They bowed their faces
To the ground.
But the men
Said to them.
‘Why do you look
For the living
Among the dead?
He is not here.
But he has risen.’”
ἐμφόβων δὲ γενομένων αὐτῶν καὶ
κλινουσῶν τὰ πρόσωπα εἰς τὴν γῆν, εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτάς Τί ζητεῖτε τὸν ζῶντα μετὰ τῶν
νεκρῶν; οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε, ἀλλὰ ἠγέρθη.
that these women were terrified (ἐμφόβων δὲ γενομένων αὐτῶν). They bowed their faces to the ground (καὶ
κλινουσῶν τὰ πρόσωπα εἰς τὴν γῆν). But the
2 men asked them (εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτάς) why they were looking for the living among
the dead (Τί ζητεῖτε τὸν ζῶντα μετὰ τῶν νεκρῶν)? They said that Jesus was not there because he
had risen (οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε, ἀλλὰ ἠγέρθη). John,
chapter 20:13-14, had the 2 men turn into Jesus. Mark, chapter 16:6, remarked that this
man with the white clothes said to the 3 women (ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐταῖς) that they
were not to be afraid or amazed (Μὴ ἐκθαμβεῖσθε). He knew that they were looking for or seeking
Jesus of Nazareth (Ἰησοῦν ζητεῖτε τὸν Ναζαρηνὸν), who had been crucified (τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον). He told them that Jesus had risen (ἠγέρθη). He was not there (οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε). This man told them to look (ἴδε) and see the
place where Jesus had been laid out in the tomb (ὁ τόπος ὅπου ἔθηκαν αὐτόν). Matthew, chapter 28:5-6, remarked that
the angel said to the women (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπεν ταῖς γυναιξίν) to
not be afraid (Μὴ φοβεῖσθε ὑμεῖς). He
knew that they were looking for or seeking Jesus, who had been crucified (οἶδα
γὰρ ὅτι Ἰησοῦν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον ζητεῖτε).
He told them that Jesus was not there (οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε), because he had
risen as he said he would (ἠγέρθη γὰρ καθὼς εἶπεν). The angel of the Lord invited them to see the
place where Jesus had been laid out in the tomb (δεῦτε ἴδετε τὸν τόπον ὅπου ἔκειτο). Despite a variety of messengers, the message
was the same. Jesus was not there,
because he had risen from the dead. Do
you believe that Jesus rose from the dead?
“While they were perplexed
In dazzling clothes
Stood beside them.”
καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἀπορεῖσθαι αὐτὰς
περὶ τούτου καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες δύο ἐπέστησαν αὐταῖς ἐν ἐσθῆτι ἀστραπτούσῃ·
that while these women were perplexed about all this (καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἀπορεῖσθαι
αὐτὰς περὶ τούτου), that suddenly two men (καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες δύο) in dazzling clothes
(ἐν ἐσθῆτι ἀστραπτούσῃ) stood beside them (ἐπέστησαν αὐταῖς). As these women from Galilee were confused or
troubled, these 2 men in dazzling clothes, like angels, were standing in the
tomb to explain everything to them. John,
chapter 20:11-13, also had 2 angels talk to Mary Magdalene in the tomb, much
like the 2 men here in Luke. Mark,
chapter 16:5 said that as the 3 women entered the tomb (καὶ εἰσελθοῦσαι εἰς τὸ
μνημεῖον), they saw one young man (εἶδον νεανίσκον) sitting on the right side
in the tomb (καθήμενον ἐν τοῖς δεξιοῖς).
He was wearing a white robe (περιβεβλημένον στολὴν λευκήν). Thus, these 3 women were astonished or
greatly amazed (καὶ ἐξεθαμβήθησαν) at what they saw. Matthew, chapter 28:2-3, was the only
one to explicitly describe the actions of a single angel at the tomb. Matthew said that an angel of the Lord (ἄγγελος
γὰρ Κυρίου) descended from heaven (καταβὰς ἐξ οὐρανοῦ). He came and rolled back the stone (καὶ
προσελθὼν ἀπεκύλισεν τὸν λίθον), so that he was sitting on this stone (καὶ ἐκάθητο
ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ). He looked like a bright
flash of lightning (ἦν δὲ ἡ εἰδέα αὐτοῦ ὡς ἀστραπὴ) because his clothing was as
white as snow (καὶ τὸ ἔνδυμα αὐτοῦ λευκὸν ὡς χιών). Once again, Matthew was more dramatic
in his descriptions. What would you do
if some angels appeared to you?
“But when they went in,
They did not find
εἰσελθοῦσαι δὲ οὐχ εὗρον τὸ σῶμα
τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ.
Only Luke uniquely said that when
the women went into the tomb (εἰσελθοῦσαι δὲ), they did not find (δὲ οὐχ εὗρον)
the body (τὸ σῶμα) of Jesus, the Lord (τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ). Luke was the only canonical gospel
that explicitly said that the body of Jesus was gone. It became obvious, but these women of Galilee
noticed it before anything else happened.
What would you do if the body you were visiting was gone?
From the tomb.”
εὗρον δὲ τὸν λίθον ἀποκεκυλισμένον
ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου,
that these unnamed women found (εὗρον δὲ) that the stone had been rolled away (τὸν
λίθον ἀποκεκυλισμένον) from the tomb entrance (ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου). John, chapter 20:1, said the stone had
been removed when Mary Magdalene got there.
Mark, chapter 16:3-4, said that there was a discussion about
rolling back the stone as the 3 women had been saying to themselves or talking
to one another (καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἑαυτάς).
They wondered who would roll away the stone for them (ίς ἀποκυλίσει ἡμῖν
τὸν λίθον) at the entrance to the tomb (ἐκ τῆς θύρας τοῦ μνημείου)? This was a legitimate question for these 3
women. However, just like in the other
gospel stories, Mark said that when the 3 women looked up (καὶ ἀναβλέψασαι),
they saw (θεωροῦσιν) that the stone had already been rolled away (ὅτι ἀνακεκύλισται
ὁ λίθος), even though it was very large (ἦν γὰρ μέγας σφόδρα). Matthew, chapter 28:2, was the only
one who had any activity at the tomb. He
uniquely said that suddenly there was a great seismic earthquake (καὶ ἰδοὺ
σεισμὸς ἐγένετο μέγας). Matthew also
uniquely had an earthquake at the death of Jesus, chapter 27:54. Now he had another earthquake at the
resurrection of Jesus. These earthquakes
symbolized that something important was happening. Thus, another problem was solved, since no
one had to move the stone at the entrance to the tomb. Have you ever been to a tomb?
“But on the first day
Of the week,
At very early dawn,
The women came
To the tomb.
They took the spices
That they had prepared.”
τῇ δὲ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων ὄρθρου βαθέως ἐπὶ τὸ μνῆμα ἦλθον φέρουσαι ἃ ἡτοίμασαν ἀρώματα.
Luke said that on the first day of the week (τῇ δὲ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων), at very early dawn (ὄρθρου βαθέως), they came to the tomb (ἐπὶ τὸ μνῆμα ἦλθον). They took with them the spices that they had prepared (φέρουσαι ἃ ἡτοίμασαν ἀρώματα). Who are they? From the preceding verse, they were the unnamed women of Galilee. There is no confusion about the day of the week when the empty tomb was first found. All 4 gospel stories, Matthew, chapter 28:1, Luke, chapter 24:1, John, chapter 20:1, and Mark, chapter 16:1-2, have this visit to the tomb take place in the early morning of the first day of the week, Sunday. Interesting enough the same Greek word was used for the day Sabbath and the week “σαββάτων.” Thus, this would have been the 3rd day since the death of Jesus on Friday. John, chapter 20:1, said that it was Mary Magdalene alone who came to the tomb. Mark, however, mentioned 3 specific women. Mark said that when the Sabbath was over (Καὶ διαγενομένου τοῦ σαββάτου), Mary Magdalene (Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ) and the other Mary (καὶ Μαρία), the mother of James (ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου), as well as Salome (καὶ Σαλώμη) probably the mother of the sons of Zebedee, James and John, came to the tomb. This Salome may have been a sister of half-sister of Mary, the Mother of Jesus. These 3 named women brought spices (ἠγόρασαν ἀρώματα), so that they might go and anoint Jesus (ἵνα ἐλθοῦσαι ἀλείψωσιν αὐτόν). Mark said that this took place very early on the first day of the week (καὶ λίαν πρωῒ τῇ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων) when the sun had risen (ἀνατείλαντος τοῦ ἡλίου). Matthew, chapter 28:1, said that after the sabbath (Ὀψὲ δὲ σαββάτων), as the first day of the week was dawning (τῇ ἐπιφωσκούσῃ εἰς μίαν σαββάτων), Mary Magdalene (ἦλθεν Μαριὰμ ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ) and the other Mary (καὶ ἡ ἄλλη Μαρία) went to see or experience the tomb (θεωρῆσαι τὸν τάφον). Matthew had 2 named women visit the tomb. The idea of visiting a tomb or grave site would not have been out of the question, since this was a common practice at that time. In all these stories, there was either one or more women, no men, who came to the tomb. Only Luke did not mention Mary Magdalene by name, while the others did. Would you get up early in the morning to visit a gravesite tomb?
On the Sabbath,
According to the commandment.”
ὑποστρέψασαι δὲ ἡτοίμασαν ἀρώματα καὶ μύρα. Καὶ τὸ μὲν σάββατον ἡσύχασαν κατὰ τὴν ἐντολήν,
Only Luke uniquely said that the women returned (ὑποστρέψασαι). They prepared spices and ointments (δὲ ἡτοίμασαν ἀρώματα καὶ μύρα). However, as good observant Jews, they rested on the Sabbath (Καὶ τὸ μὲν σάββατον ἡσύχασαν), according to the commandments (κατὰ τὴν ἐντολήν). Spices and ointments will show up when they go to the tomb in the other canonical gospel stories. What would you prepare to visit a gravesite?
how his body
δὲ αἱ γυναῖκες, αἵτινες ἦσαν συνεληλυθυῖαι ἐκ τῆς Γαλιλαίας αὐτῷ, ἐθεάσαντο τὸ
μνημεῖον καὶ ὡς ἐτέθη τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ,
that the women who had come from Galilee with Jesus (δὲ αἱ γυναῖκες, αἵτινες ἦσαν
συνεληλυθυῖαι ἐκ τῆς Γαλιλαίας αὐτῷ) followed Joseph (Κατακολουθήσασαι). They saw the tomb (ἐθεάσαντο τὸ μνημεῖον), and
how the body of Jesus was laid (καὶ ὡς ἐτέθη τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ). There was no mention of the names of any of
these women. In fact, there is no
indication of any women at the tomb in John,
chapter 19. However, Mark, chapter 15:47, said that Mary
Magdalene (ἡ δὲ Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ) and Mary, the mother of Joseph (καὶ Μαρία ἡ Ἰωσῆτος)
saw where the body was laid (ἐθεώρουν ποῦ τέθειται). Matthew,
chapter 27:61, said that Mary Magdalene (Ἦν δὲ ἐκεῖ Μαριὰμ ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ) and the
other Mary (καὶ ἡ ἄλλη Μαρία) were there, sitting opposite of the tomb
(καθήμεναι ἀπέναντι τοῦ τάφου). Thus,
these women from Galilee, particularly Mary Magdalene, knew where Jesus was
buried. Have you ever watched a burial