Title

“The Gospel according to Mathew”

 

Τὸ κατὰ Ματθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον

 

What is a gospel?  Who is Matthew?  The English term gospel comes from the Old English ‘godspel.’  There was a musical play with the name “Godspell” that opened on Broadway in 1971.  Like the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον, gospel means good news or good tidings.  This term originally meant the Christian message itself.  However, in the second century, it came to be used for the books where this message was set out.  Thus, the gospels became known as written accounts of the career and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.  This Gospel of Matthew is anonymous, since there is no explicit mention of a named author within the text itself.  This title (Τὸ κατὰ Ματθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον), however was added some time in the second century, perhaps with Papias of Hierapolis (100–140 CE), an early bishop and apostolic father.  The apostle Matthew was among the early followers and apostles of Jesus.  He was a first century Galilean, the son of Alpheus.  As a tax collector he would have been literate in Aramaic and Greek.  His fellow Jews would have despised him because he was seen as collaborating with the Roman occupation force.  What we do know for certain is that the author of this gospel was probably a traditional male Jew, familiar with the technical and legal aspects of Hebrew Scripture.  He wrote in a polished Semitic synagogue Greek style.  Most scholars hold that the Gospel of Matthew was a product of the last quarter of the 1st century, a work of the second generation of Christians, probably sometime between 70-110 CE, or more precisely between 80-90 CE.  The defining event for this community was the Roman destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in 70 CE, during the Jewish–Roman War of 66–73 CE.  The author of this Gospel of Matthew wrote for a community of Greek-speaking Jewish Christians probably located in Syria, just north of Galilee.  Antioch was the largest city in Roman Syria and the third-largest city in the Roman Empire, after Rome and Alexandria.  This is where the term “Christian” was first used.  Thus, it would seem like an appropriate place for Jewish Christians in the second half of the first century.   For practical traditional purposes, I will use the name Matthew as the author of this gospel.

Outline of the Gospel of Matthew

Outline of the Gospel of Matthew

 

I. Prologue

Title

 

1. Genealogy of Joseph

The account of the genealogy of Jesus (Mt 1:1-1:1)

Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Mt 1:2-1:2)

The twin sons of Judah (Mt 1:3-1:3)

The descendants of Perez (Mt 1:3-1:4)

From Ruth to David (Mt 1:5-1:6)

King David (Mt 1:6-1:6)

The kings of Judah from Solomon to the gap (Mt 1:7-1:8)

The kings of Judah up to the Babylonian captivity (Mt 1:8-1:11)

The genealogy during the Babylonian captivity (Mt 1:12-1:12)

The unknown names of this genealogy (Mt 1:13-1:15)

Joseph and his father (Mt 1:16-1:16)

Explanation of the genealogy of Jesus (Mt 1:17-1:17)

Different genealogies

 

2. The virgin birth of Jesus

The conception of Jesus (Mt 1:18-1:18)

The possible divorce (Mt 1:19-1:19)

The dream of Joseph (Mt 1:20-1:20)

The special child Jesus (Mt 1:21-1:21)

The fulfillment of the prophecy of Isaiah (Mt 1:22-1:23)

Joseph wakes up from his dream (Mt 1:24-1:24)

The virgin birth of Jesus (Mt 1:25-1:25)

The birth of Jesus in Bethlehem (Mt 2:1-2:1)

 

3. The visit of the magi

The Magi arrive (Mt 2:1-2:1)

The questions of the Magi (Mt 2:2-2:2)

Herod was annoyed and frightened (Mt 2:3-2:4)

Bethlehem as described by the prophet Micah (Mt 2:5-2:6)

Herod summoned the Magi (Mt 2:7-2:7)

Herod sent the Magi to Bethlehem (Mt 2:8-2:8)

The Magi follow the star (Mt 2:9-2:10)

The Magi find Mary and the child (Mt 2:11-2:11)

The Epiphany (Mt 2:11-2:11)

The Magi go home (Mt 2:12-2:12)

 

4. The flight into Egypt

Another dream for Joseph (Mt 2:13-2:13)

The trip to Egypt (Mt 2:14-2:15)

Fulfillment of prophecy to come out of Egypt (Mt 2:15-2:15)

Herod kills all the two-year old boys (Mt 2:16-2:16)

The fulfillment of the prophecy of Jeremiah (Mt 2:17-2:18)

 

5. Return to Nazareth

A third dream for Joseph (Mt 2:19-2:19)

Joseph is told to return to Israel (Mt 2:20-2:21)

Joseph goes to Galilee (Mt 2:22-2:22)

Joseph goes to Nazareth (Mt 2:23-1:23)

The unique perspective of Joseph

 

II. First narrative -The kingdom of heaven

 

1.The preaching of John the Baptist

John the Baptist (Mt 3:1-3:1)

The message of repentance (Mt 3:2-3:2)

The prophet Isaiah and John (Mt 3: 3-3:3)

Description of John (Mt 3:4-3:4)

People went to John at the Jordan River (Mt 3:5-3:5)

 

2. The Baptism of Jesus

Jesus came to John (Mt 3:13-3:13)

John does not want to baptize Jesus (Mt 3:14-3:14)

Jesus wants to be baptized (Mt 3:15-3:15)

Jesus’ baptism (Mt 3:16-3:16)

The beloved son (Mt 3:17-3:17)

John the Baptist and the Baptism of Jesus

 

3.The temptation in the desert

The temptations of Jesus (Mt 4:1-4:1)

Jesus fasted for 40 days and 40 nights (Mt 4:2-4:2)

The first temptation (Mt 4:3-4:3)

The response of Jesus (Mt 4:4-4:4)

The second temptation (Mt 4:5-4:6)

The response of Jesus (Mt 4: 7-4:7)

The third temptation (Mt 4:8-4:9)

The response of Jesus (Mt 4:10-4:10)

The devil leaves (Mt 4:11-4:11)

The temptations of Jesus

 

4. The return to Galilee

The arrest of John the Baptist (Mt 4:12-4:12)

Jesus goes to Capernaum (Mt 4:13-4:13)

The prophet Isaiah (Mt 4:14-4:16)

Jesus teaches repentance (Mt 4:17-4:17)

 

5.The call of the first disciples

The two brother fishermen, Simon and Andrew (Mt 4:18-4:18)

The call of the first two disciples (Mt 4:19-4:20)

The call of James and John (Mt 4:21-4:22)

 

6. Jesus teaches and heals

Teaching and healing in Galilee (Mt 4:23-4:23)

Famous faith healer in Syria (Mt 4:24-4:24)

Great crowds (Mt 4:25-4:25)

 

III. Second narrative –the evangelical discourse

 

1. The Beatitudes

 The sermon on the mount (Mt 5:1-5:2)

The first beatitude about poverty (Mt 5:3-5:3)

The second beatitude about mourning (Mt 5:4-5:4)

The third beatitude about the meek or the humble (Mt 5:5-5:5)

The fourth beatitude about righteousness (Mt 5:6-5:6)

The fifth beatitude on mercy (Mt 5:7-5:7)

The sixth beatitude on pure of heart (Mt 5:8-5:8)

The seventh beatitude on peacemakers (Mt 5:9-5:9)

The eighth beatitude on persecution (Mt 5:10-5:10)

The grand blessing for the persecuted Christians (Mt 5:11-5:12)

The salt of the earth (Mt 5:13-5:13)

The light of the world (Mt 5:14-5:14)

The value of the lighted lamp (Mt 5:15-5:16)

 

2. The law

The law and the prophets (Mt 5:17-5:17)

The law remains (Mt 5:18-5:18)

All the commandments (Mt 5:19-5:19)

Righteousness (Mt 5:20-5:20)

Do not murder (Mt 5:21-5:21)

Anger and insults (Mt 5:22-5:22)

Offering your gifts at the Temple (Mt 5:23-5:24)

Debts (Mt 5:25-5:26)

Adultery (Mt 5:27-5:28)

The sinning eye (Mt 5:29-5:29)

The sinning right hand (Mt 5:30-5:30)

Traditional divorce (Mt 5:31-5:31)

The divorced woman (Mt 5:32-5:32)

False witness (Mt 5:33-5:33)

Do not swear (Mt 5:34-5:36)

Simple speech (Mt 5:37-5:37)

An eye for an eye (Mt 5:38-5:38)

Turn the other cheek (Mt 5:39-5:39)

Unusual kindness (Mt 5:40-5:42)

Love your enemy (Mt 5:43-5:44)

The heavenly Father (Mt 5:45-5:45)

Perfect love (Mt 5:46-5:48)

 

3. Fasting and prayer

 Piety (Mt 6:1-6:1)

Almsgiving (Mt 6:2-6:2)

Secret charity (Mt 6:3-6:4)

Public prayer (Mt 6:5-6:5)

Pray in secret (Mt 6:6-6:6)

Short prayers (Mt 6:7-6:8)

 

4. The Our Father

 The first part of the Lord’s prayer (Mt 6:9-6:10)

The second part of the Lord’s prayer (Mt 6:11-6:13)

Forgiveness (Mt 6:14-6:15)

Fasting (Mt 6:16-6:16)

Secret fasting (Mt 6:17-6:18)

Earthly and heavenly treasures (Mt 6:19-6:21)

A healthy eye (Mt 6:22-6:23)

Two masters (Mt 6:24-6:24)

 

5. Providence

Do not worry (Mt 6:25-6:25)

The birds do not worry (Mt 6:26-6:27)

Lilies of the field (Mt 6:28-6:28)

Solomon and field grass (Mt 6:29-6:30)

Seek the kingdom first (Mt 6:31-6:33)

Do not worry about tomorrow (Mt 6:34-6:34)

 

6. Judgment

Do not judge (Mt 7:1-7:2)

The speck in the eye (Mt 7:3-7:5)

Be careful with your holy treasures (Mt 7:6-7:6)

Seekers (Mt 7:7-7:8)

You give to your sons (Mt 7:9-7:10)

Pray to your heavenly Father (Mt 7:11-7:11)

The golden rule (Mt 7:12-7:12)

The narrow gate (Mt 7:13-7:14)

False prophets (Mt 7:15-7:15)

Know them by their fruits (Mt 7:16-7:16)

The sound tree (Mt 7:17-7:18)

Cut down the bad tree (Mt 7:19-7:20)

The kingdom of heaven (Mt 7:21-7:21)

Evildoers (Mt 7:22-7:23)

Wise men on a rock foundation (Mt 7:24-7:25)

The foolish ones with a sand foundation (Mt 7:26-7:27)

The crowds were astonished (Mt 7:28-7:28)

The authority of Jesus (Mt 7:29-7:29)

The Sermon on the Mount

 

IV. Third narrative – various miracles

 

1.  Curing the leper

 Great crowds (Mt 8:1-8:1)

The leper (Mt 8:2-8:2)

Curing the leper (Mt 8:3-8:3)

Secrecy (Mt 8:4-8:4)

 

2. Curing the centurion’s servant

The centurion at Capernaum (Mt 8:5-8:5)

The paralyzed servant (Mt 8:6-8:7)

The authority of the centurion (Mt 8:8-8:9)

The great faith of the centurion (Mt 8:10-8:10)

The failure of the sons of Abraham (Mt 8:11-8:12)

The healing of the centurion’s servant (Mt 8:13-8:13)

 

3. Curing others

The healing of Peter’s mother-in-law (Mt 8:14-8:15)

Healing the sick and possessed (Mt 8:16-8:16)

Fulfilling the prophecy of Isaiah (Mt 8:17-8:17)

The great crowds (Mt 8:18-8:18)

The scribe follower (Mt 8:19-8:19)

Jesus is homeless (Mt 8:20-8:20)

The death of a father (Mt 8:21-8:22)

The disciples followed (Mt 8:23-8:23)

The stormy boat ride (Mt 8:24-8:24)

Wake up Jesus (Mt 8:25-8:25)

The response of Jesus (Mt 8:26-8:26)

The power of Jesus (Mt 8:27-8:27)

 

4. Curing the demoniacs

 Jesus meets the two possessed demoniacs (Mt 8:28-8:28)

The demoniacs call Jesus the Son of God (Mt 8:29-8:29)

The demons want to be pigs (Mt 8:30-8:31)

The demonic pigs die in the sea (Mt 8:32-8:32)

The herdsmen in the city (Mt 8:33-8:33)

The people ask Jesus to leave (Mt 8:34-8:34)

 

 5. Curing the paralytic

Jesus goes home (Mt 9:1-9:1)

The paralytic (Mt 9:2-9:2)\

Did Jesus blaspheme? (Mt 9:3-9:4)

Sin and sickness (Mt 9:5-9:7)

The people were amazed (Mt 9:8-9:8)

The call of Matthew (Mt 9:9-9:9)

The tax collectors and sinners (Mt 9:10-9:10)

The Pharisees complain (Mt 9:11-9:11)

Well people do not need doctors (Mt 9:12-9:12)

The citation from Hosea about mercy (Mt 9:13-9:13)

 

6. Fasting

 The disciples of John (Mt 9:14-9:14)

No fasting with the bridegroom present (Mt 9:15-9:15)

Mending cloth (Mt 9:16-9:16)

The right wineskins (Mt 9:17-9:17)

 

 7. Curing the hemorrhages

The visit of the leader (Mt 9:18-9:19)

The woman with the hemorrhage (Mt 9:20-9:21)

Jesus cures the woman of faith (Mt 9:22-9:22)

 

8. Curing the dead girl

 The sleeping girl (Mt 9:23-9:24)

Curing the girl (Mt 9:25-9:26)

 

9. Curing the blind

 The two blind men (Mt 9:27-9:27)

The believing blind men (Mt 9:28-9:28)

Curing the blind men (Mt 9:29-9:31)

 

10. Curing the mute person

The mute demoniac speaks (Mt 9:32-9:33)

The Pharisees question the power of Jesus (Mt 9:34-9:34)

Summary of the activity of Jesus (Mt 9:35-9:35)

Compassion for the sheep (Mt 9:36-9:36)

Laborers for the harvest (Mt 9:37-9:38)

 

 V. Fourth narrative – the apostolic talk

The authority of the twelve disciples (Mt 10:1-10:1)

The list of the first four major apostles (Mt 10:2-10:4)

The list of other twelve apostles (Mt 10:3-10:4)

These twelve apostles were for the Jews (Mt 10:5-10:7)

The work of the apostles (Mt 10:8-10:8)

What to bring with you (Mt 10:9-10:10)

Where to stay (Mt 10:11-10:11)

How to enter a house (Mt 10:12-10:13)

Those not accepting you (Mt 10:14-10:15)

Punishment for that unhospitable town (Mt 10:15-10:15)

Wise simple sheep (Mt 10:16-10:16)

You will be persecuted (Mt 10:17-10:18)

Holy Spirit will speak through you (Mt 10:19-10:20)

Family disputes (Mt 10:21-10:21)

You will be hated (Mt 10:22-10:23)

The teacher and his disciples (Mt 10:24-10:25)

Do not be afraid (Mt 10:26-10:26)

Proclaim it (Mt 10:27-10:27)

Worry about your soul (Mt 10:28-10:28)

The value of sparrows (Mt 10:29-10:31)

Acknowledge Jesus (Mt 10:32-10:33)

Peace or the sword (Mt 10:34-10:34)

Family conflict (Mt 10:35-10:36)

Who is worthy of Jesus? (Mt 10:37-10:37)

Pick up your cross (Mt 10:38-10:38)

Lose your life to find it (Mt 10:39-10:39)

Receive Jesus (Mt 10:40-10:40)

A prophet and the righteous one (Mt 10:41-10:41)

The disciples of Jesus (Mt 10:42-10:42)

 

 VI. Fifth narrative – the mystery of the kingdom of heaven

 

1. John the Baptist

 Preaching to the various towns (Mt 11:1-11:1)

John the Baptist in prison (Mt 11:2-11:2)

The disciples of John question Jesus (Mt 11:3-11:3)

The response of Jesus (Mt 11:4-11:6)

Jesus asks questions about John (Mt 11:7-11:8)

John was more than a prophet (Mt 11:9-11:9)

Old Testament scriptural quotation about John (Mt 11:10-11:10)

The great John the Baptist (Mt 11:11-11:11)

Violence (Mt 11:12-11:12)

John as Elijah (Mt 11:13-11:15)

Childish generation (Mt 11:16-11:16)

Indifference (Mt 11:17-11:17)

Eating and drinking (Mt 11:18-11:19)

 

2. Against the Galilean cities

Preaching against the various towns (Mt 11:20-11:20)

Against Chorazin and Bethsaida (Mt 11:21-11:22)

Against Capernaum (Mt 11:23-11:24)

 

 3. The Father and the Son

 The hidden things from the wise ones (Mt 11:25-11:25)

The relationship of the Father and the Son (Mt 11:26-11:27)

The easy yoke of labor (Mt 11:28-11:30)

 

 4. The Sabbath

Eating on the Sabbath (Mt 12:1-12:1)

The Pharisees react (Mt 12:2-12:2)

The example of David (Mt 12:3-12:4)

The priests in the Temple (Mt 12:5-12:5)

The Lord of the Sabbath (Mt 12:6-12:8)

Jesus goes into the synagogue (Mt 12:9-12:9)

Can you heal on the Sabbath? (Mt 12:10-12:10)

Jesus compares sheep to human beings (Mt 12:11-12:12)

Jesus heals the man’s hand (Mt 12:13-12:13)

The Pharisees conspire against Jesus (Mt 12:14-12:14)

Jesus takes a low profile (Mt 12:15-12:16

 

5. The servant of Yahweh and the devil

The fulfillment of the prophesy of Isaiah (Mt 12:17-12:17)

The servant of Yahweh (Matt 12:18-12:18)

Description of the servant of Yahweh (Matt 12:19-12:21)

Jesus cures the blind and mute man (Mt 12:22-12:22)

The crowds were amazed (Mt 12:23-12:23)

The Pharisees compare Jesus to Beelzebul (Mt 12:24-12:24)

The divided kingdom (Mt 12:25-12:27)

The Spirit of God (Mt 12:28-12:28)

Tie up someone before stealing from them (Mt 12:29-12:29)

For or against Jesus (Mt 12:30-12:30)

The sin against the Holy Spirit (Mt 12:31-12:32)

 

6. The sayings of Jesus

 The tree and its fruit (Mt 12:33-12:33)

The brood of vipers (Mt 12:34-12:34)

The good and bad treasure (Mt 12:35-12:35)

Words will save or condemn you (Mt 12:36-12:37)

 

 7. The signs for this evil generation

 Seeking signs (Mt 12:38-12:38)

The sign of Jonah (Mt 12:39-12:40)

The reaction of the men of Nineveh (Mt 12:41-12:41)

The Queen of Sheba (Mt 12:42-12:42)

The unclean spirit (Mt 12:43-12:43)

The return of the evil spirits (Mt 12:44-12:45)

 

 8. The relatives of Jesus

Jesus’ mother and brothers (Mt 12:46-12:47)

The new family (Mt 12:48-12:50)

 

 VII. The parables

Jesus siting in a boat by the sea (Mt 13:1-13:2)

The parables (Mt 13:3-13:3)

The parable of the sower with lost seeds (Mt 13:3-13:7)

The seeds in good soil (Mt 13:8-13:9)

Why do you speak in parables? (Mt 13:10-13:10)

Jesus explained why he used parables (Mt 13:11-13:13)

The prophecy of Isaiah (Mt 13:14-13:15)

They are the blessed ones (Mt 13:16-13:17)

Explanation about the seeds on the path (Mt 13:18-13:19)

Explanation of the seeds on rocky ground (Mt 13:20-13:21)

Explanation of the seeds among the thorns (Mt 13:22-13:22)

Explanation of the seeds on the good soil (Mt 13:23-13:23)

The good seed (Mt 13:24-13:24)

The weeds among the wheat (Mt 13:25-13:26)

The slaves or servants talk about the weeds (Mt 13:27-13:27)

Separate at harvest time (Mt 13:28-13:30)

The parable of the mustard seed (Mt 13:31-13:32)

The parable of the yeast (Mt 13:33-13:33)

Parables for the crowds (Mt 13:34-13:34)

The prophecy about parables (Mt 13:35-13:35)

The disciples seek an explanation about a parable (Mt 13:36-13:36)

Jesus explains the sower (Mt 13:37-13:37)

Jesus explains the field and the seeds (Mt 13:38-13:38)

Jesus explains the enemy (Mt 13:39-13:39)

Jesus explains the burning of the weeds (Mt 13:40-13:40)

Punishment for the weeds at the harvest end times (Mt 13:41-13:42)

The reward for the righteous (Mt 13:43-13:43)

The hidden treasure and the kingdom of heaven (Mt 13:44-13:44)

Pearls and the kingdom of heaven (Mt 13:45-13:46)

The fishing net and the kingdom of heaven (Mt 13:47-13:48)

The explanation of the parable about the fishing net (Mt 13:49-13:50)

Did they understand the parables? (Mt (13:51-13:51)

The new and the old treasures (Mt 13:52-13:52)

Jesus leaves (Mt 13:53-13:53)

 

 VIII. The Church

 

 1. Hometown boy

The astonishment in his own town (Mt 13:54-13:56)

The family of Jesus (Mt 13:55-13:56)

A prophet without honor in his own country (Mt 13:57-13:58)

 

 2. Herod, Jesus, and John the Baptist

Herod and Jesus (Mt 14:1-14:1)

Herod thinks that Jesus is John the Baptist (Mt 14:2-14:3)

Herod was afraid of John the Baptist (Mt 14:4-14:5)

Herod’s birthday party (Mt 14:6-14:8)

The head of John the Baptist on a platter (Mt 14:9-14:11)

John the Baptist’s disciples bury him (Mt 14:12-14:12)

 

3. The multiplication of the loaves

Jesus was worried (Mt 14:13-14:13)

Jesus heals the sick (Mt 14:14-14:14)

The disciples complain about the crowds (Mt 14:15-14:15)

Give the crowd something to eat (Mt 14:16-14:16)

They only have five loaves and two fish (Mt 14:17-14:17)

The blessing of the five loaves of bread (Mt 14:18-14:19)

The leftovers from the large crowd of five thousand (Mt 14:20-14:21)

 

 4. Walking on water

The disciples leave in a boat (Mt 14:22-14:22)

Jesus prays alone (Mt 14:23-14:23)

The boat in the middle of the sea (Mt 14:24-14:24)

Jesus walks on water (Mt 14:25-14:27)

Peter talks to Jesus (Mt 14:28-14:28)

Peter walks on the water (Mt 14:29-14:30)

Jesus saves Peter (Mt 14:31-14:31)

Jesus is recognized as the Son of God (Mt 14:32-14:33)

 

 5.The healings at Gennesaret

 They go to Gennesaret (Mt 14:34-14:34)

Jesus cured the sick (Mt 14:35-14:36)

 

 6. Traditions

The Pharisees from Jerusalem (Mt 15:1-15:1)

Why do they not wash their hands before eating? (Mt 15:2-15:2)

The response of Jesus (Mt 15:3-15:3)

Honor your parents (Mt 15:4-15:5)

Tradition and hypocrisy (Mt 15:6-15:7)

Isaiah and vain worship (Mt 15:8-15:9)

Hear and understand (Mt 15:10-15:10)

The mouth and defilement (Mt 15:11-15:11)

The Pharisees were offended (Mt 15:12-15:12)

Blind guides (Mt 15:13-15:14)

Peter wanted to understand (Mt 15:15-15:15)

Jesus explains the role of the mouth (Mt 15:16-15:17)

The mouth speaks from the heart (Mt 15:18-15:20)

 

 7. The Canaanite woman

Jesus goes to the coastal cities of Tyre and Sidon (Mt 15:21-15:21)

The Canaanite woman (Mt 15:22-15:22)

Only the lost sheep of Israel (Mt 15:23-15:24)

The Canaanite woman asked for help (Mt 15:25-15:25)

Jesus said he could not feed the dogs (Mt 15:26-15:26)

The dogs eat crumbs (Mt 15:27-15:27)

Jesus said that she had great faith (Mt 15:28-15:28)

 

 8. Jesus heals

The mountain near the Sea of Galilee (Mt 15:29-15:29)

Healing the crowds of people (Mt 15:30-15:31)

 

 9. The Second multiplication of bread

Jesus has compassion on the crowds (Mt 15:32-15:32)

Where will they get food? (Mt 15:33-15:33)

Seven loaves (Mt 15:34-15:34)

Jesus give thanks and distributes the bread (Mt 15:35-15:36)

Four thousand men ate the bread (Mt 15:37-15:38)

Jesus goes to Magadan (Mt 15:39-15:39)

 

 10. The signs

The Pharisees ask for a sign from heaven (Mt 16:1-16:1)

The weather signs (Mt 16:2-16:3)

The evil generation gets the sign of Jonah (Mt 16:4-16:4)

 

 11.The yeast of the Pharisees

The disciples forget bread (Mt 16:5-16:5)

Jesus warns about the yeast of the Pharisees (Mt 16:6-16:6)

The disciples were still worried about the lack of bread (Mt 16:7-16:7)

Jesus reprimands his disciples for their lack of faith (Mt 16:8-16:8)

Jesus reminds them of the multiplication of the loaves (Mt 16:9-16:10)

The yeast of the Pharisees (Mt 16:11-16:12)

 

 12. The role of Peter

 Jesus asks about the Son of Man (Mt 16:13-16:13)

The response of the disciples (Mt 16:14-16:14)

Jesus asked them about himself (Mt 16:15-16:15)

The positive response of Peter (Mt 16:16-16:17)

Jesus rewards Peter for his response (Mt 16:18-16:19)

The Messianic secret (Mt 16:20-16:20)

The future of Jesus (Mt 16:21-16:21)

The conversation between Peter and Jesus (Mt 16:22-16:23)

Take up your cross (Mt 16:24-16:24)

How to save your life (Mt 16:25-16:26)

The Son of Man in his kingdom will come soon (Mt 16:27-16:28)

 

 13. The transfiguration

Jesus and the apostles go up the mountain (Mt 17:1-17:1)

Jesus is transfigured before the three apostles (Mt 17:2-17:2)

Moses and Elijah appear (Mt 17:3-17:3)

Peter wants to set up three tents (Mt 17:4-17:4)

The voice from the cloud (Mt 17:5-17:5)

The adoration of the three apostles (Mt 17:6-17:8)

Jesus asks them to be silent (Mt 17:9-17:9)

 

 14. Elijah

The role of Elijah (Mt 17:10-17:11)

Elijah and John the Baptist (Mt 17:12-17:13)

 

 15. Healing the epileptic

 The man knelt before Jesus (Mt 17:14-17:14)

The disciples could not heal the epileptic (Mt 17:15-17:16)

Jesus heals the epileptic boy (Mt 17:17-17:18)

Why were the disciples unable to heal the epileptic? (Mt 17:19-17:20)

The future of the Son of Man (Mt 17:22-17:23)

 

 16. The temple tax

Do they pay the temple tax? (Mt 17:24-17:25)

Do the sons of the king pay the tax? (Mt 17:25-17:26)

Pay the tax anyway (Mt 17:27-17:27)

 

 IX. Ecclesiastical Discourse

 

 1. True Greatness

 Who is the greatest? (Mt 18:1-18:1)

A child is the greatest (Mt 18:2-18:4)

When you welcome a little child, you welcome Jesus (Mt 18:5-18:5)

 

2. Scandal

 Do not cause children to sin (Mt 18:6-18:6)

Do not tempt people (Mt 18:7-18:7)

Better maimed than eternal fire (Mt 18:8-18:8)

Better blind than eternal fire (Mt 18:9-18:9)

Do not despise the little ones (Mt 18:10-18:10)

 

 3. The lost sheep

 The parable of the lost sheep (Mt 18:12-18:13)

Explanation of the parable of the lost sheep (Mt 18:14-18:14)

 

4. Fraternal correction

The sinning brother (Mt 18:15-18:15)

Let your brother become a gentile (Mt 18:16-18:17)

Binding and loosening (Mt 18:18-18:18)

 

 5. Common prayer

Gather in my name (Mt 18:19-18:20)

How often should I forgive? (Mt 18:21-18:21)

Seventy times seven (Mt 18:22-18:22)

 

 6. The parable of the unforgiving servant slave

Settle accounts with servant slaves (Mt 18:23-18:23)

The servant slave owed ten thousand talents (Mt 18:24-18:25)

The king forgave the debt (Mt 18:26-18:27)

The unforgiving servant slave (Mt 18:28-18:30)

The other slaves were angry (Mt 18:31-18:31)

The unforgiving slave was tortured (Mt 18:32-18:34)

This parable explanation is to forgive your brothers (Mt 18:35-18:35)

 

 X. The coming of the kingdom of heaven

 

 1. Divorce

Jesus goes to Judea (Mt 19:1-19:1)

Large crowds were healed (Mt 19:2-19:2)

Pharisees question him about divorce (Mt 19:3-19:3)

The importance of marriage (Mt 19:4-19:6)

Moses and divorce (Mt 19:7-19:7)

The response of Jesus about divorce (Mt 19:8-19:9)

Why marry? (Mt 19:10-19:10)

Different kind of eunuchs (Mt 19:11-19:12)

 

 2. The children

 The children came forward (Mt 19:13-19:13)

Jesus blessed the children (Mt 19:14-19:15)

 

 3. Wealth

Gain eternal life (Mt 19:16-19:16)

Keep the commandments (Mt 19:17-19:17)

Which commandments? (Mt 19:18-19:19)

No problem there (Mt 19:20-19:20)

Give up your possessions (Mt 19:21-19:21)

The young man walked away (Mt 19:22-19:22)

Hard for rich people (Mt 19:23-19:23)

The camel and the eye of a needle (Mt 19:24-19:24)

Who can be saved? (Mt 19:25-19:25)

All things are possible with God (Mt 19:26-19:26)

 

 4. Rewards

Peter wants to know about the disciples (Mt 19:27-19:27)

The eternal life reward (Mt 19:28-19:29)

The first and the last (Mt 19:30-19:30)

 

 5. The parable of the laborers in the vineyard

Hire people (Mt 20:1-20:1)

The first laborers hired (Mt 20:2-20:2)

The second group of laborers (Mt 20:3-20:4)

The third and fourth group of laborers (Mt 20:5-20:5)

Last group hired (Mt 20:6-20:7)

Pay the day laborers (Mt 20:8-20:8)

The last hired paid first (Mt 20:9-20:9)

The first hired are upset (Mt 20:10-20:12)

Generosity versus fairness (Mt 20:13-20:15)

The simple explanation of the parable (Mt 20:16-20:16)

 

6. The prediction about the passion of Jesus

 On the way to Jerusalem (Mt 20:17-20:17)

Prediction of what is going to happen in Jerusalem (Mt 20:18-20:19)

 

7. Who is first?

 The mother of the sons of Zebedee (Mt 20:20-20:20)

James and John on either side of Jesus (Mt 20:21-20:21)

The difficulties (Mt 20:22-20:22)

Only the Father sets up the seating arrangement (Mt 20:23-20:23)

Ten angry men (Mt 20:24-20:24)

Servant leaders (Mt 20:25-20:27)

The Son of Man will give up his life (Mt 20:28-20:28)

 

8. Healing the blind man

The great crowds at Jericho (Mt 20:29-20:29)

The two blind men ask for mercy (Mt 20:30-20:31)

The healing of the two blind men (Mt 20:32-20:34)

 

XI. The Final ministry in Jerusalem

 

 1. The triumphal entry

Send two disciples from Bethpage (Mt 21:1-21:1)

Get a donkey and a colt (Mt 21:2-21:2)

The Lord needs them now (Mt 21:3-21:3)

Prophecy of Zechariah (Mt 21:4-21:5)

They brought the donkey and the colt (Mt 21:6-21:7)

The crowds welcome the Son of David (Mt 21:8-21:9)

Who is this man? (Mt 21:10-21:11)

 

 2. Jesus in the Temple

The money changers in the Temple (Mt 21:12-21:12)

The prophecy of Isaiah (Mt 21:13-21:13)

The cures in the Temple (Mt 21:14-21:14)

The chief priests were angry (Mt 21:15-21:15)

Praise from the little children (Mt 21:16-21:16)

Jesus goes to Bethany (Mt 21:17-21:17)

 

 3. The fig tree

Jesus was hungry (Mt 21:18-21:18)

Jesus curses the fig tree (Mt 21:19-21:20)

The need for faith (Mt 21:21-21:22)

 

4. The authority of Jesus

Where did Jesus get his authority? (Mt 21:23-21:23)

A question for a question (Mt 21:24-21:24)

The value of the baptism of John (Mt 21:25-21:26)

The timid response (Mt 21:27-21:27)

 

 5. The parable of the two sons

The first son (Mt 21:28-21:29)

The second son (Mt 21:30-21:30)

Which son did the will of his father? (Mt 21:31-21:31)

They did not believe John the Baptist (Mt 21:32-21:32)

 

 6. Parable of the wicked tenants

The absentee land owner of the vineyard (Mt 21:33-21:33)

The tenants beat and kill the landowner’s slaves (Mt 21:34-21:35)

The second group gets killed also (Mt 21:36-21:36)

The tenants kill the landowner’s son (Mt 21:37-21:39)

The landowner came to take back his vineyard (Mt 21:40-21:41)

Citation of Psalm 118 (Mt 21:42-21:42)

The kingdom of God (Mt 21:43-21:43)

The falling cornerstone (Mt 21:44-21:44)

The Pharisees understand the parable (Mt 21:45-21:45)

Try to arrest Jesus (Mt 21:46-21:46)

 

7. The parable of the great wedding feast

Jesus speaks in parables (Mt 22:1-22:1)

The king gave a great wedding banquet (Mt 22:2-22:2)

Invited guests refuse to come to the wedding banquet (Mt 22:3-22:3)

The second invitation to the wedding banquet (Mt 22:4 -22:4)

They refuse the second invitation (Mt 22:5-22:5)

They treat his slaves badly (Mt 22:6-22:6)

The king was angry (Mt 22:7-22:7)

New invitations to the wedding feast (Mt 22:8-22:9)

A man without a wedding garment (Mt 22:10-22:11)

Throw him out of the feast (Mt 22:12-22:13)

The explanation that many are called, but few chosen (Mt 22:14-22:14)

 

 8. Paying tribute to Caesar

Pharisees try to trick Jesus (Mt 22:15-22:15)

Flattering Jesus (Mt 22:16-22:16)

The question about taxes (Mt 22:17-22:17)

The harsh response of Jesus (Mt 22:18-22:18)

The dialogue about the Roman coin (Mt 22:19-22:21)

The Pharisee disciples leave (Mt 22:22-22:22)

 

 9. The question about the resurrection

The resurrection (Mt 22:23-22:23)

The law about marrying the brother of the dead man (Mt 22:24-22:24)

The woman who married seven brothers (Mt 22:25-22:27)

Who is the husband in the resurrection? (Mt 22:28-22:28)

Jesus responds (Mt 22:29-22:29)

No marriage in the resurrection (Mt 22:30-22:30)

The living God of their ancestors (Mt 22:31-22:32)

The crowd was astonished (Mt 22:33-22:33)

 

 10. The great commandment

The Pharisees regroup (Mt 22:34-22:34)

What is the greatest commandment? (Mt 22:35-22:36)

The first greatest commandment (Mt 22:37-22:38)

The second commandment (Mt 22:39-22:40)

 

 11. The son of David

Jesus asks the Pharisees a question (Mt 22:41-22:41)

Is the Christ the son of David? (Mt 22:42-22:42)

Who is the Lord for David? (Mt 22:43-22:45)

No more questions for Jesus (Mt 22:46-22:46)

 

 12. Woe to the Scribes and Pharisees

Jesus speaks (Mt 23:1-23:1)

Do what they say, not what they do (Mt 23:2-23:3)

They tie up heavy burdens (Mt 23:4-23:4)

What the Pharisees wear (Mt 23:5-23:5)

Places of honor (Mt 23:6-23:6)

Rabbi (Mt 23:7-23:8)

No fathers or masters (Mt 23:9-23:10)

Greatness and humility (Mt 23:11-23:12)

Lock people out of heaven (Mt 23:13-23:13)

Shut off heaven (Mt 23:14-23:14)

Converts (Mt 23:15-23:15)

Blind guides (Mt 23:16-23:16)

Blind fools (Mt 23:17-23:17)

Swear by the altar or the gift (Mt 23:18-23:18)

The gift or the altar (Mt 23:19-23:19)

Swear by heaven (Mt 23:20-23:22)

They have forgotten the law (Mt 23:23-23:23)

The gnat and the camel (Mt 23:24-23:24)

The inside and outside of the cup (Mt 23:25-23:26)

Whitewashed tombs (Mt 23:27-23:28)

The tombs of the prophets (Mt 23:29-23:30)

You are like your ancestors (Mt 23:31-23:32)

The serpents (Mt 23:33-23:33)

They will kill the prophets (Mt 23:34-23:34)

The innocent blood (Mt 23:35-23:35)

Coming soon (Mt 23:36-23:36)

O Jerusalem (Mt 23:37-23:37)

Your house is desolate (Mt 23:38-23:39)

 

XII. The end times

 

  1. Predictions about the end times

Jesus leaves the Temple (Mt 24:1-24:1)

The destruction of the Temple (Mt 24:2-24:2)

What is the sign of the Parousia? (Mt 24:3-24:3)

 

 2. The beginning of the great suffering

Do not be lead astray (Mt 24:4-24:5)

The rumors of wars (Mt 24:6-24:6)

The troubled times (Mt 24:7-24:8)

Persecuted for the sake of Jesus (Mt 24:9-24:9)

The betrayal (Mt 24:10-24:10)

False prophets (Mt 24:11-24:11)

Love grows cold (Mt 24:12-24:12)

Endurance (Mt 24:13-24:14)

The importance of Daniel (Mt 24:15-24:15)

Judea (Mt 24:16-24:16)

On the housetops (Mt 24:17-24:17)

In the fields (Matt 24:18-24:18)

Pregnant or nursing (Mt 24:19-24:19)

Wrong times (Mt 24:20-24:20)

The great tribulation (Mt 24:21-24:21)

Short days (Mt 24:22-24:22)

 

 3. The end is coming

False Christs (Mt 24:23-24:24)

Where is the Messiah? (Mt 24:25-24:26)

Son of Man coming (Mt 24:27-24:28)

The darkness in the skies (Mt 24:29-24:29)

The Son of Man on the clouds (Mt 24:30-24:30)

The gathering of the chosen ones (Mt 24:31-24:31)

The parable of the fig tree (Mt 24:32-24:32)

He is near (Mt 24:33-24:33)

This generation (Mt 24:34-24:34)

My words will not pass away (Mt 24:35-24:35)

No one knows the day (Mt 24:36-24:36)

The days of Noah (Mt 24:37-24:39)

Only one taken (Mt 24:40-24:41)

Be ready (Mt 24:42-24:44)

Wise faithful slave (Mt 24:45-24:47)

The wicked slave (Mt 24:48-24:51)

 

4. The parable of the ten bridesmaids

Ten bridesmaids (Mt 25:1-25:1)

Half wise and half foolish (Mt 25:2-25:2)

The foolish bridesmaids (Mt 25:3-25:3)

The wise bridesmaids (Mt 25:4-25:4)

They all fell asleep (Mt 25:5-25:5)

The bridegroom comes (Mt 25:6-25:6)

They all got up (Mt 25:7-25:7)

They need oil (Mt 25:8-25:8)

Not enough oil (Mt 25:9-25:9)

They shut the door (Mt 25:10-25:10)

I do not know you (Mt 25:11-25:12)

You do not know the day (Mt 25:13-25:13)

 

 5. The parable of the talents

A man entrusts his assets to his slaves (Mt 25:14-25:14)

He gave money to his slaves (Mt 25:15-25:15)

One added five more talents (Mt 25:16-25:16)

The second slave added two more talents (Mt 25:17-25:17)

The third slave dug a hole (Mt 25:18-25:18)

The master settles accounts (Mt 25:19-25:19)

The slave with five talents (Mt 25:20-25:20)

The reward for the slave with five talents (Mt 25:21-25:21)

The slave with two talents (Mt 25:22-25:22)

The reward for the slave with two talents (Mt 25:23-25:23)

The slave with one talent (Mt 25:24-25:25)

The rebuke of the slave with one talent (Mt 25:26-25:27)

The punishment of the slave with one talent (Mt 25:28-25:28)

The rewards and punishments (Mt 25:29-25:30)

 

 6. The last judgment

The Son of Man in glory (Mt 25:31-25:31)

The sheep and the goats (Mt 25:32-25:33

The sheep on the right hand (Mt 25:34-25:34)

You took care of me (Mt 25:35-25:36)

When did we take care of you? (Mt 25:37-25:39)

You cared for the least of my brothers (Mt 25:40-25:40)

Depart from me (Mt 25:41-25:41)

You did not take care of me (Mt 25:42-25:43)

When did we not care for you? (Mt 25:44-25:44)

You did not treat the least or lowly people well (Mt 25:45-25:45)

Eternal punishment or reward (Mt 25:46-25:46)

 

 XIII. Passion and Resurrection

 

 1. The plot against Jesus

Jesus spoke to his disciples (Mt 26:1-26:1)

Fourth prediction about the death of the Son of Man (Mt 26:2-26:2)

The chief priests and the elders gather (Mt 26:3-26:3)

The plot to arrest Jesus (Mt 26:4-26:5)

 

 2. The anointing of Jesus at Bethany

Jesus at Bethany (Mt 26:6-26:6)

The woman poured oil on Jesus (Mt 26:7-26:7)

Why waste oil? (Mt 26:8-26:9)

She has done a good thing (Mt 26:10-26:10)

Anointing for burial (Mt 26:11-26:12)

The importance of this woman (Mt 26:13-26:13)

 

 3.The betrayal of Jesus

Judas Iscariot (Mt 26:14-26:14)

Thirty pieces of silver (Mt 26:15-26:16)

 

 4.Preparations for the Passover

Where will the Passover be? (Mt 26:17-26:17)

The house for the Passover meal (Mt 26:18-26:18)

The disciples prepare for the Passover (Mt 26:19-26:19)

The evening meal (Mt 26:20-26:20)

 

 5. The betrayal announcement

Jesus announces the betrayal (Mt 26:21-26:21)

Who will betray Jesus? (Mt 26:22-26:22)

The curse to the betrayer (Mt 26:23-26:24)

Judas speaks out (Mt 26:25-26:25)

 

 6. The Last Supper Eucharist

This is my body (Mt 26:26-26:26)

This is my blood (Mt 26:27-26:28)

The eschatological implications (Mt 26:29-26:29)

 

7. Predicting Peter’s denial

They go the Mount of Olives (Mt 26:30-26:30)

The apostles would scatter (Mt 26:31-26:31)

Jesus was going to go to Galilee (Mt 26:32-26:32)

Peter says he will never desert Jesus (Mt 26:33-26:33)

Jesus warns Peter about his desertion (Mt 26:34-26:34)

Peter is adamant that he would never deny Jesus (Mt 26:35-26:35)

 

 8. Gethsemane

They go to Gethsemane (Mt 26:36-26:36)

Jesus takes his three favorite apostles (Mt 26:37-26:38)

Jesus prays to his Father (Mt 26:39-26:39)

The sleeping apostles (Mt 26:40-26:41)

Second prayer of Jesus (Mt 26:42-26:42)

The second time the apostles were sleeping (Mt 26:43-26:43)

Jesus prays for a third time (Mt 26:44-26:44)

Jesus wakes up his favorite apostles (Mt 26:45-26:46)

 

 9. The arrest of Jesus

Judas arrives (Mt 26:47-26:47)

Judas kisses Jesus (Mt 26:48-26:49)

They seize Jesus (Mt 26:50-26:50)

Someone cuts off the ear of the high priest’s slave (Mt 26:51-26:51)

Put your swords away (Mt 26:52-26:54)

The disciples flee (Mt 26:55-26:56)

 

 10. The Sanhedrin trial

Jesus goes before Caiaphas the high priest (Mt 26:57-26:57)

Peter follows Jesus to the courtyard of the high priest (Mt 26:58-26:58)

Looking for false testimony (Mt 26:59-26:60)

Two witnesses come forward (Mt 26:60-26:61)

The high priest speaks (Mt 26:62-26:62)

Jesus responds (Mt 26:63-26:64)

Blasphemy (Mt 26:65-26:65)

They mock Jesus (Mt 26:66-26:68)

 

 11. Peter’s three denials

The first denial (Mt 26:69-26:70

The second denial (Mt 26:71-26:72)

The third denial (Mt 26:73-26:74)

Peter remembers Jesus’ words (Mt 26:74-26:75)

 

 12. The death of Judas

They plan to kill Jesus (Mt 27:1-27:1)

They deliver Jesus to Pilate (Mt 27:2-27:2)

Judas repents (Mt 27:3-27:4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thank you – 47

February January 28, 2018

Thank you – 47

After less than a month, I have finished my introduction to the New Testament.  Every time I finish a book of the Bible, I send a thank you blog.  I usually post five blogs a day covering about a chapter or less of the biblical books.  So far, I have posted 7,595 blogs about the individual paragraphs of all the 46 books of the Old Testament.  It has taken me over four years to get this done.

Over 575 people have emailed me that they are following this project in some form or another.  151 people receive an email subscription every day.  During the last month of February, 2018, 2,507 people have visited this site, nearly a hundred a day.  The highest day was 208 people on February 19, 2018.  There have been over 34,584 hits on this blog since its inception.  I just want to thank all of you.  Word Press sent me a yearly compilation that showed that about 6,800 people from 84 countries visited this web site in 2015.

I realize that 1,869 of you have left comments, but I have not responded to them.  Some of you might want to moderate my comments, which is fine with me.  If you want to contact me directly, my email is efinne1540@gmail.com.  During this past month, 22 people have commented on this work.  Here is a list of those who sent comments this past month.  Thank you to everyone.

 

Etrafficlane
Kenethgross
Coach Ashield
robrobilliard1
Simonjkyte
Realray
Mrdparrott
Tetiana Aleksina
Azaleaazelia
Skynyrd.com
crypto821304253
Tatiana Ketchum
oneanna65
Travellogbookblog
sovereigntyreport
Karipalli
Margaret from soulfood101blog
The Adventures of Mr. Undersnag
Adrian K.
gabfrab
phoebussol12
 

Peace – love – joy

Eugene Finnegan

The Bible Project itself

Although the original Greek texts had no chapters or verses, I will use the common chapter and verse format found in the Jerusalem Bible, along with the various titles and subtitles of the chapters of this edition.  By reading in a language that is not my mother tongue, I hope to gain a greater comprehension of the texts beyond the common understanding.  I will then write a short summary and commentary about each verse, paragraph, or section that I am reading, using the Greek, the French, and the English versions, along with the various footnotes that these editions of the Bible have provided.  I have subdivided these passages into smaller verses.  For the New Testament, I will also insert the Greek text between the translation and the commentary.  I am going to go through the New Testament Bible, book by book, chapter by chapter, paragraph by paragraph, verse by verse, paraphrasing and commenting on each book of the New Testament.  This is not a task that will be accomplished in a year or two, or maybe ever at all.  However, I set out on this adventure with a basic understanding of the New Testament, as an old man who has spent a lifetime reading and thinking about these writings.  Now, I want to do it in a more comprehensive but sharing way.  I will post 5 blogs a day that will include the translated verse or verses that I am commenting on.  Let the adventure begin!

The tools for my New Testament project

After spending a little over 4 years on the Old Testament, it will be fun to study the New Testament.  I learned a lot about the Hebrew Scriptures.  I am now able to better understand the Jewish background of Jesus.  All my life I have tried to understand the Christian message of Jesus.  As an emeritus professor of religious studies, I began my retirement Bible project at the age of 74 in 2013.  Now in 2018, at age 78, I going to dive into the Greek New Testament aided by reading the Bible in French, La Sainte Bible: traduite en francais sous la direction du L’Ecole Biblique de Jerusalem, the 1961 edition of the Jerusalem Bible that I first studied in 1962.  As a guide to help me with this translation, I will use the New Revised Standard Version of the New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha: An Ecumenical Study Bible Completely Revised and Enlarged, the 1994 edition.  I will also use Novum Testamentum Graece et Latine by Eberhard and Erwin Nestle and Kurt Aland, the 1960 edition, that I used over fifty years ago.  To be more precise, the 1904 Nestle Greek edition is now on line as found at Bible Hub.  To help understand the Greek New Testament text, I will use The Jewish Annotated New Testament of the New Revised Standard Version, edited by Amy-Jill Levine and Marc Zvi Brettler, 2011.  As a further aid, I will use the Bible Concordance, Synopsis Quattuor Evavgeliorum, Locis parallelis evangeliorum apocyrphorum et pratrum adhibitis edidit Kurt Aland, the 1964 edition.  Finally, I will use that invaluable online web site of the Bible Hub. http://biblehub.com/.

Renewed Catholic Church

The Roman Catholic Church was the slowest to change.  Change was considered Protestant, a threat to the institution.  For many the implementation of Vatican II was overwhelming, with a lot of misunderstanding.  A change in form does not mean a change in substance.  The unchanging deposit of faith is one thing, but how to present it is another.  The problem is that today the medium is the message.  The Mystery of the Christian message surpasses the possibilities of formulation.  Real development of understanding is natural.  Guided by the Holy Spirit, the People of God, the Church, has retrieved some of the biblical and ancient traditions of the early Church.  This is not a corruption of faith, but a revival of a rich past engaging the world critically.  The Church is always changing using eternal truths in new expressions.