Forgiveness (Lk 11:4-11:4)

“Forgive us

Our sins!

We ourselves

Forgive everyone

Indebted to us.”

 

καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν, καὶ γὰρ αὐτοὶ ἀφίομεν παντὶ ὀφείλοντι ἡμῖν·

Luke indicated that Jesus said that we should ask the Father to forgive our sins (καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν).  Afterall, we ourselves have forgiven everyone indebted to us (καὶ γὰρ αὐτοὶ ἀφίομεν παντὶ ὀφείλοντι ἡμῖν).  Matthew, chapter 6:12, said that we should ask the Father to forgive our debts (καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν).  This includes whatever we owe to God, because our sins have put us in debt to God.  If we ask for forgiveness, that assumes that we have forgiven our own debtors (ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν).  This saying about forgiveness seems similar to Matthew, chapter 6:14-15, that came right after the “Our Father” prayer.  Basically, the heavenly Father would forgive those people who have forgiven others for their missteps or trespasses.  On the other hand, if you did not forgive others, your heavenly Father would not forgive you your trespasses.  You can see how the idea of trespasses, instead of debtors, came to be part of the “Our Father.”  Mark, chapter 11:25, indicated that Jesus said that whenever they would stand and pray, they should forgive others, especially if they have anything against anyone.  Then their heavenly Father would forgive them for their missteps or trespasses.  What are these trespasses?  The Greek word “τὰ παραπτώματα” means to fall away after being close, a lapse, a deviation from the truth, an error, a slip up, relatively unconscious, or non-deliberate.  Apparently, this was not a serious offense, something like daily implied insensitive insults.  However, they still had to forgive the trespasses of others to be forgiven by the heavenly father.  You can see how the idea of trespasses took on a greater significance over debtors in this great prayer to the Father.  Do you forgive other people?

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She will be forgiven much (Lk 7:47-7:47)

“Therefore,

I tell you!

Her many sins

Are forgiven.

She has shown

Great love.

But the one

To whom

Little is forgiven,

Loves little.”

 

οὗ χάριν λέγω σοι, ἀφέωνται αἱ ἁμαρτίαι αὐτῆς αἱ πολλαί, ὅτι ἠγάπησεν πολύ· ᾧ δὲ ὀλίγον ἀφίεται, ὀλίγον ἀγαπᾷ.

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said with a solemn pronouncement (οὗ χάριν λέγω σοι) that this woman had many sins (αἱ ἁμαρτίαι αὐτῆς αἱ πολλαί), but she would be forgiven (ἀφέωνται) these many sins.  She had shown great love (ὅτι ἠγάπησεν πολύ).  However, those for whom little is forgiven (ᾧ δὲ ὀλίγον ἀφίεται), love little (ὀλίγον ἀγαπᾷ).  Thus, there is a reference to the creditor with the 2 debtors, one with a large sum of money who loved more and the other with a lesser sum, both forgiven.  Has anybody ever forgiven you a debt that you owed them?

He forgave both of them (Lk 7:42-7:42)

“When they could not pay,

He cancelled

The debt

For both of them.

Now which of them

Will love him more?”

 

μὴ ἐχόντων αὐτῶν ἀποδοῦναι ἀμφοτέροις ἐχαρίσατο. τίς οὖν αὐτῶν πλεῖον ἀγαπήσει αὐτόν;

 

Luke continued this unique comparison that Jesus was making.  Jesus said that when both of these debtors could not pay their debt (μὴ ἐχόντων αὐτῶν ἀποδοῦναι), this creditor cancelled both their debts (ἀμφοτέροις ἐχαρίσατο).  Then Jesus asked which of these two debtors would love this creditor more (τίς οὖν αὐτῶν πλεῖον ἀγαπήσει αὐτόν)?  This was a simple question.  If someone forgave you $125.00 or $12.50, would you be happy?  Obviously, the one with the larger amount would be happier and love the creditor more.  Notice that both of them could not pay their debt.  Have you ever been unable to pay a debt?

If you do not forgive others (Mk 11:26-11:26)

“But if you

Do not forgive,

Neither will your Father

In heaven

Forgive

Your trespasses.”

 

Εἰ δὲ ὑμεῖς οὖκ ἀφίετε, οὐδὲ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς ἀφήσει τὰ παραπτώματα ὑμῶν.

 

This verse is only in some Orthodox text versions.  This is almost word for word from Matthew, chapter 6:15, right after the “Our Father” prayer.  Mark said that if you do not forgive others (Εἰ δὲ ὑμεῖς οὖκ ἀφίετε), your heavenly Father will not forgive you for your trespasses (οὐδὲ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς ἀφήσει τὰ παραπτώματα).  You can see how the idea of trespasses instead of debtors came to be part of the “Our Father.”  If you do not forgive, neither will your Father forgive you.

Forgiveness (Mt 6:14-6:15)

“If you forgive

Other men

Their trespasses,

Your heavenly Father

Will also forgive you.

But if you do not forgive

Other men

Their trespasses,

Neither will your Father

Forgive your trespasses.”

 

Ἐὰν γὰρ ἀφῆτε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὰ παραπτώματα αὐτῶν, ἀφήσει καὶ ὑμῖν ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος

ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀφῆτε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις, οὐδὲ ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν ἀφήσει τὰ παραπτώματα ὑμῶν.

 

This saying about forgiveness seems similar to Mark, chapter 11:25.  Basically, your heavenly Father will forgive you (ἀφήσει καὶ ὑμῖν ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος) if you have forgiven others for their missteps or trespasses (Ἐὰν γὰρ ἀφῆτε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὰ παραπτώματα αὐτῶν).  What are these trespasses?  The Greek word “τὰ παραπτώματα” means to fall away after being close, a lapse, a deviation from the truth, an error, a slip up, relatively unconscious, or non-deliberate.  Apparently, this is not a serious offense, something like daily implied insensitive insults.  On the other hand, if you do not forgive others (ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀφῆτε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις), your heavenly Father will not forgive you your trespasses (οὐδὲ ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν ἀφήσει τὰ παραπτώματα ὑμῶν.).  You can see how the idea of trespasses instead of debtors came to be part of the “Our Father.”

The day of destruction of Yahweh (Isa 24:1-24:3)

“Now Yahweh is about

To lay waste the earth.

He will make it desolate.

He will twist its surface.

He will scatter its inhabitants.

It shall be,

As with the people,

So with the priest.

It shall be,

As with the slave,

So with his master.

It shall be,

As with the maid,

So with her mistress.

It shall be,

As with the buyer,

So with the seller.

It shall be,

As with the lender,

So with the borrower.

It shall be

As with the creditor,

So with the debtor.

The earth shall be utterly laid waste

It shall be utterly despoiled.

Yahweh has spoken this word.”

These next few chapters are sometimes referred to as the Isaiah Apocalypse. This section, like the other sections, is a hodgepodge of oracles and ideas, but these oracles are about the judgment at the end of the world. On this apocalyptic judgment day, much like the flood of Noah, destruction was to come upon the whole world, like in later eschatological works. The twisted earth was to be made desolate. All the inhabitants on earth would be wiped out, whether it is regular people, priests, slaves, masters, maids, mistresses, buyers, sellers, lenders, borrowers, debtors, or creditors. No one would be saved. The earth would be utterly ruined, because Yahweh has spoken.