“The son of Melea,
The son of Menna,
The son of Mattatha,
The son of Nathan,
The son of David.”
τοῦ Μελεὰ τοῦ Μεννὰ τοῦ Ματταθὰ τοῦ Ναθὰμ τοῦ Δαυεὶδ
Once again, these genealogies of Matthew and Luke converge with the name of David. However, they both have different sons of David for their lineage. Matthew, chapter 1:6-8, has Solomon, while Luke has Nathan. King David had 6 sons while living in Hebron for a little over 7 years, based on 2 Samuel, chapter 3. Each son had a different mother. After King David moved to Jerusalem, he had some more wives and concubines. Altogether, David had at least 20 named children, as indicated in 2 Samuel, chapter 13. Shimea or Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon (Σολομῶνα), were the 4 sons of him and Bathsheba. Solomon followed David to the throne as king, because of the intrigues of his mother Bathsheba, as found in 1 Kings, chapters 1-2. I Chronicles, chapter 3, lists the kings of Judah, based on 1 Kings and 2 Kings. Based on those 2 books, there was no disruption in the lineage of David via Solomon to all the kings of Judah before the Exile, since there were no revolutions in the southern kingdom of Judah. However, Luke’s Nathan never became a king. Luke listed the genealogy as the son of Melea (τοῦ Μελεὰ), the son of Menna (τοῦ Μεννὰ), the son of Mattatha (τοῦ Ματταθὰ), the son of Nathan (τοῦ Ματταθὰ), the son of David (τοῦ Δαυεὶδ).
The father of Rehoboam.
The father of Abijah.
The father of Asaph.
The father of Jehoshaphat.
The father of Joram.”
Σολομὼν δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ῥοβοάμ, Ῥοβοὰμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀβιά, Ἀβιὰ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀσάφ, Ἀσὰφ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωσαφάτ, Ἰωσαφὰτ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωράμ.
I Chronicles, chapter 3 lists the kings of Judah, based on 1 Kings and 2 Kings. Based on those 2 books, there was no disruption in the lineage of David via Solomon to all the kings of Judah before the Exile, since there were no revolutions in the southern kingdom of Judah. The son of Solomon (Σολομὼν) was Rehoboam (Ῥοβοάμ) who ruled from about 931-913 BCE. His son Abijah (Ἀβιά,) or Abijam ruled from about 913-911 BCE. His son Asaph (Ἀσάφ) or Asa ruled from about 911-870 BCE. His son Jehoshaphat (Ἰωσαφάτ) ruled from about 870-848 BCE. His son Joram (Ἰωράμ) or Jehoram ruled from about 848-841 BCE. The Greek text used the term “begat” (ἐγέννησεν) to represent the relationships between these 5 men. However, it seems perfectly acceptable to simply call them the father instead of saying “fathered them.” Now there was a gap in this genealogy from 841-781 BCE, since there was no mention of Ahaziah, Azariah or Jehoahaz who only ruled for less than a year in 741 BCE. Actually, his mother Athaliah, ruled for about 6 years until her grandson Joash or Jehoash ruled from about 835-796 BCE. Joash’s son, Amaziah ruled from about 796-781 BCE. Perhaps this gap in the chronology of the kings was done to keep the numbers down to 14.
“In the year that King Ahaz died
This oracle came.
‘Do not rejoice!
All you Philistines!
The rod that struck you is broken.
From the snake’s root
Will come forth an adder.
Its fruit will be a flying fiery serpent.
The firstborn of the poor will graze.
The needy will lie down in safety.
But I will make your root
Die of famine.
I will kill.
Melt in fear!
All of you!
Smoke comes out of the north.
There is no straggler in his ranks.’”
Next Isaiah turned to the coastal Philistines. This oracle has a specific time frame, the year that King Ahaz died, which would have been about 716 BCE. The Philistines had been a common enemy of the Israelites, especially during the time of King Saul and King David in 1 Samuel and I Chronicles. The Philistine southwestern coastal 5 cities had been captured by the Assyrians. Thus with the destruction of Assyria, they should be free. However, another foe from the north would come to attack them. Yahweh reminded them that a small adder snake can come from the fallen snake like a fiery flying serpent. Although it will seem okay because there will be food to eat and the needy will be safe, Yahweh was going to send them a famine to kill those left over. The Philistines would cry and wail. They would melt with fear because a great army from the north was coming. The Philistines actually seemed to disappear after the Assyrian takeover.