Who takes away
Do not withhold
Even your shirt!”
καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντός σου τὸ ἱμάτιον καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα μὴ κωλύσῃς.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that if anyone wanted to take away their coat (καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντός σου τὸ ἱμάτιον), they should also offer them their shirt or tunic (καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα μὴ κωλύσῃς). Once again Luke had Jesus use the second person plural to address his followers. A similar saying to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 5:40, where he also indicated that the followers of Jesus should be kind people. We might even call these activities unusual acts of kindness. In Matthew, Jesus said that not only should they give a person their inner tunic coat (τὸν χιτῶνά σου λαβεῖν), but also their outer cloak as well (ἄφες αὐτῷ καὶ τὸ ἱμάτιον). This seems like they would give all the clothes off their back, since most people did not own more than 2 coats. There should be no end to their generosity.
On the cheek,
Offer the other also!”
τῷ τύπτοντί σε ἐπὶ τὴν σιαγόνα πάρεχε καὶ τὴν ἄλλην,
Luke indicated that Jesus said that if anyone struck them (τῷ τύπτοντί σε) on the cheek (ἐπὶ τὴν σιαγόνα), they were to offer the other cheek also (πάρεχε καὶ τὴν ἄλλην). Once again, Luke had Jesus use the second person plural to address his followers. Matthew, chapter 5:39, had the same saying, with different wording. If they were struck on the right cheek (ἀλλ’ ὅστις σε ῥαπίζει εἰς τὴν δεξιὰν σιαγόνα σου), they should turn the other cheek (στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην). A slap on the right cheek was usually a back handed slap, since most people were right handed. Jesus himself would be struck on the cheek in the passion narrative. They would be true followers of Jesus, if they did not resist, as in the passion story. This is one of the strongest arguments for Christian pacifism.
“Pray for those
Who abuse you!”
προσεύχεσθε περὶ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς
Luke indicated that Jesus asked his followers to pray (προσεύχεσθε) for those who were abusing or mistreating them (περὶ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς), using the second person plural. There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 5:44, where a Byzantine text added that these followers of Jesus were asked to pray for those who were abusing them (καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς), just like here. These early Christians were asked to pray for people who were taking advantage of them.
Who curse you!”
εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς,
Luke indicated that Jesus said to his followers to bless those (εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς) who cursed them (καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς), using the second person plural. There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 5:44, where a Byzantine text added that these followers of Jesus were asked to bless those cursing them (εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς), just like here. These early Christians were asked to be generous to their enemies and persecutors.
“But I say to you!
Love your enemies!
Who hate you!”
Ἀλλὰ ὑμῖν λέγω τοῖς ἀκούουσιν Ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν, καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς,
Luke then indicated that Jesus issued a solemn pronouncement (Ἀλλὰ ὑμῖν λέγω τοῖς) that they should listen (ἀκούουσιν). He clearly unambiguously said to love your enemies (Ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν) and do good to those who hate you (καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς). This was a very strong statement that can be also found in Matthew, chapter 5:44, so that it might be from the Q source. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that they were to love their enemies (ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν), word for word as here in Luke. Jesus added that they should even pray for those who were persecuting them (καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς). Perhaps, many of the followers of Jesus at that time were actually being persecuted. They were to do good to those who were spitefully accusing them, hating them, and persecuting them (καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς, καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς, καὶ διωκόντων ὑμᾶς). These early Christians were asked to be generous to their enemies and persecutors, as both Matthew and Luke indicated here. This was a radical statement of love that went beyond loving your neighbor. Love your enemy. Do good to him.
“Woe to you
When all speak
Well of you!
That is what
Your ancestors did
To the false prophets.”
οὐαὶ ὅταν καλῶς ὑμᾶς εἴπωσιν πάντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι· κατὰ αὐτὰ γὰρ ἐποίουν τοῖς ψευδοπροφήταις οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν.
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said they would be cursed (οὐαὶ), using the second person plural. If people spoke well of them (ὅταν καλῶς ὑμᾶς εἴπωσιν πάντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι), that is what (κατὰ αὐτὰ) their ancestors or fathers (οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν) did (γὰρ ἐποίουν) to the false or pseudo-prophets (τοῖς ψευδοπροφήταις). This is the reverse of verses 22-23, where Jesus said that they would be blessed, happy, and fortunate (μακάριοί ἐστε), when people hated them (ὅταν μισήσωσιν ὑμᾶς οἱ ἄνθρωποι) or excluded them (καὶ ὅταν ἀφορίσωσιν ὑμᾶς) on account of the Son of Man (ἕνεκα τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου). They would be blessed (μακάριοί ἐστε), when people insulted them (καὶ ὀνειδίσωσιν) or defamed them. There is something equivalent to Matthew, chapter 5:11. This persecution is precisely what (κατὰ αὐτὰ) their ancestors (οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν) had done to the ancient prophets (γὰρ ἐποίουν τοῖς προφήταις). In a certain sense, they were a continuation of the Old Testament persecuted prophets who had gone before them. However, if people spoke well of them and treated them nice, perhaps they were the false prophets.
“Woe to you
Who are laughing now!
You will mourn
οὐαί, οἱ γελῶντες νῦν, ὅτι πενθήσετε καὶ κλαύσετε
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that the laughing ones now (οἱ γελῶντες νῦν) would be cursed (οὐαί), using the second person plural. They would mourn and weep (ὅτι πενθήσετε καὶ κλαύσετε) in the future. Once again, this unique saying of Luke is the reverse of one of his beatitudes in verse 21, where he indicated that Jesus said that those who were weeping now (οἱ κλαίοντες νῦν) would be blessed, happy or fortunate (μακάριοι) because they would later laugh (ὅτι γελάσετ), using the second person plural. There is no equivalent to this in Matthew, except for the mourners in chapter 5:4. Luke has Jesus say the opposite thing about those laughing now, as they would weep later.