The great condemnation (Lk 20:47-20:47)

“The Scribes

Devour

Widows’ houses.

They say long prayers

For the sake of appearance.

They will receive

A greater condemnation.”

 

οἳ κατεσθίουσιν τὰς οἰκίας τῶν χηρῶν καὶ προφάσει μακρὰ προσεύχονται· οὗτοι λήμψονται περισσότερον κρίμα.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus continued with his condemnation of the Scribes.  He said that the Scribes devour widows’ houses (οἱ κατεσθίοντες τὰς οἰκίας τῶν χηρῶν).  They say long prayers for the sake of appearance (καὶ προφάσει μακρὰ προσευχόμενοι).  They will receive the greater condemnation (οὗτοι λήμψονται περισσότερον κρίμα).  Mark, chapter 12:40, and Matthew, chapter 23:14, are almost word for word like here in Luke.  They all talked about how these Scribes took advantage of widows and pretended to be men of prayer.  Mark indicated that Jesus said that these Scribes devoured widows’ houses (οἱ κατεσθίοντες τὰς οἰκίας τῶν χηρῶν), the same as Luke.  What did he mean by that?  They obviously took advantage of the generosity of widows.  For the sake of appearances, these Scribes said long prayers (καὶ προφάσει μακρὰ προσευχόμενοι).  Thus, they would receive a great severe condemnation (οὗτοι λήμψονται περισσότερον κρίμα.) for their behavior.  Once again, there was no mention of any Pharisees, just the Scribes.  In Matthew, this first part of the opening verse is exactly the same as the preceding verse.  Woe to you (Οὐαὶ ὑμῖν)!  Scribes (γραμματεῖς)!  Woe to you!  Pharisees (καὶ Φαρισαῖοι)!  Hypocrites (ὑποκριταί)!  There is no doubt that here Jesus was cursing both the Scribes and the Pharisees, who were devouring widow’s houses (ὅτι κατεσθίετε τὰς οἰκίας τῶν χηρῶν), as they were taking advantage of widows.  They also made long lengthy prayers (καὶ προφάσει μακρὰ προσευχόμενοι), so that they would look better and more pious.  However, they were about to receive a greater condemnation (διὰ τοῦτο λήψεσθε περισσότερον κρίμα) than they had expected.  Once again, the major difference was the role of the Pharisees in Matthew, that is not in Luke or Mark.  Are you a hypocrite?

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Your enemies (Lk 20:43-20:43)

“I will make

Your enemies

A footstool

For your feet.”

 

ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus continued with Psalm 110 that David would make the enemies of the Messiah (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου) as a footstool (ὑποπόδιον) for his feet (τῶν ποδῶν σου).  There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:36, and Matthew, chapter 22:44.  Mark indicated that David would sit there until he put all his enemies under his feet (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου).  Matthew quoted the exact same verse of Psalm, 110:1, that he should sit there until he put all his enemies under his feet (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου).  Would you like to see all your enemies at your feet?

Third brother (Lk 20:31-20:31)

“The third brother

Married her.

In the same way,

All seven brothers

Died childless.”

 

καὶ ὁ τρίτος ἔλαβεν αὐτήν, ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ οἱ ἑπτὰ οὐ κατέλιπον τέκνα καὶ ἀπέθανον.

 

Luke indicated that the Sadducees continued with their story about the 7 brothers.  They said that the third brother married this widow or took her as a wife (καὶ ὁ τρίτος ἔλαβεν αὐτήν).  Then in the same way, all 7 brothers died, leaving her childless (ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ οἱ ἑπτὰ οὐ κατέλιπον τέκνα καὶ ἀπέθανον).  Matthew, chapter 22:26-27, and Mark, chapter 12:21-22, said almost the same thing.  Mark indicated that the third brother did the same as the second brother (καὶ ὁ τρίτος ὡσαύτως).  Thus, the same thing happened to the second and third brothers as happened to the first brother.  They all died childless after marrying the same woman.  The Sadducees said that none of the 7 brothers had any children or offspring (καὶ οἱ ἑπτὰ οὐκ ἀφῆκαν σπέρμα).  Matthew indicated that likewise, the same thing happened to the second and third brother all the way down to the seventh brother (ὁμοίως καὶ ὁ δεύτερος καὶ ὁ τρίτος, ἕως τῶν ἑπτά).  There was a definite pattern here.  Do you think that this woman got to know that family pretty well?

Destroy the tenants (Lk 20:16-20:16)

“The vineyard owner

Will come.

He will destroy

Those tenants.

He will give

The vineyard

To others.

When they heard this,

They said.

‘May it never happen!’”

 

ἐλεύσεται καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργοὺς τούτους, καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις. ἀκούσαντες δὲ εἶπαν Μὴ γένοιτο.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the vineyard owner would come (ἐλεύσεται) and destroy these farmer tenants (καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργοὺς τούτους).  He would give this vineyard to others (καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις).  When they heard this (ἀκούσαντες), they said (δὲ εἶπαν) “May it never happen (Μὴ γένοιτο)!”  The end of this parable of the wicked vineyard tenants can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:40-41, and Mark, chapter 12:9.  Mark indicated that Jesus continued with his story by asking a question.  What will the lord or the owner of that vineyard do (τί ποιήσει ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος)?  Jesus responded to his own question that this landowner would come and destroy these evil tenants (ἐλεύσεται καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργούς).  Then he would lease out or rent the vineyard to other tenants (καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις).  Matthew also had Jesus continue with his story by asking a question.  When the lord or the owner of that vineyard came to his vineyard (ὅταν οὖν ἔλθῃ ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος), what would he do to those wicked tenants (τί ποιήσει τοῖς γεωργοῖς ἐκείνοις)?  The apostles, and not Jesus himself, responded to Jesus (λέγουσιν αὐτῷ) by saying that this landowner would put those evil wretches to a miserable death (Κακοὺς κακῶς ἀπολέσει αὐτούς).  Then he would lease out or rent the vineyard to other tenants (καὶ τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἐκδώσεται ἄλλοις γεωργοῖς), who would give him the produce at the harvest time (οἵτινες ἀποδώσουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς καρποὺς ἐν τοῖς καιροῖς αὐτῶν).  This land owner was still looking for good tenants or renters.  In Mark and Matthew, there was nothing about people saying “May it never happen!”  Would you be a good tenant farmer?

They killed him (Lk 20:15-20:15)

“Thus,

They threw him

Out of the vineyard.

They killed him.

What then will the owner

Of the vineyard

Do to them?”

 

καὶ ἐκβαλόντες αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος ἀπέκτειναν. τί οὖν ποιήσει αὐτοῖς ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος;

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that these farmer tenants threw the beloved son of the vineyard owner out of the vineyard (καὶ ἐκβαλόντες αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος).  They killed him (ἀπέκτειναν).  What do you think that the lord or owner of the vineyard was going to do to them (τί οὖν ποιήσει αὐτοῖς ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος)?  This parable of the killing of the landowner’s son can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:39, and Mark, chapter 12:8, almost word for word.  Mark indicated that Jesus continued with this story.  Thus, these wicked tenants seized the owner’s son (καὶ λαβόντες) and killed him (ἀπέκτειναν αὐτόν).  Finally, they threw him out or cast him out of the vineyard (καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος).  Both Luke and Matthew had him thrown out before he was killed, but Mark said that they killed him and then threw him out.  Matthew indicated that Jesus said that these wicked tenants seized the son (καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν) of the vineyard owner and cast him out of the vineyard (ἐξέβαλον ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος), where they killed him (καὶ ἀπέκτειναν).  The meaning of this parable was becoming clearer.  The landowner was God the Father.  The vineyard was Israel.  The tenants were the Jewish religious leaders.  The slaves were the Israelite prophets.  Jesus was the beloved son of the Father.  He was killed either outside of Jerusalem, the vineyard, or thrown out after his death.  Clearly, Jesus would not have to explain this parable to his disciples and apostles.  Did you get the meaning of this story?

Kill the heir (Lk 20:14-20:14)

“But when the tenants

Saw this beloved son,

They discussed it

Among themselves.

They said.

‘This is the heir!

Let us kill him!

Thus,

The inheritance

May be ours.’”

 

ἰδόντες δὲ αὐτὸν οἱ γεωργοὶ διελογίζοντο πρὸς ἀλλήλους λέγοντες Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ κληρονόμος· ἀποκτείνωμεν αὐτόν, ἵνα ἡμῶν γένηται ἡ κληρονομία.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that when the tenants saw this beloved son (ἰδόντες δὲ αὐτὸν) of the vineyard owner, they discussed it among themselves (οἱ γεωργοὶ διελογίζοντο πρὸς ἀλλήλους).  They decided or said (λέγοντες) that this was the heir (Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ κληρονόμος) to the vineyard.  If they killed him (ἀποκτείνωμεν αὐτόν), the inheritance would be theirs or go to them (ἵνα ἡμῶν γένηται ἡ κληρονομία).  This parable about the wicked tenants planning to kill the heir of the vineyard can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:38, and Mark, chapter 12:7, almost word for word.  Mark said that Jesus continued his story by saying that instead of respecting the son of the landowner, these tenants saw this son as an heir to the vineyard.  They said to themselves (ἐκεῖνοι δὲ οἱ γεωργοὶ πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς εἶπαν) that he was the heir (ὅτι Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ κληρονόμος).  They were going to kill him (δεῦτε ἀποκτείνωμεν αὐτόν), thinking that they would get his inheritance (καὶ ἡμῶν ἔσται ἡ κληρονομία).  Matthew indicated that when the tenants saw the son of the landowner (οἱ δὲ γεωργοὶ ἰδόντες τὸν υἱὸν), they said to themselves (εἶπον ἐν ἑαυτοῖς) that he was the heir (Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ κληρονόμος).  They were going to kill him (δεῦτε ἀποκτείνωμεν αὐτὸν), thinking that they would get his inheritance (καὶ σχῶμεν τὴν κληρονομίαν αὐτοῦ).  They were really dumb.  Would you ever think of getting rid of someone?

No longer a manager (Lk 16:2-16:2)

“The rich man

Summoned

This house manager.

He said to him.

‘What is this

That I hear

About you?

Give me

An accounting

Of your management,

Because you cannot be

My manager

Any longer.’”

 

καὶ φωνήσας αὐτὸν εἶπεν αὐτῷ Τί τοῦτο ἀκούω περὶ σοῦ; ἀπόδος τὸν λόγον τῆς οἰκονομίας σου· οὐ γὰρ δύνῃ ἔτι οἰκονομεῖν.

 

This parable story about the dishonest household manager or steward can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories.  Luke indicated that Jesus continued with this story.  He said that the rich man summoned or called his house manager (καὶ φωνήσας αὐτὸν).  He asked him (εἶπεν αὐτῷ) about what he had heard about him (ἀκούω περὶ σοῦ).  He wanted him to give an accounting of his management (ἀπόδος τὸν λόγον τῆς οἰκονομίας σου), because he was not going to be his house manager any longer (ὐ γὰρ δύνῃ ἔτι οἰκονομεῖν).  Once again, Luke used this unique Greek word οἰκονομεῖν, meaning household manager throughout this parable.  This rich man did not do any investigation.  He just simply heard a report and acted on it.  There is no indication who rendered this report to him.  Nevertheless, the house manager was fired.  Have you ever been fired or let go?