Eats with sinners (Lk 15:2-15:2)

“Both the Pharisees

And the Scribes

Were grumbling.

They said.

‘This Jesus fellow

Welcomes sinners.

He eats with them.’”

 

καὶ διεγόγγυζον οἵ τε Φαρισαῖοι καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς λέγοντες ὅτι Οὗτος ἁμαρτωλοὺς προσδέχεται καὶ συνεσθίει αὐτοῖς

 

Luke uniquely talked about Jesus and his coziness with sinners that upset the Pharisees and the Scribes.  Luke said that both the Pharisees (οἵ τε Φαρισαῖοι) and the Scribes (καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς) were grumbling (καὶ διεγόγγυζον), saying (λέγοντες), that this fellow, Jesus, welcomes sinners (ὅτι Οὗτος ἁμαρτωλοὺς προσδέχεται) and eats with them (καὶ συνεσθίει αὐτοῖς).  Eating with sinners and tax collectors was a form of fellowship.  Perhaps the Pharisees and Scribes were correct in indicating that Jesus was approving their lifestyle.  He was giving tacit acceptance to these sinners and their deeds, scandalizing the people of Israel.  Listening to sinners was one thing.  Eating with them was another thing.  Would you welcome and eat with a public sinner?

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More tolerant for Tyre and Sidon (Lk 10:14-10:14)

“But at the judgment,

It will be

More tolerable

For Tyre

And Sidon

Than for you.”

 

πλὴν Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται ἐν τῇ κρίσει ἢ ὑμῖν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that at the judgment (ἐν τῇ κρίσει), it would be more tolerable (ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται) for Tyre (πλὴν Τύρῳ) and Sidon (καὶ Σιδῶνι), than for Chorazin and Bethsaida (ἢ ὑμῖν), using the second person plural.  Matthew, chapter 11:22, also indicated the same, perhaps because of a common Q source.  Matthew had Jesus utter this solemn pronouncement that the non-Jewish cities of Tyre and Sidon would be more tolerated on the day of judgment than the Galilean towns of Chorazin and Bethsaida.  Jesus was upset at these 2 towns for their lack of repentance, despite his many teachings and deeds there.  Are there certain towns that you do not like?

The curse on Chorazin and Bethsaida (Lk 10:13-10:13)

“Woe to you!

Chorazin!

Woe to you!

Bethsaida!

If the deeds

Of power

Done in you

Had been done

In Tyre

And Sidon,

They would have repented

Long ago,

Wearing sackcloth

And sitting in ashes.”

 

Οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν, οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά· ὅτι εἰ ἐν Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν, πάλαι ἂν ἐν σάκκῳ καὶ σποδῷ καθήμενοι μετενόησαν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that both Chorazin (Οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν) and Bethsaida (οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά) should be cursed.  Jesus said that if the deeds of power or the miracles done among them would have had been done (ὅτι εἰ…ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν) in Tyre (ἐν Τύρῳ) and Sidon (καὶ Σιδῶνι), they would have repented or had a change of heart (μετενόησαν) long ago (πάλαι), wearing sackcloth (ἂν ἐν σάκκῳ) and sitting in ashes (καὶ σποδῷ καθήμενοι).  This is similar to Matthew, chapter 11:20-21, indicating a possible common Q source.  Matthew indicated that Jesus denounced or reproached these various Galilean towns where he had worked his powerful miracles of healing and curing.  Jesus was upset that despite his many miracles, these towns had not repented of their evil ways.  Jesus complained about two particular towns, Chorazin (Χοραζείν), that was about 3 miles north of Capernaum, and Bethsaida (Βηθσαϊδάν), about 5 miles north of Capernaum on the northern tip of the Sea of Galilee.  All these towns were fairly close together.  Jesus’ reproach started with a typical prophetic curse of “woe to you” (Οὐαί σοι), especially used by Isaiah.  Jesus also mentioned the Phoenician Mediterranean cities of Tyre and Sidon that Isaiah, chapter 23:1-12, and many of the other prophets had wailed against.  Jesus said that if these same miraculous deeds had taken place in these two coastal cities, they would have repented in sackcloth and ashes, something that Chorazin and Bethsaida had not done.  What kind of town do you live in?

Jesus said no (Lk 9:55-9:55)

“But Jesus turned.

He rebuked them.”

 

στραφεὶς δὲ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς.

 

However, Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus turned around (στραφεὶς) to these two apostles.  He was not going to have any fire from heaven.  He rebuked both James and John (δὲ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς).  This was not the first or last time that Jesus would be upset with his apostles.  A Byzantine text added that Jesus said something to them.  He said that they did not know (Οὐκ οἴδατε) what spirit was in them (οἵου πνεύματός ἐστε ὑμεῖς).  Do you think that you have ever upset God?

They would not receive Jesus (Lk 9:53-9:53)

“But the people

Did not receive Jesus,

Because his face

Was set

Toward Jerusalem.”

 

καὶ οὐκ ἐδέξαντο αὐτόν, ὅτι τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ἦν πορευόμενον εἰς Ἱερουσαλήμ

 

Now there was a note of discord here.  Luke continued his unique story of Jesus traveling through Samaria, on his way to Jerusalem.  Luke noted that the people of this Samaritan town did not want to receive Jesus (καὶ οὐκ ἐδέξαντο αὐτόν), because he was only passing by on his way to Jerusalem (εἰς Ἱερουσαλήμ).  These Samaritans did not look favorably on the Jerusalem pilgrims who passed by their towns on the way to the Temple.  After all, Jesus had steadfastly set his face (ὅτι τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ἦν πορευόμενον) to go there, not stopping or staying to worship at Mount Gerizim in Samaria.  Thus, Jesus was not welcome, if he was going to the Judean place of worship in Jerusalem, and just visiting or passing through here.  Would you be upset if someone said that they were planning to visit someone else but just stopped by?

Healing the hand (Lk 6:10-6:10)

“After looking around

At all of them,

He said to the man

With the withered hand.

‘Stretch out your hand!’

He did so.

His hand was restored.”

 

καὶ περιβλεψάμενος πάντας αὐτοὺς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἔκτεινον τὴν χεῖρά σου. ὁ δὲ ἐποίησεν, καὶ ἀπεκατεστάθη ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ.

 

Luke said that after looking around at all of them (καὶ περιβλεψάμενος πάντας αὐτοὺς), Jesus said to the man with the withered hand (εἶπεν αὐτῷ) to stretch out his hand (Ἔκτεινον τὴν χεῖρά σου).  He did so (ὁ δὲ ἐποίησεν), and his hand was restored (καὶ ἀπεκατεστάθη ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ).  All 3 synoptic gospels have this healing the same way.  Matthew, chapter 12:13, and Mark, chapter 3:5, have something similar where Jesus cured the man with the withered hand on the Sabbath.  Thus, Mark may have been the source of this healing story.  Mark said that Jesus was angry, because he was upset at the hardness of their hearts.  Finally, after all this discussion about the Sabbath, Jesus said to the man with the withered hand to stretch out his hand, which he did.  Then his hand was restored like new.  Jesus healed the man with the withered hand on the Sabbath without doing any physical activity.  His hand was restored just like his other hand.

 

Amazement (Lk 5:26-5:26)

“Amazement

Seized

All of them.

They glorified God.

They were filled

With awe.

They said.

‘We have seen

Strange things today.’”

 

καὶ ἔκστασις ἔλαβεν ἅπαντας, καὶ ἐδόξαζον τὸν Θεόν, καὶ ἐπλήσθησαν φόβου λέγοντες ὅτι Εἴδομεν παράδοξα σήμερον.

 

Luke and the other gospel writers said that not only the cured paralytic but all the people glorified God.  Did this include the Pharisees and Scribes?  Luke said that amazement seized all of them (καὶ ἔκστασις ἔλαβεν ἅπαντας).  They glorified God (καὶ ἐδόξαζον τὸν Θεόν).  They were filled with awesome fear (καὶ ἐπλήσθησαν φόβου).  They said (λέγοντες) that they had seen remarkable or strange things that day (ὅτι Εἴδομεν παράδοξα σήμερον).  This saying about the people being amazed is nearly the same as in Mark, chapter 2:12, and Matthew, chapter 9:8.  Mark said that they were all amazed, or marveled at what they had just witnessed.  They, not just the paralytic, glorified, honored, or praised God.  They said to one another that they had never seen anything like this before, because Jesus had a lot of power.  Matthew said that the crowds were in awe, or were amazed, or marveled at what they had just witnessed.  They glorified, honored, or praised God, since God had given so much authority to these men.  Notice that this is in the plural “men”, not just Jesus, one man, but potentially to his followers as well.  Thus, ends the story of the cured paralytic and the hole in the roof with the Pharisees and Scribes upset.