“I will give you
That none of your opponents
Will be able
ἐγὼ γὰρ δώσω ὑμῖν στόμα καὶ σοφίαν, ᾗ οὐ δυνήσονται ἀντιστῆναι ἢ ἀντειπεῖν ἅπαντες οἱ ἀντικείμενοι ὑμῖν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that he would give them (ἐγὼ γὰρ δώσω ὑμῖν) words or more precisely a mouth to speak (στόμα) wisdom (καὶ σοφίαν) that none of their opponents (ᾗ οὐ… ἅπαντες οἱ ἀντικείμενοι ὑμῖν) would be able to withstand (δυνήσονται ἀντιστῆναι) or contradict (ἀντειπεῖν). Mark chapter 13:11, and Matthew, chapter 10:20, had a somewhat similar saying of Jesus. Mark indicated that Jesus said that they were to say (τοῦτο λαλεῖτε) whatever would be given to them (ἀλλ’ ὃ ἐὰν δοθῇ ὑμῖν) at that hour in time (ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ). They would not be speaking (οὐ γὰρ ἐστε ὑμεῖς οἱ λαλοῦντες), but the Holy Spirit would be speaking (ἀλλὰ τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον) for them. Matthew, also indicated that Jesus said that they would not be speaking (οὐ γὰρ ὑμεῖς ἐστε οἱ λαλοῦντες), but the Spirit of their Father would be speaking through them (ἀλλὰ τὸ Πνεῦμα τοῦ Πατρὸς ὑμῶν τὸ λαλοῦν ἐν ὑμῖν). Both Mark and Matthew emphasized that the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of the Father, would speak for them and through them, so that they did not have to worry or prepare anything beforehand. Luke never mentioned the Holy Spirit, who otherwise appeared quite often in this gospel, like Mark and Matthew did. Instead, Luke emphasized that Jesus himself would give them important words of wisdom. Have you ever gotten words from the Holy Spirit?
“You know the commandments.
‘Do not commit adultery!
Do not murder!
Do not steal!
Do not bear false witness!
Honor your father
τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, Μὴ φονεύσῃς, Μὴ κλέψῃς, Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς, Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα.
Luke indicated that Jesus said to this ruler that he knew the commandments (τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας). Then he listed a few that were “Do not commit adultery (Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς,)!” “Do not murder (Μὴ φονεύσῃς)!” “Do not steal (Μὴ κλέψῃς)!” “Do not bear false witness (Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς)!” “Honor your father and your mother (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα)!” Thus, Jesus emphasized which commandments he wanted this man to keep. This can also be found in Mark, chapter 10:19, and Matthew, chapter 19:17-19, but slightly different, since Luke and Mark are closer to each other. Mark said that Jesus gave the classic answer for those who wanted to enter eternal life. They knew the commandments or laws (τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας). Follow them! Mark did not have any question about which commandments to follow. Jesus just mentioned some of the commandments. You shall not kill or murder (Μὴ φονεύσῃς)! You shall not commit adultery (Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς)! You shall not steal (Μὴ κλέψῃς)! You shall not bear false witness (Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς)! You shall not defraud (Μὴ ἀποστερήσῃς)! Honor your father (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου)! Honor your mother (καὶ τὴν μητέρα)! All of these are from the Ten Commandments in Exodus, chapter 20:12-16, and Deuteronomy, chapter 5:16-20. Mark added the comment about not defrauding others that was not in Luke. In Matthew, this person asked Jesus which commandments (λέγει αὐτῷ Ποίας) should he follow. Thus, Jesus responded to him (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔφη) directly citing which commandments. You shall not kill or murder (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔφη)! You shall not commit adultery (Οὐ μοιχεύσεις)! You shall not steal (Οὐ κλέψεις)! You shall not bear false witness (Οὐ ψευδομαρτυρήσεις)! Honor your father (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα)! Honor your mother (καὶ τὴν μητέρα)! All of these are the same as in Mark and Luke. However, Matthew added something not in the other two gospel stories. This man was to love or esteem his neighbor as himself (καὶ Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν), that was from Leviticus, chapter 19:18. Do you think that the Ten Commandments are important?
“They will not say.
Here it is!
‘There it is!
The kingdom of God
Is among you.’”
οὐδὲ ἐροῦσιν Ἰδοὺ ὧδε ἤ Ἐκεῖ· ἰδοὺ γὰρ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐντὸς ὑμῶν ἐστιν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that people would not say (οὐδὲ ἐροῦσιν), “Look! Here it is (Ἰδοὺ ὧδε)!” Or “Look! There it is (ἤ Ἐκεῖ· ἰδοὺ)!” Jesus emphasized that in fact, the kingdom of God (γὰρ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ) was among them (ἐντὸς ὑμῶν ἐστιν). This is somewhat similar to Mark, chapter 13:21, and Matthew, chapter 24:23. However, they were concerned about the coming of the Messiah rather than the coming of the kingdom of God. Matthew said that Jesus warned his disciples that if anyone said to them to look because the Messiah Christ was there (τότε ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ Ἰδοὺ ὧδε ὁ Χριστός, ἤ Ὧδε), they were not to believe it (μὴ πιστεύσητε). Mark said that Jesus warned his disciples that if anyone said to them to look because the Messiah Christ was there (καὶ τότε ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ Ἴδε ὧδε ὁ Χριστός), or if they said look, there he is (Ἴδε ἐκεῖ), they were not to believe it (μὴ πιστεύετε). They were not to be misled by rumors about the Christ Messiah. Here in Luke, it was about the kingdom of God and the not the Messiah. More importantly, Jesus insisted here in Luke that the kingdom of God was with them already. Is the kingdom of God among you?
“He prostrated himself
At Jesus’ feet.
He thanked Jesus.
He was a Samaritan.”
καὶ ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον παρὰ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ εὐχαριστῶν αὐτῷ· καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν Σαμαρείτης.
Only Luke has this story about the curing of the ten lepers. Luke indicated that this one cured leper prostrated himself or fell on his face (καὶ ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον) at Jesus’ feet (παρὰ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ). He thanked Jesus (εὐχαριστῶν αὐτῷ). It turns out that he was a Samaritan (καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν Σαμαρείτης). As this town was on the border between Galilee and Samaria, one of these lepers was a Samaritan. Luke once again emphasized the role of a Samaritan. In fact, this Samaritan leper was the only cured leper to return and prostrate himself at the feet of Jesus, thanking him. The others went on their way to see the Jewish priests in Jerusalem for the ritual cleansing. Was this cured leper Samaritan not going to go to the Judean priest for a cleansing anyway, since he would have gone to Mt. Gerizim? Have you ever felt not like part of the group?
“Someone asked him.
‘Will only a few
Εἶπεν δέ τις αὐτῷ Κύριε, εἰ ὀλίγοι οἱ σῳζόμενοι;
Luke uniquely indicated that someone along the way asked Jesus (Εἶπεν δέ τις αὐτῷ), as he traveled, addressing him as the “Lord (Κύριε).” They wanted to know if only a few people would be saved (εἰ ὀλίγοι οἱ σῳζόμενοι)? This was a main concern among apocalyptic people who were concerned about the end times. Will they be left behind? Was salvation for many or just a few? This has been a continuing question among Christians since the very beginning, but emphasized with John Calvin (1509-1564) and around millennium moments. Do you think that many or few people will be saved?
“When the days
To be taken up,
He set his face
To go to
Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ συμπληροῦσθαι τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ἀναλήμψεως αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτὸς τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήρισεν τοῦ πορεύεσθαι εἰς Ἱερουσαλήμ,
Luke said that when the days drew near (Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ συμπληροῦσθαι τὰς ἡμέρας) for Jesus to be taken up (τῆς ἀναλήμψεως αὐτοῦ), he steadfastly set his face (καὶ αὐτὸς τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήρισεν τοῦ) to go to Jerusalem (πορεύεσθαι εἰς Ἱερουσαλήμ). Jesus’ move from Galilee to Judea can also be found in Matthew, chapter 19:1-2, and Mark, chapter 10:1, with Matthew closer to Mark, who said that Jesus left that place, presumably Galilee. He went to the region of Judea and beyond the Jordan. Thus, Jesus moved south towards Jerusalem. However, he traveled on the other eastern side of the Jordan River, so that he did not have to go into Samaria, just the opposite as here in Luke. Mark, like Matthew, emphasized the crowds that gathered around Jesus. Just as in Galilee, Jesus again began to teach the people in Judea. Mark had Jesus teaching the crowds instead of healing these people, as in Matthew. Matthew said that when Jesus had finished saying these things, he left Galilee and went to the region of Judea, beyond the Jordan. Thus, Jesus moved south towards Jerusalem. However, he traveled on the other side of the Jordan River, on the east side of Jordan, so that he did not have to go into Samaria. He definitely was leaving Galilee. Luke was more definitive on where he was going, since he steadfastly set his face towards Jerusalem. Have you ever decided to go some place?
“Jesus said to them.
‘But who do you say
That I am?’
εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς Ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι; Πέτρος δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Τὸν Χριστὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ
Luke indicated that Jesus asked his disciples (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς) who did they say that he was (Ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι)? Peter answered (Πέτρος δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς) that he was the Messiah, the Christ of God (εἶπεν Τὸν Χριστὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ). This same question and response of Peter can be found in Matthew, chapter 16:15-17, Mark, chapter 6:29 and John, 6:69, but all slightly different. Mark said that Jesus was questioning his disciples who was it that they thought or said that he was. Jesus thus put them to the test. This was not about what others said or thought, but about their understanding of Jesus. Who did they think Jesus was? Mark said that Peter replied to the generic question of Jesus immediately. He said that Jesus was the Christ or the Messiah that they were expecting in Israel. Matthew indicated that Jesus asked his disciples who they thought or said that he was. Was he the Son of Man or someone else? Simon Peter replied to the question of Jesus immediately. He said that Jesus was the Christ or the Messiah that they were expecting in Israel. Jesus was the son of the living God, not just merely the son of God. Peter, as the leader of this new group of Jesus followers, asserted this important belief about Jesus. For the first time, Jesus was called the Christ, the Messiah. Here Peter, in the name of the nascent Christian community, proclaimed that Jesus was the Messiah, the Christ. Are the Greek “Christ” and the Hebrew “Messiah” the same? Matthew was the only one who had Peter say that Jesus was the son of the living God. Matthew was also the only one that mentioned the special relationship that Peter had with his Father in heaven. However, Peter gave a strong positive response in all four versions. Matthew also had Jesus respond to Peter, but that was not in Mark or Luke. Jesus said that Simon was blessed, because flesh and blood or humans had not revealed this saying of his, but Jesus’ heavenly Father had done so. Thus, Peter had a special relationship with the Father in heaven. Peter, as the leader of this new group of Jesus followers, asserted this important belief about Jesus. Matthew, more than any of the other gospel writers, emphasized the role of Peter as the leader of the early Christian community, the disciples, and the apostles of Jesus. Who is your human Christian leader?
“Do not condemn!
Then you will not be condemned.”
καὶ μὴ καταδικάζετε, καὶ οὐ μὴ καταδικασθῆτε.
This unique saying of Luke indicated that Jesus continued to expand on not judging others by telling them they were not to condemn others (καὶ μὴ καταδικάζετε). Then they themselves would not be condemned (καὶ οὐ μὴ καταδικασθῆτε). Luke emphasized this mercifulness to a greater degree. Have you ever condemned someone?
“Do to others
As you would have them
Do to you!”
καὶ καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι, ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως.
Luke indicated that Jesus said to his followers to do the same to others (ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως), like they would wish other men to do to them (καὶ καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι). Once again, this was in the second person plural imperative. Matthew, chapter 7:12, has something similar, perhaps indicating a common Q source. This saying is often known throughout the world as the philosophical golden rule. Matthew said that whatever you wanted other men to do to you (Πάντα οὖν ὅσα ἐὰν θέλητε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι), you should do to them the same (οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς). Matthew emphasized that this was already in the Hebrew Torah, the Law and among the various Judaic prophets, while Luke never mentioned the Law and the prophets. Pure and simple, treat other people the way that you would want to be treated.
“Now during those days,
Jesus went out
To the mountain
He spent the night
Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις ἐξελθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ ὄρος προσεύξασθαι, καὶ ἦν διανυκτερεύων ἐν τῇ προσευχῇ τοῦ Θεοῦ.
Luke said that during those days (Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις), Jesus went out to the mountain to pray (ἐξελθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ ὄρος προσεύξασθαι). He spent the night (καὶ ἦν διανυκτερεύων) in prayer to God (ἐν τῇ προσευχῇ τοῦ Θεοῦ). Mark, chapter 3:13, also said that Jesus went up a mountain, much like Moses. Going to a mountain was a way of getting closer to God in the high heavens. Here Luke emphasized the prayerful solitary preparation of Jesus before his decision about the 12 apostles, as he spent the night praying to God. This also brings up the separation between Jesus and God,the Father.