“No household servant
He will love
He will be devoted
To the one.
He will despise
You cannot serve
Οὐδεὶς οἰκέτης δύναται δυσὶ κυρίοις δουλεύειν· ἢ γὰρ τὸν ἕνα μισήσει καὶ τὸν ἕτερον ἀγαπήσει, ἢ ἑνὸς ἀνθέξεται καὶ τοῦ ἑτέρου καταφρονήσει. οὐ δύνασθε Θεῷ δουλεύειν καὶ μαμωνᾷ.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that no household servant (Οὐδεὶς οἰκέτης) is able to serve 2 masters or lords (δύναται δυσὶ κυρίοις δουλεύειν). This household servant will hate one (ἢ γὰρ τὸν ἕνα μισήσει) and love the other (καὶ τὸν ἕτερον ἀγαπήσει). He will be devoted to one (ἢ ἑνὸς ἀνθέξεται) and despise the other (καὶ τοῦ ἑτέρου καταφρονήσει). They cannot serve (οὐ δύνασθε… δουλεύειν) both God (Θεῷ) and wealth (καὶ μαμωνᾷ). This μαμωνᾷ referred to an old Semitic word for treasures. It is often translated as “mammon,” but means wealth, riches, money, or possessions. This saying of Jesus can also be found in Matthew, chapter 6:24, almost word for word, perhaps indicating a common Q source. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that no one was able to slavishly serve two masters or lords (Οὐδεὶς δύναται δυσὶ κυρίοις δουλεύειν). The word κυρίοις was used for lord, as in Luke. You will hate one (ἢ γὰρ τὸν ἕνα μισήσει) and love the other (καὶ τὸν ἕτερον ἀγαπήσει). You will be devoted to one (ἢ ἑνὸς ἀνθέξεται) and despise the other one (καὶ τοῦ ἑτέρου καταφρονήσει). Therefore, the conclusion was that you could not slavishly serve both God (οὐ δύνασθε Θεῷ δουλεύειν) and money or wealth (καὶ μαμωνᾷ). The choice was yours. The options were clear. You cannot serve both. Would you serve God or wealth?
“You shall love
καὶ τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν.
Luke indicated that the lawyer said that they should love their neighbor (καὶ τὸν πλησίον σου) as themselves (ὡς σεαυτόν), using the second person plural. There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:3, where Mark indicated that Jesus, not the lawyer, replied that the 2nd commandment was like the 1st one. since it was about love. Not only were they to love God, but they were to love their neighbors as themselves. There were no other commandments greater than these 2 commandments of love. Everything was based on the love of God and neighbor. Matthew, chapter 22: 38-39 had Jesus reply also, not the lawyer, that they were to love their neighbors as themselves, since all the commandments of the law and the prophets hung on these two commandments. This second commandment was based on Leviticus, chapter 19:11-18, that has become the basic fundamental cornerstone of Judaism and Christianity. Leviticus further explained the Ten Commandments and your neighbor. They were not to steal or deal falsely with their neighbor. They should not lie, swear, or defraud their neighbor. They were not to keep the wages of a laborer, or revile the deaf or the blind. They should not render an unjust judgment, since they should treat the poor and the great with equal justice. They should not slanderer or profit from the blood of their neighbors. They were not to hate in their heart any of their relatives. They should not take vengeance or bear a grudge, because they should love their relatives and neighbors as themselves. All the commandments of the law and the prophets depended on these two commandments of loving God and your neighbor. Do you love your neighbor?
“But I say to you!
Love your enemies!
Who hate you!”
Ἀλλὰ ὑμῖν λέγω τοῖς ἀκούουσιν Ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν, καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς,
Luke then indicated that Jesus issued a solemn pronouncement (Ἀλλὰ ὑμῖν λέγω τοῖς) that they should listen (ἀκούουσιν). He clearly unambiguously said to love your enemies (Ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν) and do good to those who hate you (καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς). This was a very strong statement that can be also found in Matthew, chapter 5:44, so that it might be from the Q source. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that they were to love their enemies (ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν), word for word as here in Luke. Jesus added that they should even pray for those who were persecuting them (καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς). Perhaps, many of the followers of Jesus at that time were actually being persecuted. They were to do good to those who were spitefully accusing them, hating them, and persecuting them (καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς, καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς, καὶ διωκόντων ὑμᾶς). These early Christians were asked to be generous to their enemies and persecutors, as both Matthew and Luke indicated here. This was a radical statement of love that went beyond loving your neighbor. Love your enemy. Do good to him.
“Blessed are you!
When people hate you!
When they exclude you!
When they revile you!
When they defame you
Of the Son of Man!”
μακάριοί ἐστε ὅταν μισήσωσιν ὑμᾶς οἱ ἄνθρωποι, καὶ ὅταν ἀφορίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ ὀνειδίσωσιν καὶ ἐκβάλωσιν τὸ ὄνομα ὑμῶν ὡς πονηρὸν ἕνεκα τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου
Luke indicated that Jesus said that they would be blessed, happy, and fortunate (μακάριοί ἐστε), when people hated them (ὅταν μισήσωσιν ὑμᾶς οἱ ἄνθρωποι) or excluded them (καὶ ὅταν ἀφορίσωσιν ὑμᾶς) on account of the Son of Man (ἕνεκα τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου), using the second person plural. They would be blessed (μακάριοί ἐστε), when people insulted them (καὶ ὀνειδίσωσιν) or defamed them by calling their name evil (καὶ ἐκβάλωσιν τὸ ὄνομα ὑμῶν ὡς πονηρὸν) on account of the Son of Man (ἕνεκα τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου). There is something equivalent, perhaps from the Q source, in Matthew, chapter 5:11, where Jesus said that they would be blessed (μακάριοί), because they were going to be reviled and insulted for the sake of Jesus Christ. They were going to be persecuted because of Jesus. The early Christians would be attacked on all sides, by their fellow Jews and the various gentile groups, being falsely accused of wrong doing, for following Jesus Christ, the Son of Man.
“We would be saved
From our enemies.
We would be saved
From the hand
Of all who hate us.”
σωτηρίαν ἐξ ἐχθρῶν ἡμῶν καὶ ἐκ χειρὸς πάντων τῶν μισούντων ἡμᾶς,
Luke continued Zechariah’s canticle with an instance on being saved from enemies, another common theme of the Davidic psalms. Zechariah said that they would be saved or have salvation (σωτηρίαν) from their enemies (ἐξ ἐχθρῶν ἡμῶν), from the hand (καὶ ἐκ χειρὸς) of all those who hated them (πάντων τῶν μισούντων ἡμᾶς). This was not about his newly born son, but the Israelites, the sons of David being safe from all their enemies.
“‘The second commandment is.
‘You shall love
There is no other commandment
Greater than these.’”
δευτέρα αὕτη Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. μείζων τούτων ἄλλη ἐντολὴ οὐκ ἔστιν.
There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:39-40, and Luke, chapter 10:27, but in a more condensed version. This was based on Leviticus, chapter 19:18. A further explanation of the commandments in Leviticus ends with this basic fundamental concept of love your neighbor as yourself, which became the cornerstone of Judaism and Christianity. They were not to hate in their heart anyone of their relatives. They should reprove their neighbor, but not take vengeance on him. They were not to bear a grudge, because they should love them as themselves. Mark said that Jesus replied that the 2nd commandment (δευτέρα αὕτη) was like the 1st one about love. Not only were they to love God, but they were to love their neighbors as themselves (Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν). There were no other commandments greater than these 2 commandments of love (μείζων τούτων ἄλλη ἐντολὴ οὐκ ἔστιν). Everything was based on the love of God and neighbor.
Will fall away.
They will betray
They will hate
καὶ τότε σκανδαλισθήσονται πολλοὶ καὶ ἀλλήλους παραδώσουσιν καὶ μισήσουσιν ἀλλήλους·
There is something similar in Mark, chapter 13:12, and in Luke, chapter 21:16, but they mention specific family members who were betraying them. Matthew only has the vague “they” betraying one another. Jesus warned them that many of his followers would fall away, stumble, or be scandalized (καὶ τότε σκανδαλισθήσονται πολλοὶ). They would betray or abandon each other (καὶ ἀλλήλους παραδώσουσιν), even hating and detesting one another (καὶ μισήσουσιν ἀλλήλους). This was a far cry from love your neighbor.