They sailed to Fair Havens (Acts 27:8)

“Sailing along

The Crete coastline

With difficulty,

We came

To a place

Called Fair Havens,

Near the city of Lasea.”

μόλις τε παραλεγόμενοι αὐτὴν ἤλθομεν εἰς τόπον τινὰ καλούμενον Καλοὺς Λιμένας, ᾧ ἐγγὺς ἦν πόλις Λασαία.

The author of Acts indicated that they sailed along the Crete coastline (παραλεγόμενοι αὐτὴν) with difficulty (μόλις τε).  They came to a place (ἤλθομεν εἰς τόπον τινὰ) called Fair Havens (καλούμενον Καλοὺς Λιμένας), near the city of Lasea (ᾧ ἐγγὺς ἦν πόλις Λασαία) on the island of Crete.  Acts was the only Greek biblical writing that used this word παραλεγόμενοι, that means to sail past or coast or sail along.  Fair Havens and Lasea were only a couple of miles apart, with Fair Havens the port, on the southern side of Crete.  Once again, the author of Acts had joined Paul in his voyage to Rome, as he said, “We sailed along the Crete coastline with difficulty (μόλις τε παραλεγόμενοι αὐτὴν)” and “We came to a place called Fair Havens (ἤλθομεν εἰς τόπον τινὰ καλούμενον Καλοὺς Λιμένας).”  Has anyone in your family been a sailor?

They sailed by Crete (Acts 27:7)

“We sailed slowly

For a number of days.

We arrived with difficulty

Off Cnidus.

The wind was against us.

We sailed

Under the shelter

Of Crete

Off Cape Salmone.”

ἐν ἱκαναῖς δὲ ἡμέραις βραδυπλοοῦντες καὶ μόλις γενόμενοι κατὰ τὴν Κνίδον, μὴ προσεῶντος ἡμᾶς τοῦ ἀνέμου, ὑπεπλεύσαμεν τὴν Κρήτην κατὰ Σαλμώνην,

The author of Acts indicated that they sailed slowly (βραδυπλοοῦντες) and with difficulty (καὶ μόλις) for a number of days (ἐν ἱκαναῖς δὲ ἡμέραις).  They arrived off Cnidus (γενόμενοι κατὰ τὴν Κνίδον).  The wind was against them or would not permit them to go further (μὴ προσεῶντος ἡμᾶς τοῦ ἀνέμου).  They sailed under the lee or shelter (ὑπεπλεύσαμεν) of the island of Crete (τὴν Κρήτην) off Cape Salmone (κατὰ Σαλμώνην).  Acts was the only Greek biblical writing that used these words, βραδυπλοοῦντες, that means to sail slowly, προσεῶντος, that means to permit further or to approach, and ὑπεπλεύσαμεν, that means to sail under or under the lee.  Cnidus or Knidos was a Greek city in southwestern Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey, on a peninsula, near the island of Cos.  Cape Salmone or Cape Sideros or Cape Sidero was a cape at the eastern end of the island of Crete.  They thought that they could pursue their voyage under the shelter of this island.  Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.  Crete is a mountainous island about 100 miles south of the Greek mainland, as the southern border of the Aegean Sea.  Humans have inhabited this island over 130,000 years ago.  Crete was the center of Europe’s first advanced civilization, the Minoans, from 2700 to 1420 BC, who were overrun by the Mycenaean civilization from mainland Greece.  Later, Crete fell under Roman rule.  Once again, the author of Acts had joined Paul in his voyage to Rome, as he said, “The wind was against us (μὴ προσεῶντος ἡμᾶς τοῦ ἀνέμου)” and “we sailed under the shelter of Cape Salmone near Crete (ὑπεπλεύσαμεν τὴν Κρήτην κατὰ Σαλμώνην).”  Have you ever been on a boat with sails?

The Alexandrian ship (Acts 27:6)

“There the centurion

Found a ship

From Alexandria

Sailing for Italy.

He put us on board.”

Κἀκεῖ εὑρὼν ὁ ἑκατοντάρχης πλοῖον Ἀλεξανδρῖνον πλέον εἰς τὴν Ἰταλίαν ἐνεβίβασεν ἡμᾶς εἰς αὐτό.

The author of Acts indicated that there (Κἀκεῖ) the centurion (ὁ ἑκατοντάρχης) found (εὑρὼν) a ship (πλοῖον) from Alexandria (Ἀλεξανδρῖνον) sailing (πλέον) for Italy (εἰς τὴν Ἰταλίαν).  He put them on board that ship (ἐνεβίβασεν ἡμᾶς εἰς αὐτό).  Acts was the only Greek biblical writing that used this word, ἐνεβίβασεν, that means to place on board or embark.  Alexandria was the largest port city in northern Africa.  This was probably a cargo ship bringing wheat and grain from Africa to Rome.  Once again, the author of Acts had joined Paul in his voyage to Rome, as he said “we were put on that ship (ἐνεβίβασεν ἡμᾶς εἰς αὐτό).”  Thus, here in Myra, they got on another ship from Alexandria that was heading to Rome with a cargo of wheat.  So far, Paul and his companions have been treated very nice.  Have you ever had a hard time getting a ship to go where you wanted to go?

They went to Myra (Acts 27:5)

“After we had sailed

Across the sea

That is off Cilicia

And Pamphylia,

We came to Myra

In Lycia.”

τό τε πέλαγος τὸ κατὰ τὴν Κιλικίαν καὶ Παμφυλίαν διαπλεύσαντες κατήλθαμεν εἰς Μύρρα τῆς Λυκίας.

The author of Acts indicated that after (τό τε πέλαγος) they had sailed across the sea (διαπλεύσαντες) that is off Cilicia (τὸ κατὰ τὴν Κιλικίαν) and Pamphylia (καὶ Παμφυλίαν), they came (κατήλθαμεν) to the port at Myra (εἰς Μύρρα) in Lycia (τῆς Λυκίας).  Acts was the only Greek biblical writing that used this word διαπλεύσαντες, that means to sail across or over.  They were probably on this trip for twelve to fifteen days, since this trip would have been about 600 miles.  Once again, the author of Acts had joined Paul in his voyage to Rome, as he said “we came to (κατήλθαμεν)” the port of Myra.  Myra was an ancient Greek town, then a Roman Greek town, then a Byzantine Greek town, then an Ottoman Greek town in Lycia, that became the small Turkish town of Kale, renamed Demre in 2005, in the present-day Antalya Province of Turkey.  It was founded on the river Myros in the fertile alluvial plain between the mountains and the Aegean Sea.  Have you ever been to small sailing villages?

They sailed by the island of Cyprus (Acts 27:4)

“Putting out to sea

From there,

We sailed

Under the shelter

Of Cyprus,

Because the winds

Were against us.”

κἀκεῖθεν ἀναχθέντες ὑπεπλεύσαμεν τὴν Κύπρον διὰ τὸ τοὺς ἀνέμους εἶναι ἐναντίους,

The author of Acts indicated that they put out to sea from Sidon (κἀκεῖθεν ἀναχθέντες).  They sailed under the shelter or lee (ὑπεπλεύσαμεν) of Cyprus (τὴν Κύπρον) because the winds (διὰ τὸ τοὺς ἀνέμους) were against them (διὰ τὸ τοὺς ἀνέμους εἶναι ἐναντίους).  Acts was the only Greek biblical writing that used this word ὑπεπλεύσαμεν, that means to sail under or under the lee of Cyprus.  Once again, the author of Acts had joined Paul in his voyage to Rome, as he said “we sailed under the lee (ὑπεπλεύσαμεν)” of Cyprus.  They went to the right side of island of Cyprus close to the shore of Asia Minor.  Thus, they were protected from the winds that were against them.  Have you ever had bad winds at sea?

The landing at Sidon (Acts 27:3)

“The next day,

We landed in Sidon.

Julius treated Paul kindly.

He allowed him

To go to his friends

To be cared for.”

τῇ τε ἑτέρᾳ κατήχθημεν εἰς Σιδῶνα, φιλανθρώπως τε ὁ Ἰούλιος τῷ Παύλῳ χρησάμενος ἐπέτρεψεν πρὸς τοὺς φίλους πορευθέντι ἐπιμελείας τυχεῖν.

The author of Acts indicated that the next day (τῇ τε ἑτέρᾳ), they landed (κατήχθημεν) at the port of Sidon (εἰς Σιδῶνα).  The centurion Julius (ὁ Ἰούλιος) treated (χρησάμενος) Paul (τῷ Παύλῳ) kindly (φιλανθρώπως τε).  He allowed (ἐπέτρεψεν) him to go (πορευθέντι) to his friends (πρὸς τοὺς φίλους) to be cared for (ἐπιμελείας τυχεῖν).  Acts was the only Greek biblical writing that used this word φιλανθρώπως, that means humanely or kindly, and the word ἐπιμελείας, that means attention or care.  This ship sailed about 70 miles north from Caesarea up to Sidon.  Once again, the author of Acts had joined Paul in his voyage to Rome, as he said “we landed (κατήχθημεν)” at Sidon.  Thus, there will be many details of this trip and where they stopped.  When they landed there, the centurion Julius was very nice to Paul and let him see his friends to take care of him.  So far, this sounds like a nice trip.  Can being arrested be pleasant?

They set sail for Asia Minor (Acts 27:2)

“Embarking in a ship

From Adramyttium

That was about to sail

To the ports

Along the coast of Asia,

We put to sea,

Accompanied by Aristarchus,

A Macedonian

From Thessalonica.”

ἐπιβάντες δὲ πλοίῳ Ἀδραμυττηνῷ μέλλοντι πλεῖν εἰς τοὺς κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν τόπους ἀνήχθημεν, ὄντος σὺν ἡμῖν Ἀριστάρχου Μακεδόνος Θεσσαλονικέως·

The author of Acts indicated that they embarked on a ship (ἐπιβάντες δὲ πλοίῳ) from Adramyttium (Ἀδραμυττηνῷ), that was about to sail (μέλλοντι πλεῖν) to the ports along the coast of Asia (εἰς τοὺς κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν τόπους).  They put to sea (ἀνήχθημεν), accompanied (ὄντος σὺν ἡμῖν) by Aristarchus (Ἀριστάρχου), a Macedonian from Thessalonica (Μακεδόνος Θεσσαλονικέως).  Adramyttium, was an ancient city in Aeolis, in modern-day Turkey. It was located at the head of the Gulf of Adramyttium, near the island of Lesbos.  This ship was headed to the Asia Minor coastal cities.  They set out with Aristarchus, a Macedonian from Thessalonica, who first showed up in chapter 19:29, when he was arrested in Ephesus.  He also was with Paul when they went to Greece and Jerusalem in chapter 20:4 and 21:15-17.  Now, here he was with the author of Acts and Paul on the way to Rome.  He was also mentioned in Colossians, chapter 4:10, and Philemon, chapter 2:4.  Obviously, he was a very close friend of Paul.  Do you have friends who would travel with you when you were arrested?

Paul was handed over to a centurion (Acts 27:1)

“When it was decided

That we were

To sail for Italy,

They delivered Paul

And some other prisoners

To a centurion

Of the Augustan Cohort,

Named Julius.”

Ὡς δὲ ἐκρίθη τοῦ ἀποπλεῖν ἡμᾶς εἰς τὴν Ἰταλίαν, παρεδίδουν τόν τε Παῦλον καί τινας ἑτέρους δεσμώτας ἑκατοντάρχῃ ὀνόματι Ἰουλίῳ σπείρης Σεβαστῆς.

The author of Acts indicated that when it was decided that (Ὡς δὲ ἐκρίθη) they were to sail (τοῦ ἀποπλεῖν ἡμᾶς) for Italy (εἰς τὴν Ἰταλίαν), they delivered Paul (παρεδίδουν τόν τε Παῦλον) and some other prisoners (καί τινας ἑτέρους δεσμώτας) to a centurion (ἑκατοντάρχῃ) of the Augustan Cohort (σπείρης Σεβαστῆς), named Julius (ὀνόματι Ἰουλίῳ).  Acts was the only Greek biblical writing that used this word ἀποπλεῖν, that means to sail away and the word Σεβαστῆς, that means the emperor.  Once again, the author of Acts joined Paul in his voyage to Rome.  Thus, the “we (ἡμᾶς)” had all the details of this trip and where they stopped.  Governor Porcius Festus handed Paul over to the Augustan or Roman cohort led by a Roman centurion name Julius who would bring him to Rome.  Apparently, Paul was able to bring some friends with him, including the author of Acts, on his journey to Rome.  Have you ever gone to see a prisoner in jail?

He could have been freed (Acts 26:32)

“King Agrippa

Said to Governor Festus.

‘This man could have been

Set free

If he had not appealed

To Caesar.’”

Ἀγρίππας δὲ τῷ Φήστῳ ἔφη Ἀπολελύσθαι ἐδύνατο ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος εἰ μὴ ἐπεκέκλητο Καίσαρα.

The author of Acts indicated that King Agrippa II (Ἀγρίππας δὲ) said (ἔφη) to Governor Festus (τῷ Φήστῳ) that this man (ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος), Paul, could have been set free (Ἀπολελύσθαι ἐδύνατο), if he had not appealed to Caesar (εἰ μὴ ἐπεκέκλητο Καίσαρα).  King Agrippa II told Governor Festus that Paul could have been released and set free if he had not appealed to the emperor.  Apparently, once that Paul had appealed to the emperor Caesar, they could not stop the process.  Have you ever tried to appeal a judicial sentence?

Paul has done nothing deserving death (Acts 26:31)

“As they were leaving,

They said to one another.

‘This man has done nothing

To deserve death

Or imprisonment.’”

καὶ ἀναχωρήσαντες ἐλάλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους λέγοντες ὅτι Οὐδὲν θανάτου ἢ δεσμῶν ἄξιον πράσσει ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος.

The author of Acts indicated that as these officials were leaving (καὶ ἀναχωρήσαντες), they said (λέγοντες) to one another (ἐλάλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους) that this man (ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος), Paul, had done (πράσσει) nothing (ὅτι Οὐδὲν) to deserve (ἄξιον) death (θανάτου) or imprisonment (ἢ δεσμῶν).  As these officials were leaving this hearing, they spoke to one another.  They actually repeated what was said earlier by the Roman commander in Jerusalem, Claudius Lysias, when he sent Paul to Governor Felix in chapter 23:29 with a letter, that Paul had done nothing that deserved death or imprisonment.  They all knew that Paul was innocent.  He had done nothing against the Roman empire.  Can prison sentences be arbitrary?