“Then they asked Jesus.
He said to them,
‘Where the corpse is,
There the vultures
καὶ ἀποκριθέντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Ποῦ, Κύριε; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ὅπου τὸ σῶμα, ἐκεῖ καὶ οἱ ἀετοὶ ἐπισυναχθήσονται.
Luke indicated that they asked Jesus (καὶ ἀποκριθέντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ), addressing him as Lord (Κύριε), where was this going to happen (Ποῦ)? Jesus said to them (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) that where the body or the corpse was (Ὅπου τὸ σῶμα), there the vultures would gather (ἐκεῖ καὶ οἱ ἀετοὶ ἐπισυναχθήσονται). This was something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:28, perhaps indicating a Q source. However, this saying was after the comment about the Son of Man coming like lightning. Jesus, via Matthew, said that wherever the corpse was (ὅπου ἐὰν ᾖ τὸ πτῶμα), there the vultures would gather (ἐκεῖ συναχθήσονται οἱ ἀετοί). The vultures or eagles were a reference to the Roman soldiers with their eagle symbols. Thus, Luke ended the remarks of Jesus about the end times. Are you comfortable talking about the end of the world?
“Remember Lot’s wife!”
μνημονεύετε τῆς γυναικὸς Λώτ
Luke was the only gospel writer to have Jesus remark about remembering Lot’s wife (μνημονεύετε τῆς γυναικὸς Λώτ). This was is a reference to Genesis, chapter 19:26. There Yahweh had rained down on both Sodom and Gomorrah sulfur and fire, so that all who lived in those two towns and the plains around it were destroyed. Lot’s wife looked back, and she became a pillar of salt. Luke and Jesus did not elaborate on the circumstances of her death, just remember it as if it was well known. This was quite a striking biblical image, since they were in the plains by the Dead Sea that was also called the Salt Sea. Have you ever looked back with regret?
“As the lightning
And lights up
From one side
To the other,
So will the Son of man
Be in his day.”
ὥσπερ γὰρ ἡ ἀστραπὴ ἀστράπτουσα ἐκ τῆς ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰς τὴν ὑπ’ οὐρανὸν λάμπει, οὕτως ἔσται ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ αὐτοῦ.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that as the lightning flashes (ὥσπερ γὰρ ἡ ἀστραπὴ ἀστράπτουσα) and lights up the sky (ἐκ τῆς ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανὸν) from one side of the sky to the other (εἰς τὴν ὑπ’ οὐρανὸν λάμπει), so will the Son of man be (οὕτως ἔσται ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) in his day (ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ αὐτοῦ). Luke was the only Greek biblical writer to use the word ἀστράπτουσα that means to lighten and flash forth. There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:27, indicating a Q source, about the Son of Man coming like lightening, but in a more succinct way. In Matthew, Jesus said that as the lightning came from the east (ὥσπερ γὰρ ἡ ἀστραπὴ ἐξέρχεται ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν) but flashed or shined in the west (καὶ φαίνεται ἕως δυσμῶν), so the Parousia or the second coming of the Son of Man would happen (οὕτως ἔσται ἡ παρουσία τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου). Wherever the corpse was (ὅπου ἐὰν ᾖ τὸ πτῶμα), there the vultures gathered (ἐκεῖ συναχθήσονται οἱ ἀετοί). The Son of Man was a clear reference to Jesus in his return, the Parousia, who would return like a flash of lightening. The vultures or eagles were a reference to the Roman soldiers with their eagle symbols. There was nothing about the corpses and the eagles or vultures here in Luke, just the lightning flash. However, later in this chapter, verse 37, there was a mention of the corpses and these vultures. Are you afraid of lightning?
“There will be
When you see
With all the prophets,
In the kingdom of God.
Will be thrown out.”
ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων, ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακὼβ καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὑμᾶς δὲ ἐκβαλλομένους ἔξω.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that there would be weeping (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς) and gnashing or grinding of teeth (καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων), when they would see (ὅταν ὄψησθε) Abraham (Ἀβραὰμ), Isaac (καὶ Ἰσαὰκ), and Jacob (καὶ Ἰακὼβ), with all the prophets (καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας) in the kingdom of God (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ). However, they would be thrown out (ὑμᾶς δὲ ἐκβαλλομένους ἔξω). This saying about the failure of the sons of Abraham is similar to Matthew, chapter 8:11-12, perhaps a Q source with its anti-Jewish bias. Matthew had this saying of Jesus begin with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν). Many people would come from the east and the west (ὅτι πολλοὶ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ δυσμῶν ἥξουσιν) to recline at table (καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται) during the Messianic feast with the 3 great Hebrew Jewish leaders, Abraham (μετὰ Ἀβραὰμ), Isaac (καὶ Ἰσαὰκ), and Jacob (καὶ Ἰακὼβ) in the kingdom of heaven (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν). However, the sons or the heirs of the kingdom (οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας) would be thrown out into the outer darkness (ἐκβληθήσονται εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον), where there would be weeping, crying, or lamenting (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς) with the gnashing or grinding of teeth (καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων). These were the traditional ways or signs to show anger and frustration. In this a reference to the end times damnation? Have you ever been angry or frustrated?
“Then Jesus said to them.
‘The Son of Man is
Lord of the Sabbath.’”
καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.
Luke indicated that Jesus then said to them (καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς) that the Son of Man (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) is Lord of the Sabbath (Κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 12:8, and Mark, chapter 2:28, probably indicating that Mark was the source of this comment. However, the other 2 gospels had more elaboration. Mark had Jesus say to those around him that the Sabbath was made for man, humans, or mankind, not humans for the Sabbath. Then he added the comment that is here in Luke that the Son of Man was the Lord of the Sabbath, which was picked up by the other two synoptic gospels. Matthew had Jesus begin with a solemn proclamation that someone greater than the Temple was here, a clear reference to Jesus himself. They did not know what the saying about mercy was all about. Matthew then used the same citation of Hosea chapter 6:6, that he had earlier in chapter 9:13. Jesus explained that he desired mercy, just as Yahweh wanted real faithful love, not mere sacrifices. Hosea wanted the Israelites to have real knowledge of God, rather than worry about burnt offerings. Thus, the Pharisees should not have condemned the innocent or guiltless ones, since Jesus and his disciples had done nothing wrong. He then concluded with the saying that the Son of Man was the Lord of the Sabbath. Jesus then could control the Sabbath, not the other way around. Instead of the Sabbath as a gift to humans, Jesus would reinterpret the laws of the Sabbath as the Lord of the Sabbath.
‘Have you not read
What David did
And his companions
καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς Οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἀνέγνωτε ὃ ἐποίησεν Δαυεὶδ ὁπότε ἐπείνασεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μετ’ αὐτοῦ ὄντες;
Luke said that Jesus answered the Pharisees (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς πρὸς αὐτοὺς). He asked them (εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς) if they had not read (Οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἀνέγνωτε) what David did (ὃ ἐποίησεν Δαυεὶδ) when (ὁπότε) he and his companions with him (αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μετ’ αὐτοῦ ὄντες) were hungry (ἐπείνασεν). Matthew, chapter 12:3, and Mark, chapter 2:25, are similar to Luke, so that perhaps Mark may be the origin of this saying of Jesus. Jesus asked that the Pharisees if they had read the unnamed book of Samuel. The assumption would be that since they were followers of the Law that they could read. The reference was to 1 Samuel, chapter 21:1-6.
This is where the genealogy of Matthew ends with Abraham. Luke continued further back. He said that Judah was the son of Jacob (τοῦ Ἰακὼβ), who had 12 sons with 4 different women, that become the 12 tribes of Israel. Jacob was the son of Isaac (τοῦ Ἰσαὰκ), the son of Abraham (τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ), who was the son of Terah (τοῦ Θάρα), the son of Nahor (τοῦ Ναχὼρ). Throughout the Torah, there was a continual reference to the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. These 3 generations were key to Hebrew and Jewish history. Their stories can be found in the book of Genesis, chapters 12-35. Remember that Abraham had a son with his wife’s maid, Hagar, who was called Ishmael. However, both were sent away. Jacob had a twin brother named Esau, whom he tricked out of his father’s inheritance. Terah and Nahor can be found in 1 Chronicles, chapter 1:26, and Genesis, chapter 11:24-32. Nahor was the name of Abram’s grandfather and his brother. Abram, appeared to be the oldest, took a wife named Sarai, who was barren. Later it will be revealed that Sarai is his half-sister, since Terah had a concubine. They all lived at Ur in the Chaldeans, probably in northwest Mesopotamia. Terah took his son Abram and his wife, Sarai, and his grandson Lot, and left Ur and went to Canaan. However, they settled in a place that had the same name as his dead son, Haran. This may have been part of a huge migration in the early second millennium, about 2000 years before the common Christian era.