Luke indicated that Jesus said that the vineyard owner still proceeded to send a third slave (καὶ προσέθετο τρίτον πέμψαι). These wicked tenants also wounded him (οἱ δὲ καὶ τοῦτον τραυματίσαντες) and threw him out (ἐξέβαλον). This parable about the terrible behavior of the wicked tenants can also be found in Mark, chapter 12:5, with a little more elaboration. However, there was no 3rd group in Matthew. Mark indicated that Jesus said that this landowner sent another slave (καὶ ἄλλον ἀπέστειλεν), but that they killed him (κἀκεῖνον ἀπέκτειναν). He also sent more slaves (καὶ πολλοὺς ἄλλους). They either beat them up (οὓς μὲν δέροντες) or killed them (οὓς δὲ ἀποκτέννοντες). The wicked tenants did the same thing to all of them, just as they had done to the first group of slaves. This plan of the landowner was not working out. Have you ever been a landowner with tenants?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that when the harvest time came (καὶ καιρῷ), this land owner sent a slave to these tenants (ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς τοὺς γεωργοὺς δοῦλον), so that they might give him (δώσουσιν αὐτῷ) his share of the produce from the vineyard (ἵνα ἀπὸ τοῦ καρποῦ τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). However, the tenants beat him (δείραντες). They sent him away empty-handed (οἱ δὲ γεωργοὶ ἐξαπέστειλαν αὐτὸν…κενόν). This parable about the wicked tenants can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:34-35, and Mark, chapter 12:2-3. Mark said that when the harvest season time came, the right time (τῷ καιρῷ), the landowner sent a slave (καὶ ἀπέστειλεν…δοῦλον), to these tenants or renters (πρὸς τοὺς γεωργοὺς). He was to collect or receive (λάβῃ) from these tenant farmers (ἵνα παρὰ τῶν γεωργῶν) his share of the fruit produced from this vineyard (ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). This all seemed very reasonable. However, these tenant farmers seized this slave (καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν). They beat him (ἔδειραν). Then they sent him away empty-handed (καὶ ἀπέστειλαν κενόν). There was only one slave in both these accounts, instead of the 3 different slaves that Matthew indicated that Jesus talked about at this harvest time. Matthew remarked that Jesus said that when the time came when the grapes were ripe for picking (ὅτε δὲ ἤγγισεν ὁ καιρὸς τῶν καρπῶν), the landowner sent his slaves (ἀπέστειλεν τοὺς δούλους αὐτοῦ), not one slave, to these tenants or renters (τοὺς γεωργοὺς) to collect his fruit produce (λαβεῖν τοὺς καρποὺς αὐτοῦ). However, these tenant farmers seized his slaves (καὶ λαβόντες οἱ γεωργοὶ τοὺς δούλους αὐτοῦ). They beat one slave (ὃν μὲν ἔδειραν). Then they killed another slave (ὃν δὲ ἀπέκτειναν) and stoned still another slave (ὃν δὲ ἐλιθοβόλησαν). These tenant farmers were not very nice. Only Matthew had the 3 different slaves rather than the one slave as in Luke and Mark. They were also more destructive in Matthew. Have you been a good tenant?
This long parable story about the 2 sons can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories. Luke indicated that Jesus said that this older son continued his complaint to his father. He said that when his brother, his father’s son (ὅτε δὲ ὁ υἱός σου οὗτος), came back (ἦλθεν), after having devoured his property (ὁ καταφαγών σου τὸν βίον) with prostitutes (μετὰ πορνῶν), he went and killed or sacrificed the fatted calf for him (ἔθυσας αὐτῷ τὸν σιτευτὸν μόσχον). Luke is the only biblical writer who used this term σιτευτόν, that means fattened calf, 3 times in this story. This upset son pointed out to his father that his brother had squandered all his hard-earned property on prostitutes. Yet he was rewarding him with a special meal celebration. Does this seem fair to you?
This long parable story about the 2 sons can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories. Luke indicated that Jesus said that the servant replied to the older son (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ) that his brother had come home (ὅτι Ὁ ἀδελφός σου ἥκει). Then his father had killed or sacrificed (καὶ ἔθυσεν ὁ πατήρ σου) the fatted calf (τὸν μόσχον τὸν σιτευτόν), because he had him back safe and sound in good health (ὅτι ὑγιαίνοντα αὐτὸν ἀπέλαβεν). Once again, Luke is the only biblical writer who used this term σιτευτόν, that means fattened calf, 3 times in this story. His father was happy to have his other son healthy and back with them. He was just glad to see him. Have you ever had a family relative show up unexpectedly?
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that today (σήμερον), tomorrow (καὶ αὔριον), and the next following day (καὶ τῇ ἐχομένῃ), he would proceed on his way (πλὴν δεῖ με…πορεύεσθαι), because it is not possible (ὅτι οὐκ ἐνδέχεται) for a prophet (προφήτην) to be killed (ἀπολέσθαι) outside of Jerusalem (ἔξω Ἱερουσαλήμ). Notice that Jesus used the term “prophet (προφήτην)” to refer to himself, not the “Son of Man” as he often did. He had to die in Jerusalem because it was set in stone. In fact, many prophets had died outside of Jerusalem. Do you have a favorite place to die?
Luke uniquely had Jesus present another contemporary event that is not attested elsewhere. This time it was about a difficult to ascertain tower of Siloam in the old southern part of Jerusalem that accidently killed 18 people. Jesus wanted to know if these 18 people (ἢ ἐκεῖνοι οἱ δέκα οκτὼ) upon whom the tower of Siloam fell and killed (ἐφ’ οὓς ἔπεσεν ὁ πύργος ἐν τῷ Σιλωὰμ καὶ ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτούς) were worse sinners (δοκεῖτε ὅτι αὐτοὶ ὀφειλέται ἐγένοντο) than all the other people living in Jerusalem (παρὰ πάντας τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τοὺς κατοικοῦντας Ἱερουσαλήμ)? Did this accidental death mean that these people were sinners? Are people who die an accidental death worse than people who die at home in bed? Do you know anyone who died in an accident?
Next Luke uniquely indicated how Jesus used this contemporary event to make a point. Jesus asked them (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) if they thought (Δοκεῖτε) that these Galileans (ὅτι οἱ Γαλιλαῖοι οὗτοι) suffered this way (ὅτι ταῦτα πεπόνθασιν) because they were worse sinners than all the other Galileans (ἁμαρτωλοὶ παρὰ πάντας τοὺς Γαλιλαίους ἐγένοντο)? Jesus wanted to know if they thought that Galileans who got killed offering their sacrifice at the Temple were worse sinners than the other Galileans. Is it worse to die in Church? Does the type of death that you endure indicate what kind of sinner you were?
Luke uniquely said that at that very time (ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ καιρῷ), there were some people present (Παρῆσαν δέ τινες) who told Jesus (ἀπαγγέλλοντες αὐτῷ) about the Galileans (περὶ τῶν Γαλιλαίων), whose blood (ὧν τὸ αἷμα) Pilate (Πειλᾶτος) had mingled (ἔμιξεν) with their sacrifices (μετὰ τῶν θυσιῶν αὐτῶν). This is a unique passage of Luke that talked about a contemporary event of Jesus. Apparently, Pontius Pilate, who was rather cruel, had killed some Galileans when they were worshiping at the Jerusalem Temple. However, there is no other indication about this incident anywhere else, nor is it clear how many Galileans were involved. What do you think about killing people while they are praying in a place of worship?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that he would show them whom they ought to fear (ὑποδείξω δὲ ὑμῖν τίνα φοβηθῆτε). They were to fear those (φοβήθητε), who after killing them (τὸν μετὰ τὸ ἀποκτεῖναι), had the authority or power (ἔχοντα ἐξουσίαν) to cast them into hell or Gehenna (ἐμβαλεῖν εἰς τὴν γέενναν). Then with a solemn declaration (ναί, λέγω ὑμῖν), he said that those were the people they ought to fear (τοῦτον φοβήθητε). This is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:28, indicating a Q source. Jesus, via Matthew, warned his followers that they should fear or be afraid (φοβεῖσθε δὲ μᾶλλον) of the people who can destroy both their soul and their body (τὸν δυνάμενον καὶ ψυχὴν καὶ σῶμα ἀπολέσαι) by sending them to hell or Gehenna (ἐν γεέννῃ). Both Luke and Matthew used this Greek word for hell, “γεέννῃ,” or the English Gehenna that was based on the Hebrew word Gehinnom that was the name of the valley south of Jerusalem where burning child sacrifices would take place. However, only Matthew, not Luke, talked about the soul, ψυχὴν. Are you worried about going to hell?
Luke indicated that Jesus continued this same idea. Jesus said that the Pharisees and lawyers were witnesses (ἄρα μάρτυρές ἐστε). They approved of the deeds of their fathers or ancestors (καὶ συνευδοκεῖτε τοῖς ἔργοις τῶν πατέρων ὑμῶν), who killed the prophets (ὅτι αὐτοὶ μὲν ἀπέκτειναν αὐτοὺς), by building their tombs (ὅτι αὐτοὶ μὲν ἀπέκτειναν αὐτοὺς). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 23:31. Jesus said that these Pharisees and Scribes testified or witnessed against themselves, since they admitted that they were the descendants or sons of those people who murdered the prophets. Jesus then told them to finish up their work, using the measuring rod of their ancestors. Thus, they had the same attitude as their ancestors. However, there was very little evidence of Jewish prophets being killed. Do you have the same attitudes of your parents and grandparents?