthronement of Yahweh as king and glorify Mount Zion, God’s dwelling-place in Jerusalem.

There are also many communal laments about some communal disaster.  These laments also have a generic structure. First they address God. Then they give a description of their suffering. There is then usually a curse or condemnation of the person or group responsible for their suffering. They either maintain their innocence or admit their guilt. Then they ask for divine assistance. They trust that God will receive their prayer. Thus they expect a divine response. Usually they end with a song of thanksgiving.  The difference between the individual and communal laments can be distinguished by the use of the first person singular “I” or the first person plural “we.” Individuals lament their own fate. They open with an invocation of Yahweh, followed by the personal lament itself. In particular, they expresses confidence that God will deliver them from evils and their enemies.

The opposite of these individual laments are individual thanksgiving psalms. The psalmist thanks God for deliverance from some personal distress. There are also some royal psalms dealing with the king’s coronation, marriage and battles.  None of them mention any specific king by name. There are also communal thanksgiving psalms, wisdom psalms, and pilgrimage psalms. The poetry of the psalms uses parallelism, a kind of rhyme as its primary poetic device, but most of the psalms are songs and not pure poetry. The individual psalms involve the praise of God, his power, his creation of the world, and his past acts of deliverance for Israel. The psalms envision a world in which everyone and everything would praise God. God in turn would hear their prayers and respond. Worst of all for them was when God hid his face, and refused to respond. Some psalms are called ‘maskil’, meaning enlightened or wise, because they impart wisdom.

Some psalms were originally hymns used on various occasions and at various sacred sites. There is a 15 psalm anthology of the psalms of ascent or pilgrimage. Individual psalms might be understood as narrating something about the life of David or providing instruction. In later Jewish and Christian traditions, the psalms have come to be used as prayers, either individual or communal, as traditional expressions of religious feelings.

Many Jewish people read the Book of Psalms on a weekly or monthly basis. The reading of psalms is viewed in Jewish tradition as a way to gain God’s favor. They are thus often specially recited in times of trouble, such as personal poverty, disease, or physical danger.

The earliest Christians used the Psalms in worship, so that the Psalms have remained an important part of worship in most Christian Churches. Paul and the other New Testament writers often quoted the various psalms in their writings. Over the centuries, Christian monks and nuns have used psalms in their daily prayer life, in what has become known as the liturgy of the hours. New translations and settings of the Psalms continue to be produced today. An individually printed volume of Psalms for use in Christian religious rituals is called a psalter. Greek Orthodox Christians have long made the psalms an integral part of their corporate and private prayers. In their worship service, they would recite all the psalms in a week. Some Christains today say all the psalms during a month.

The Psalms have always been an important part of the Roman Catholic liturgy known as the Holy Office. In the Middle Ages, some laity prayed the Little Office of Our Lady, a shortened version of the Liturgy of the Hours. Until Vatican II (1962-1965), priests recited or read the psalms on a one-week cycle using what was called a breviary. The revised breviary after Vatican II has the psalms distributed over a four-week cycle. Catholic Monastic usage varies widely since some use the monthy cycle while others use the weekly cycle.

The General Instruction of the Liturgy of the Hours (1971), sanctioned three modes of singing or recitation for the Psalms. It can be done directly with all singing or reciting the whole psalm. It also can be antiphonally sung or recited with two choirs or sections of the congregation in alternate reciting or singing the verses. Finally there is responsorial method with a cantor or choir singing or reciting the verses while the congregation sings or recites a response after each verse. The most common method is the antiphonal mode.

With the revision of the Eucharistic liturgy of the Mass after Vatican II, there was a reintroduction of the the singing or recitation of a substantial section of a psalm after the first Reading from Scripture in the Liturgy of the Word. This responsorial psalm, is usually sung or recited.

After the sixteenth century reformation movement, many psalms were set to musical hymns by the reformers, expecially the Calvinists. Martin Luther’s hymn ‘A mighty fortress is our God’ is based on Psalm 46. The first book printed in North America was a collection of psalms, the Bay Psalm Book of 1640. The psalms have been very popular for private devotion among many Protestant Reform groups. Some people still read one psalm and one proverb a day. Anglicans have also used a psalter of psalms in their Book of Common Prayer.

Many musical presentations of the psalms have existed over the years. People like Vivaldi, Mozart, Bach, and Brahms have used psalms for many of their musical works. Contemporay musicians have also used psalms or part of psalms. The musical ‘Gospell’  had music based on the psalms. Thus the biblical psalms are an important part of western culture.

Doxology of praise to Yahweh (Ps 150:3-150:6)

“Praise him

With trumpet sound!

Praise him

With lute!

Praise him

With harp!

Praise him

With tambourine!

Praise him

With dance!

Praise him

With strings!

Praise him

With pipe!

Praise him

With clanging cymbals;

Praise him

With loud clashing cymbals!

Let everything that breathes

Praise Yahweh!

Praise Yahweh!”

This psalm and the whole book of psalms end with the double phrase “praise Yahweh,” another way of saying alleluia, the Hebrew “Hallelujah.” This doxological praise of God explains how this is done here on earth. The various instruments were to be used in praising Yahweh, the trumpet, the lute, the harp, and the tambourine. There was to be dancing with stringed instruments, playing pipes, and clanging cymbals. Everything that breathes should praise Yahweh. This is a fitting end to a great book of praise to God.

Final psalm (Ps 150:1-150:2)

“Praise Yahweh!

Praise God

In his sanctuary!

Praise him

In his mighty firmament!

Praise him

For his mighty deeds!

Praise him

According to his exceeding greatness!”

Psalm 150 begins with the phrase “praise Yahweh,” another way of saying alleluia, the Hebrew “Hallelujah.” Yahweh is to be praised both in his sanctuary and in the mighty heavens. He is to be praised for his deeds and his greatness.

Triumph of Israel (Ps 149:6-149:9)

“Let the high praises of God be in their throats!

Let the two-edged swords in their hands

Execute vengeance on the nations!

Let the two-edged swords in their hands

Punish the peoples!

Let them bind their kings with chains!

Let their bind their nobles with chains of iron!

Let them execute on them

The judgment decreed!

This is glory for all his faithful ones.

Praise Yahweh!”

Psalm 149 ends with the phrase “praise Yahweh,” another way of saying alleluia, the Hebrew “Hallelujah.” This is the triumph of Israel. They will have executed judgment on their enemies with the two edged sword. They will have punished people. They will have bound up the kings and nobles. They will have executed judgment on them. The faithful ones will live in glory. Thus they will praise Yahweh with an alleluia.