The son of David (Lk 3:31-3:31)

“The son of Melea,

The son of Menna,

The son of Mattatha,

The son of Nathan,

The son of David.”

 

τοῦ Μελεὰ τοῦ Μεννὰ τοῦ Ματταθὰ τοῦ Ναθὰμ τοῦ Δαυεὶδ

 

Once again, these genealogies of Matthew and Luke converge with the name of David.  However, they both have different sons of David for their lineage.  Matthew, chapter 1:6-8, has Solomon, while Luke has Nathan.  King David had 6 sons while living in Hebron for a little over 7 years, based on 2 Samuel, chapter 3.  Each son had a different mother.  After King David moved to Jerusalem, he had some more wives and concubines.  Altogether, David had at least 20 named children, as indicated in 2 Samuel, chapter 13.  Shimea or Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon (Σολομῶνα), were the 4 sons of him and Bathsheba.  Solomon followed David to the throne as king, because of the intrigues of his mother Bathsheba, as found in 1 Kings, chapters 1-2.  I Chronicles, chapter 3, lists the kings of Judah, based on 1 Kings and 2 Kings.  Based on those 2 books, there was no disruption in the lineage of David via Solomon to all the kings of Judah before the Exile, since there were no revolutions in the southern kingdom of Judah.  However, Luke’s Nathan never became a king.  Luke listed the genealogy as the son of Melea (τοῦ Μελεὰ), the son of Menna (τοῦ Μεννὰ), the son of Mattatha (τοῦ Ματταθὰ), the son of Nathan (τοῦ Ματταθὰ), the son of David (τοῦ Δαυεὶδ).

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King David (Mt 1:6-1:6)

“David was

The father of Solomon

By the wife of Uriah.”

 

Δαυεὶδ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σολομῶνα ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Οὐρίου,

 

King David had 6 sons while living in Hebron for a little over 7 years, based on 2 Samuel, chapter 3.  Each son had a different mother.  After King David moved to Jerusalem, he had some more wives and concubines.  Altogether, David had at least 20 named children, as indicated in 2 Samuel, chapter 13.  Shimea or Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon (Σολομῶνα), were the 4 sons of him and Bathsheba.  However, she was not mentioned by name here but was simply called the wife of Uriah (ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Οὐρίου).  King David had Uriah killed, while committing adultery with her.  Notice that the Greek text did not say wife but only implied it, saying she from Uriah.  Solomon followed David to the throne as king, because of the intrigues of his mother Bathsheba and the prophet Nathan, as found in 1 Kings, chapters 1-2.  The Greek text used the term ‘begat’ (ἐγέννησεν) to represent the relationships between David and Solomon.  However, it seems perfectly acceptable to simply call David the father instead of saying “fathered him.”

The children of King David at Jerusalem (1 Chr 14:3-14:7)

“King David took more wives in Jerusalem as he became the father of more sons and daughters. These are the names of the children whom he had in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, Ibhar, Elishua, Elpelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Beeliada, and Eliphelet.”

This list is based once again on 2 Samuel, chapter 5, and chapter 3 of this book. When David moved to Jerusalem, he took some more wives, but their names are not mentioned here. However, in this text the word “concubines” that was in 2 Samuel and earlier in 1 Chronicles, chapter 3, has been dropped. Here it merely says wives. Thus there were more descendents of David than the six sons that he had at Hebron. However, here there is no mention of Bathsheba as the mother of the first 4 sons, (1) Shimea or Shammua as he called here, (2) Shobab, (3) Nathan, and (4) Solomon. This Nathan is not the prophet. However, Solomon, the youngest son of Bathsheba, followed David to the throne as king because of the intrigues of his mother Bathsheba and the prophet Nathan. The 9 other sons were (1) Ibhar, (2) Elishua, (3) Elpelet, (4) Nogah, (5) Nepheg, (6) Japhia, (7) Elishama, (8) Beeliada, and (9) Eliphelet. 7 of these were named in 2 Samuel. The only new names were Elpelet and Nogah.   2 names are slightly changed. One of the Eliphelet children has become Elpelet, while Eliada has become Beeliada, no real dramatic change. Thus Ibhar, Nepheg, Japhia, and Eliada are other sons whose names never appear elsewhere except in the lists of David’s sons. Other people in the biblical literature have some of these same names.

The sons of David at Jerusalem (1 Chr 3:4-3:9)

“David reigned thirty-three years in Jerusalem. These were born to him in Jerusalem Shimea, Shobab, Nathan and Solomon, four by Bathsheba, the daughter of Ammiel. Then the following nine children were born, Ibhar, Elishama, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet. All these were David’s sons, besides the sons of the concubines. Tamar was their sister.”

After David moved to Jerusalem, he took some more wives and concubines. He ruled from Jerusalem for 33 years. Once again this is taken from 2 Samuel, chapter 5. Thus there were more descendents of David than the six sons that he had at Hebron. (1) Shimea or Shammua as he was called in 2 Kings, (2) Shobab, (3) Nathan, and (4) Solomon, were the 4 sons of Bathsheba. Nathan is not the prophet mentioned later. However, Solomon followed David to the throne as king because of the intrigues of his mother Bathsheba and the prophet Nathan. The 9 other sons have unnamed mothers, (1) Ibhar, (2) Elishama, (3) Eliphelet, (4) Nogah, (5) Nepheg, (6) Japhia, (7) Elishama, (8) Eliada, and (9) Eliphelet, with 7 named in 2 Samuel. However, 2 sons, Elishama and Eliphelet were mentioned twice, unless he had 2 sons with the same name which is quite possible. The only new name is Nogah.   Thus Ibhar, Nepheg, Japhia, and Eliada are other sons whose names never appear elsewhere except in the lists of David’s sons. Thus David had at least 20 named children. At the end there is the mention of only one of their sisters Tamar, who was part of the Amon and Absalom fight in 2 Samuel, chapter 13.

The descendents of Caleb (1Chr 2:18-2:20)

“Caleb son of Hezron had children by his wife Azubah, and by Jerioth. These were her sons Jesher, Shobab, and Ardon. When Azubah died, Caleb married Ephrath, who bore him Hur. Hur was the father of Uri. Uri was the father of Bezalel.”

Here Caleb is called a son of Hezron, indicating that the Chelubai above may be this Caleb. However, this Caleb is not the Caleb mentioned in Numbers and Joshua since he was the son of Jephunneh. However, this Caleb may have been the great grandfather of that Caleb since he was the father of Hur. Hur might have been the grandfather of Caleb in Numbers. There was another Azubah who was the mother of King Jehoshaphat of Judah. This is the only mention of Jerioth. As for the 3 sons, this is the only mention of Jesher, Shobab, and Ardon. However, King David had a son with Beth-sheba that was also called Shobab. There was a place called Ephrath, the name of the 2nd wife of Caleb. This may have been the name of Bethlehem. The name Hur appeared as the brother-in-law of Aaron, Miriam’s husband, in Exodus. It also was the name of some defeated people in Numbers. Uri was also the name of one of Solomon’s officers. However, this Uri was the father of Bezalel, who was one of the chief architects with a divine spirit that worked on the sanctuary and the Ark of the Covenant in Exodus, chapter 35.