Son of Man
νῦν δὲ ἔσται ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καθήμενος ἐκ δεξιῶν τῆς δυνάμεως τοῦ Θεοῦ.
indicated that Jesus said that from now on (ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν δὲ), the Son of Man (ὁ
Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) would be seated (ἔσται…καθήμενος) at the right hand (ἐκ δεξιῶν)
of the power of God (τῆς δυνάμεως τοῦ Θεοῦ).
This was like Matthew and Mark, but without any mention of the Son
of Man coming on a heavenly cloud. Matthew, chapter 26:64, indicated that Jesus
gave them a warning with a solemn pronouncement (πλὴν λέγω ὑμῖν). He told him that from now on (ἀπ’ ἄρτι), they
would see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Power, Yahweh, or God,
the Father (ὄψεσθε τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καθήμενον ἐκ δεξιῶν τῆς δυνάμεως),
coming on the clouds of heaven (καὶ ἐρχόμενον ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ). Mark,
chapter 14:62, said that Jesus told him that they would see the Son of Man (καὶ
ὄψεσθε τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) seated at the right hand of the Power, (ἐκ δεξιῶν
καθήμενον τῆς δυνάμεως). He would come
with the clouds of heaven (καὶ ἐρχόμενον μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ). Jesus gave a strong theological response that
the end times were near when the Son of Man, himself, would appear at the right
hand of the Father in the heavenly clouds.
Despite his protestation that he would not answer their questions, Jesus
turned around and issued a solemn pronouncement that the end times was approaching. Do you think that the end times are near?
“Then they will see
The Son of Man
Coming in a cloud
And great glory.”
καὶ τότε ὄψονται τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐν νεφέλῃ μετὰ δυνάμεως καὶ δόξης πολλῆ
Luke indicated that Jesus said that then they would see (καὶ τότε ὄψονται) the Son of Man (τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) coming in a cloud (ἐρχόμενον ἐν νεφέλῃ) with power (μετὰ δυνάμεως) and great glory (καὶ δόξης πολλῆ). This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 24:30, and in Mark, chapter 13:26. Mark said that they would all see or experience the Son of Man (καὶ τότε ὄψονται τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) coming in the clouds (ἐρχόμενον ἐν νεφέλαις) with his great power (μετὰ δυνάμεως πολλῆς) and glory (καὶ δόξης). Matthew indicated that Jesus had an introductory comment that the sign of the Son of Man would appear in the heavens (καὶ τότε φανήσεται τὸ σημεῖον τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν οὐρανῷ). Then all the tribes or races of people on the earth would mourn or lament (καὶ τότε κόψονται πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς). After these phrases, then came the common element that they would all see or experience the Son of Man (καὶ ὄψονται τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) coming on the clouds of heaven (ἐρχόμενον ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ) with his power (μετὰ δυνάμεως) and great glory (καὶ δόξης πολλῆς). The clouds were the common place where theophanies in the Old Testament occurred, as Yahweh often appeared in a cloud on a mountain. The Son of Man is a reference to Jesus himself as a Hebrew Messianic figure. What do you know about the Second Coming of Jesus?
Will come upon you,
When your enemies
Will set up ramparts
They will hem you in
On every side.”
ὅτι ἥξουσιν ἡμέραι ἐπὶ σὲ καὶ παρεμβαλοῦσιν οἱ ἐχθροί σου χάρακά σοι καὶ περικυκλώσουσίν σε καὶ συνέξουσίν σε πάντοθεν,
Luke indicated that Jesus remarked that bad days were coming to Jerusalem (ὅτι ἥξουσιν ἡμέραι ἐπὶ σὲ). Jesus said that it would come to them when their enemies would put up a barricade against them (καὶ παρεμβαλοῦσιν οἱ ἐχθροί σου χάρακά σοι). They would surround them (καὶ περικυκλώσουσίν σε) so that they would be hemmed in on every side (καὶ συνέξουσίν σε πάντοθεν). This is the only Greek biblical use of the word περικυκλώσουσίν that means to hem them in on every side, encircle, surround, or encompass. Jesus was using the words and images of the ancient Israelite prophets against Jerusalem. Isaiah, chapter 29:1-3, called Jerusalem Ariel, a symbolic name for Jerusalem and its altar. Isaiah, warned Jerusalem about what was going to happen to it. Yahweh was going to encamp against it and set up siege works against it. They would be able to speak only from below the earth and the dust. Their voices would be reduced to a whisper, like a ghost in the middle of this dust pile. Jeremiah, chapter 6:6-8, warned Jerusalem that its enemies were going to cut down trees in order to make a ramp siege against Jerusalem, because this city needed to be punished. There was nothing but oppression and wickedness within her. Jerusalem was a place of violence and destruction with sickness and wounded people all around. Yahweh was going to turn away in disgust against Jerusalem. Thus, it would become a desolate uninhabited land, if it did not heed his warning. Ezekiel, chapter 4:1-3, also condemned Jerusalem with Ezekiel’s symbolic action. A voice told Ezekiel to be an expert model Lego builder of the siege of Jerusalem. Ezekiel, the son of man, was to take a brick and portray the city of Jerusalem. He was to put the siege works with a siege wall against this city. He was to put a ramp and camps against this city with battering rams all around it. Then he was to take an iron plate and make an iron wall between himself and the city, looking at it. Thus, there was a state of siege, a sign for the house of Israel. Ezekiel was part of the exiles from 598 BCE before the taking of Jerusalem and the second captivity in 587 BCE. Of course, here this was allusion to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE by the Roman soldiers putting down a revolution in Judea. Luke would have known about this at the time of his writing. Have you ever seen a city destroyed?
“Just as Jonah
Became a sign
To the people
The Son of Man
Will be a sign
To this generation.”
καθὼς γὰρ ἐγένετο Ἰωνᾶς τοῖς Νινευείταις σημεῖον, οὕτως ἔσται καὶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that just as Jonah became a sign to the people of Nineveh (καθὼς γὰρ ἐγένετο Ἰωνᾶς τοῖς Νινευείταις σημεῖον), so, too, the Son of Man will be a sign to this generation (οὕτως ἔσται καὶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ). This saying about the sign of Jonah can also be found in Matthew, chapter 12:39-40. Perhaps this was a Q source, going back to Hebrew scripture roots. Jesus used this story of the prophet Jonah, chapter 1:17, where he was in the belly of the whale or the sea monster for 3 days and 3 nights. The obvious comparison between the 3 days and 3 nights in the belly of the fish and Jesus in the tomb was not lost on the early Christians. Matthew was even more specific than Luke. He indicated that Jesus said that the only sign they were going to get was the sign of the prophet Jonah, who had been in the belly of the sea monster or whale that swallowed him for 3 days and 3 nights. Thus, the Son of Man would be 3 days and 3 nights in the heart of the earth. This was a clear allusion to the death of Jesus in the tomb for 3 days and 3 nights before his resurrection. Luke was not as clear or specific. What do you know about Jonah and the whale?
“The Son of Man
Yet you say.
Of tax collectors
ἐλήλυθεν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐσθίων καὶ πίνων, καὶ λέγετε Ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος φάγος καὶ οἰνοπότης, φίλος τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν
Luke indicated that Jesus said that the Son of Man came (ἐλήλυθεν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) eating (ἐσθίων) and drinking (καὶ πίνων). However, they said that he was a glutton (καὶ λέγετε Ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος φάγος), a drunkard (καὶ οἰνοπότης), and a friend of tax collectors and sinners (φίλος τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν). Matthew, chapter 11:19, had a similar statement, indicating a possible common Q source. They called the Son of Man, Jesus, a glutton and a drunkard, because he was eating and drinking. The Son of Man was also considered a friend or lover to tax collectors and sinners. In other words, whether you ate or drank, it did not matter, they would find some fault in whatever John or Jesus did. Do you like to eat and drink and hang out with sinners?
“He said to them.
‘But who do you say
That I am?’”
λέγει αὐτοῖς Ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι;
This same question can be found in Mark, chapter 8:29, and Luke, chapter 9:20. Jesus then asked his disciples (λέγει αὐτοῖς) who they thought or said that he was (Ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι). Jesus thus put them to the test. Was he the Son of Man or someone else?
‘The one who sows
The good seed
Is the Son of Man.’”
ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Ὁ σπείρων τὸ καλὸν σπέρμα ἐστὶν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου·
Only Matthew has this explanation about the parable of the weeds that was earlier in this chapter, 13:24-30. Jesus answered his disciples (ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν), via Matthew. The sower of the good seeds was the Son of Man (Ὁ σπείρων τὸ καλὸν σπέρμα ἐστὶν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου), plain and simple. In other words, Jesus, the Son of Man, is the great householder who sows only good seeds, the word of the kingdom of heaven.