The son of David (Lk 3:31-3:31)

“The son of Melea,

The son of Menna,

The son of Mattatha,

The son of Nathan,

The son of David.”

 

τοῦ Μελεὰ τοῦ Μεννὰ τοῦ Ματταθὰ τοῦ Ναθὰμ τοῦ Δαυεὶδ

 

Once again, these genealogies of Matthew and Luke converge with the name of David.  However, they both have different sons of David for their lineage.  Matthew, chapter 1:6-8, has Solomon, while Luke has Nathan.  King David had 6 sons while living in Hebron for a little over 7 years, based on 2 Samuel, chapter 3.  Each son had a different mother.  After King David moved to Jerusalem, he had some more wives and concubines.  Altogether, David had at least 20 named children, as indicated in 2 Samuel, chapter 13.  Shimea or Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon (Σολομῶνα), were the 4 sons of him and Bathsheba.  Solomon followed David to the throne as king, because of the intrigues of his mother Bathsheba, as found in 1 Kings, chapters 1-2.  I Chronicles, chapter 3, lists the kings of Judah, based on 1 Kings and 2 Kings.  Based on those 2 books, there was no disruption in the lineage of David via Solomon to all the kings of Judah before the Exile, since there were no revolutions in the southern kingdom of Judah.  However, Luke’s Nathan never became a king.  Luke listed the genealogy as the son of Melea (τοῦ Μελεὰ), the son of Menna (τοῦ Μεννὰ), the son of Mattatha (τοῦ Ματταθὰ), the son of Nathan (τοῦ Ματταθὰ), the son of David (τοῦ Δαυεὶδ).

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King David (Mt 1:6-1:6)

“David was

The father of Solomon

By the wife of Uriah.”

 

Δαυεὶδ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σολομῶνα ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Οὐρίου,

 

King David had 6 sons while living in Hebron for a little over 7 years, based on 2 Samuel, chapter 3.  Each son had a different mother.  After King David moved to Jerusalem, he had some more wives and concubines.  Altogether, David had at least 20 named children, as indicated in 2 Samuel, chapter 13.  Shimea or Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon (Σολομῶνα), were the 4 sons of him and Bathsheba.  However, she was not mentioned by name here but was simply called the wife of Uriah (ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Οὐρίου).  King David had Uriah killed, while committing adultery with her.  Notice that the Greek text did not say wife but only implied it, saying she from Uriah.  Solomon followed David to the throne as king, because of the intrigues of his mother Bathsheba and the prophet Nathan, as found in 1 Kings, chapters 1-2.  The Greek text used the term ‘begat’ (ἐγέννησεν) to represent the relationships between David and Solomon.  However, it seems perfectly acceptable to simply call David the father instead of saying “fathered him.”

The Former Prophets

The former prophets are the same as the so-called Christian Old Testament historical works.  These works tell us of the establishment of the Israelites and the troubles that they faced.  However, they introduced a number of prophets that received oracles from God, including Elias, Elijah, Samuel, and Nathan.  The former prophets include the works of Joshua, from the 8th-7th century BCE and Judges, from the 7th-6th century BCE.  They also include the works of Samuel or 1 Samuel and. 2 Samuel, as well as Kings, or 1 Kings and 2 Kings. all coming from the 7th-6th century BCE.  These writings indicate what happened to the Israelites as they struggled in the new promised land.  They gradually went from a few judges to a full-blown kingdom, with many prophets with their divine oracles along the way.

Yahweh and the David covenant (Ps 132:11-132:12)

“Yahweh swore to David a sure oath.

Yahweh will not turn back.

‘I will set on your throne

One of the sons of your body.

If your sons keep my covenant,

If they keep my decrees

That I shall teach them,

Their sons also forevermore

Shall sit upon your throne.’”

This section is based on the Prophet Nathan’s dream in 2 Samuel, chapter 7, as Yahweh swore an oath or covenant with David. This will be different from the covenant with Abraham and Moses. This covenant sets up a direct line of the sons of David who will be on the throne forever. However, there is a condition to it. They must keep his covenant and the decrees that Yahweh was going to teach them. If they followed his decrees, their sons would sit on the throne forever.

David, the anointed one (Ps 89:19-89:28)

“Then you spoke in a vision

To your faithful one.

You said.

‘I have set the crown

On one who is mighty.

I have exalted one chosen from the people.

I have found my servant David.

With my holy oil

I have anointed him.

My hand shall always remain with him.

My arm also shall strengthen him.

The enemy shall not outwit him.

The wicked shall not humble him.

I will crush his foes before him.

I will strike down those who hate him.

My faithfulness shall be with him.

My steadfast love shall be with him.

In my name shall his horn be exalted.

I will set his hand on the sea.

I will set his right hand on the rivers.

He shall cry to me.

‘You are my Father!

You are my God!

You are the rock of my salvation!’

I will make him the first born.

I will make him the highest of the kings of the earth.

I will keep by steadfast love for him forever.

My covenant with him will stand firm.’”

This section is based on 2 Samuel, chapter 4, when the prophet Nathan had a vision or dream from Yahweh about the building of the Temple, the importance of David, and his role. David was to be the faithful one. The crown was placed on this mighty servant of God. He was chosen from the people to be the anointed one as king. The hand and arm of Yahweh would remain with David, so that his enemies and the wicked ones would not outwit him or humble him. Yahweh would be with him, so that his hands and arms would control the rivers and the seas. He would cry to Yahweh because Yahweh was his father, his God, and his rock of salvation. Yahweh would keep his steadfast love and covenant with David forever.

May God have mercy (Ps 51:1-51:2)

To the choirmaster leader, a psalm of David, when Nathan the prophet came to him, after he had gone into Bathsheba

“Have mercy on me!

O God!

According to your steadfast love,

According to your abundant mercy,

Blot out my transgressions!

Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity!

Cleanse me from my sin!”

Psalm 51 is the great penitential psalm when David was confronted by the prophet Nathan for his sexual encounter with Bathsheba in 2 Samuel, chapters 11 and 12. Eventually, David and Bathsheba were punished with the death of their first born. David wanted God’s mercy because of God’s steadfast love. This psalm is like Psalm 6 as a lament that is addressed to God directly. David wanted his transgressions blotted out. He wanted his iniquities washed away. He wanted to be cleansed from his sin. He wanted everything back to normal.