Give to those who have something already (Lk 19:26-19:26)

“I tell you!

All those who have,

More will be given!

But from those

Who have nothing,

Even what they have

Will be taken away.”

 

λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι παντὶ τῷ ἔχοντι δοθήσεται, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ μὴ ἔχοντος καὶ ὃ ἔχει ἀρθήσεται.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus responded with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν).  All those who already have things (τι παντὶ τῷ ἔχοντι), more will be given to them (δοθήσεται).  From those who have nothing (ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ μὴ ἔχοντος), even what they do have (καὶ ὃ ἔχει) will be taken away (ἀρθήσεται).  There was no insistence on equality here.  This was similar to Matthew, chapter 25:29, perhaps indicating a Q source.  Jesus said that this master slave owner rewarded and punished his slaves.  He told them that all those who have, will be given more (τῷ γὰρ ἔχοντι παντὶ δοθήσεται), so that they will have an abundance or overflow of goods (καὶ περισσευθήσεται).  But those who have nothing (τοῦ δὲ μὴ ἔχοντος), even what little they have will be taken away from them (καὶ ὃ ἔχει ἀρθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ).  Matthew added more comments that are not in Luke.  As for this worthless slave (καὶ τὸν ἀχρεῖον δοῦλον), he was to be thrown into the outer darkness (ἐκβάλετε εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον), where there would be weeping and gnashing of teeth (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων), the common terms for sadness and mourning.  Thus, the kingdom of heaven will have rewards and punishments.  Do you want to be rewarded or punished in eternal life?

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He has ten already (Lk 19:25-19:25)

“However,

They said

To the nobleman.

‘Lord!

He already

Has ten minas!’”

 

καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ Κύριε, ἔχει δέκα μνᾶς.

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus remarked that the bystanders said to the nobleman (καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ), lord (Κύριε), that he already had 10 minas (ἔχει δέκα μνᾶς).  Luke seemed to understand this problem of fairness and equality, but there was no complaint in Matthew.  Is it fair to give more to people who already have a lot?

Take his money away (Lk 19:24-19:24)

“The nobleman said

To the bystanders.

‘Take the mina

From him!

Give it to the one

Who has the ten minas!’”

 

καὶ τοῖς παρεστῶσιν εἶπεν Ἄρατε ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ τὴν μνᾶν καὶ δότε τῷ τὰς δέκα μνᾶς ἔχοντι.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus remarked that the nobleman said to the bystanders (καὶ τοῖς παρεστῶσιν εἶπεν) to take the mina from him (Ἄρατε ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ τὴν μνᾶν) and give it to the one who had earned 10 minas (καὶ δότε τῷ τὰς δέκα μνᾶς ἔχοντι).  This seems harsh, but in sync with the character of the nobleman.  This was similar to Matthew, chapter 25:28, perhaps indicating a Q source.  Jesus, via Matthew, said that this master or slave owner said to his people to take the one talent from this wicked lazy slave (ἄρατε οὖν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ τὸ τάλαντον) and give it to the slave who already had 10 talents (καὶ δότε τῷ ἔχοντι τὰ δέκα τάλαντα).  That did not seem fair, even though it was a mild punishment.  This lazy slave ended up with nothing, but he really did not want anything.  However, the ambitious industrious slave, who had increased his money, would get even more.  Do you have enough money?

Five minas (Lk 19:18-19:18)

“Then the second slave

Came in.

He said.

‘Lord!

Your mina

Has made five minas.’”

 

καὶ ἦλθεν ὁ δεύτερος λέγων Ἡ μνᾶ σου, κύριε, ἐποίησεν πέντε μνᾶς.

 

Luke indicated that the second slave came in (καὶ ἦλθεν ὁ δεύτερος) and told this nobleman, his lord (λέγων Ἡ μνᾶ σου, κύριε), that he had bargained his one mina into 5 minas (ἐποίησεν πέντε μνᾶς).  This second slave had made 5 times more than what he had originally had.  There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 25:22, perhaps indicating a Q source.  However, in Matthew, the slave only doubled his investment.  Jesus said that the one who had received the 2 talents (προσελθὼν καὶ ὁ τὰ δύο τάλαντα) came forward.  He explained to his lord and master (εἶπεν Κύριε) that he had given him 2 talents (δύο τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας), but now he had made, acquired, or gained 2 more talents (ἴδε ἄλλα δύο τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα).  He had doubled his talents as a wise trader.  Are you wise with your money?

Ten times as much (Lk 19:16-19:16)

“The first slave

Came forward.

He said.

‘Lord!

Your mina

Has produced

Ten more minas.’”

 

παρεγένετο δὲ ὁ πρῶτος λέγων Κύριε, ἡ μνᾶ σου δέκα προσηργάσατο μνᾶς.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the first slave came forward (παρεγένετο δὲ ὁ πρῶτος) and said to the nobleman lord (λέγων Κύριε), that he turned his original mina into 10 more minas (ἡ μνᾶ σου δέκα προσηργάσατο μνᾶς).  Once again, this is the only Greek biblical use of the word προσηργάσατο, that means to work or gain besides, or produce in addition.  This nobleman’s original investment had made 10 times more than what he had originally.  This first slave had turned his one mina into 10 minas.  Matthew, chapter 25:20, had something similar, as if a Q source.  In Matthew, the first slave only doubled his investment.  Jesus said that the one slave who had received the five talents (καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ τὰ πέντε τάλαντα λαβὼν) came forward with 5 more talents (προσήνεγκεν ἄλλα πέντε τάλαντα).  He explained to his lord and master (λέγων Κύριε) that he had been given 5 talents (πέντε τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας), but now he had made, acquired, or gained 5 more talents (ἴδε ἄλλα πέντε τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα).  He had doubled his investment as a wise trader.  However, Luke’s trader had a higher rate of return with less money.  Have you ever traded money in investments?

He forgave both of them (Lk 7:42-7:42)

“When they could not pay,

He cancelled

The debt

For both of them.

Now which of them

Will love him more?”

 

μὴ ἐχόντων αὐτῶν ἀποδοῦναι ἀμφοτέροις ἐχαρίσατο. τίς οὖν αὐτῶν πλεῖον ἀγαπήσει αὐτόν;

 

Luke continued this unique comparison that Jesus was making.  Jesus said that when both of these debtors could not pay their debt (μὴ ἐχόντων αὐτῶν ἀποδοῦναι), this creditor cancelled both their debts (ἀμφοτέροις ἐχαρίσατο).  Then Jesus asked which of these two debtors would love this creditor more (τίς οὖν αὐτῶν πλεῖον ἀγαπήσει αὐτόν)?  This was a simple question.  If someone forgave you $125.00 or $12.50, would you be happy?  Obviously, the one with the larger amount would be happier and love the creditor more.  Notice that both of them could not pay their debt.  Have you ever been unable to pay a debt?

The rewards and punishments (Mt 25:29-25:30)

“To all those who have,

More will be given.

They will have

An abundance.

But those who have nothing,

Even what they have

Will be taken away.

As for this worthless slave,

Throw him into

The outer darkness!

Where there will be

Weeping

And gnashing of teeth.”

 

τῷ γὰρ ἔχοντι παντὶ δοθήσεται καὶ περισσευθήσεται· τοῦ δὲ μὴ ἔχοντος καὶ ὃ ἔχει ἀρθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ.

καὶ τὸν ἀχρεῖον δοῦλον ἐκβάλετε εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον· ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων.

 

This parable is unique to Matthew, but there is something similar in Luke, chapter 19:26.  Jesus said that this master slave owner rewarded and punished his slaves.  He told them that all those who have, will be given more (τῷ γὰρ ἔχοντι παντὶ δοθήσεται), so that they will have an abundance or overflow of goods (καὶ περισσευθήσεται).  But those who have nothing (τοῦ δὲ μὴ ἔχοντος), even what little they have will be taken away from them (καὶ ὃ ἔχει ἀρθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ).  As for this worthless slave (καὶ τὸν ἀχρεῖον δοῦλον), he was to be thrown into the outer darkness (ἐκβάλετε εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον), where there would be weeping and gnashing of teeth (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων), the common terms for sadness and mourning.  Thus, the kingdom of heaven will have rewards and punishments.