Wail over those who went down into the pit (Ezek 32:17-32:18)

“In the twelfth year,

In the first month,

On the fifteenth day

Of the month,

The word of Yahweh

Came to me.

‘Son of man!

Wail over the hordes

Of Egypt!

Send them down!

With Egypt,

With the daughters

Of majestic nations,

To the world below!

They will go down

To the pit.’”

Once again there is another oracle of Yahweh to Ezekiel, the son of man, with a specific date, the 15th day of the 1st month of the 12th year of King Zedekiah, 586 BCE. Ezekiel was to wail over the many people from Egypt, who were being sent down to the pit, the world below, the shadowy afterlife. Egypt, with the daughters of other majestic nations, would also go down into the pit.

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Lamentation over the Pharaoh of Egypt (Ezek 32:1-32:2)

“In the twelfth year,

In the twelfth month,

On the first day

Of the month,

The word of Yahweh

Came to me.

‘Son of man!

Raise a lamentation

Over Pharaoh,

King of Egypt!

Say to him!

‘You consider yourself

A lion

Among the nations.

But you are

Like a dragon

In the seas.

You trash about

In your streams.

You trouble the water

With your feet.

You foul

Your streams.’”

Once again there is another oracle of Yahweh to Ezekiel, the son of man, with a specific date, the 1st day of the 12th month of the 12th year of King Zedekiah, 585 BCE. Yahweh wanted Ezekiel to present a lamentation over the Pharaoh, the king of Egypt. In fact, Ezekiel was to speak to him with these exact words that Yahweh was giving him. How he was going to do this is not clear. Although the king of Egypt considered himself a lion among nations, he was rather a sea monster dragon in the water, trashing around with his feet in small streams, polluting the water. In other words, the Pharaoh was not as important as he thought that he was.

How great was the Pharaoh (Ezek 31:1-31:2)

“In the eleventh year,

In the third month,

On the first day

Of the month,

The word of Yahweh

Came to me.

‘Son of man!

Say to Pharaoh,

King of Egypt,

With his hordes!

‘Who are you

Like

In your greatness?’”

Once again, there is specific date for this oracle of Yahweh to Ezekiel, the son of man, the 1st day of the 3rd month, of the 11th year of King Zedekiah, 587 BCE. Yahweh wanted Ezekiel to pose a question to Pharaoh, the king of Egypt as well as the many people of Egypt. Who would they compare themselves to? Who or what was like them in their greatness?

Against Egypt (Ezek 29:1-29:2)

“In the tenth year,

In the tenth month,

On the twelfth day

Of the month,

The word of Yahweh

Came to me.

‘Son of man!

Set your face

Against Pharaoh,

King of Egypt!

Prophesy

Against him!

Prophesy

Against all Egypt!’”

Once again there was a specific date for this oracle of Yahweh to Ezekiel, the son of man. It was the 10th year of King Zedekiah, the 12th day of the 10th month, probably early 587 BCE. Ezekiel continued to use the first-person singular, as he had throughout this work. This time Yahweh wanted him to look towards Egypt. He was to prophesize against Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, probably Pharaoh Hophra, as well as all of Egypt.

Historical Introduction (Bar 1:1-1:2)

“These are the words

Of the book

That Baruch,

The son of Neriah,

The son of Mahseiah,

The son of Zedekiah,

The son of Hasadiah,

The son of Hilkiah,

Wrote in Babylon.

This was

In the fifth year,

On the seventh day

Of the month,

At the time

When the Chaldeans

Took Jerusalem.

They burned it

With fire.”

This is a historical introduction to this book that gives a name and specific date with a reference to a book, not merely a scroll. The author is Baruch, the same Baruch that was mentioned in the Book of Jeremiah, chapters 32, 36, 43, and 45. This Baruch was a scribe, friend, and follower of Jeremiah. He was clearly identified with a long genealogy. His father was Neriah. His brother Seraiah worked with King Zedekiah. He traced his family back to Hilkiah. Mahseiah, his grandfather was mentioned in Jeremiah also. There were many people with the name of Zedekiah, including the king so that it is hard to pinpoint one. Hasadiah was another common name, while over 30 biblical people have the name Hilkiah. Baruch was in Babylon. However, the last time he was mentioned in Jeremiah, he was with Jeremiah in Egypt. Perhaps, he may have left Jeremiah there. This book is placed 5 years after the fall of Jerusalem and the burning of Jerusalem, around 582 BCE on the 7th day of the month that Jerusalem was destroyed.