Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said to the Sadducees (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) that those who belong to this age, the sons of this age (Οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου), marry (γαμοῦσιν) and are given in marriage (καὶ γαμίσκονται). Both Matthew, chapter 22:29, and Mark, chapter 12:24, are almost word for word, with Jesus flat out telling the Sadducees that they were wrong, without mentioning the present age. However, this reprimand by Jesus is not here in Luke. Matthew indicated that Jesus answered the Sadducees (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by telling them that they were wrong, deceived, or lead astray (εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Πλανᾶσθε). They did not know the scriptures or the writings (μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς). They also did not know the power or purpose of God (μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ Θεοῦ). Mark said that Jesus responded to the Sadducees (ἔφη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by telling them that they were wrong, deceived, or led astray (Οὐ διὰ τοῦτο πλανᾶσθε). They did not know the scriptures or the writings (μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς). They also did not know the power or purpose of God (μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ Θεοῦ). Simply put, they were ill-informed or stupid. Luke did not use this kind of language. Do you think that some people are stupid?
νηστεύω δὶς τοῦ σαββάτου, ἀποδεκατεύω πάντα ὅσα κτῶμαι.
Luke has Jesus tell this parable about a Pharisee and a tax collector that is only found in this gospel. Luke indicated that Jesus said that this Pharisee said that he fasted twice a week (νηστεύω δὶς τοῦ σαββάτου) and he gave a tenth of all his income (ποδεκατεύω πάντα ὅσα κτῶμαι). Normally, the Pharisees fasted on Mondays and Thursdays. This was a good thing. This Pharisee fasted and did not eat twice a week. Besides, he tithed all his income, as he gave 10% to the Temple. There was nothing wrong with this behavior. He was a faithful Jewish person. The problem was his attitude, not how he acted. Was is your attitude toward your religious practices?
This was another unique verse of Luke. He indicated that Jesus asked why they were not able to judge for themselves (Τί δὲ καὶ ἀφ’ ἑαυτῶν οὐ κρίνετε) what was right (τὸ δίκαιον)? Jesus wanted to know why they were not able to judge by themselves what was right and wrong. Are you a good judge of right and wrong?
Jesus continued his explanation that can also be found in Matthew, chapter 22:32, and Luke, chapter 20:38. Mark said that Jesus ended by saying that Yahweh, the Father, was not the God of the dead (οὐκ ἔστιν Θεὸς νεκρῶν) but the God of the living (ἀλλὰ ζώντων). He insisted that the Sadducees were very wrong, mistaken, or incorrect (πολὺ πλανᾶσθε).
This comment or reprimand by Jesus is similar to Matthew, chapter 22:29, but not in Luke. Mark said that Jesus responded to the Sadducees (ἔφη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by telling them that they were wrong, deceived, or led astray (Οὐ διὰ τοῦτο πλανᾶσθε). They did not know scriptures or the writings (μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς). They also did not know the power or purpose of God (μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ Θεοῦ). Simply put, they were ill-informed or stupid.
This comment or reprimand by Jesus is similar to Mark, chapter 12:24, but not in Luke. Jesus answered the Sadducees (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by telling them that they were wrong, deceived, or lead astray (εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Πλανᾶσθε). They did not know scriptures or the writings (μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς). They did not know the power or purpose of God (μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ Θεοῦ). They were ill-informed.
This parable is unique to Matthew, as Jesus concluded this parable. The landowner replied to one of them (ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς ἑνὶ αὐτῶν) with a sarcastic greeting of companion or friend (εἶπεν Ἑταῖρε). He had done nothing wrong to them (οὐκ ἀδικῶ σε). They had agreed to the one denarius pay for a day’s work (οὐχὶ δηναρίου συνεφώνησάς μοι). They should just take their money and go (ἆρον τὸ σὸν καὶ ὕπαγε). If the landowner was generous that was not the problem of this day laborer. He could give to the last hired what he gave to the first hired (θέλω δὲ τούτῳ τῷ ἐσχάτῳ δοῦναι ὡς καὶ σοί). Was he not allowed (οὐκ ἔξεστίν μοι) to do whatever he wanted to do with his own belongings (ὃ θέλω ποιῆσαι ἐν τοῖς ἐμοῖς). Were they envious with an evil eye (ἢ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου πονηρός ἐστιν) because he was generous (ὅτι ἐγὼ ἀγαθός εἰμι)? In fact, they did not mind generosity. They just wanted to know why none of that generosity came their way. That is the problem with generosity. The person who worked hard for a fair payment sometimes resents the generosity towards those who did not do as much work. Why was the hard worker for the whole day not compensated more generously than the one-hour worker? There are always two sides to every story.
Once again, Matthew alone mentions one of the 10 Commandments from Exodus, chapter 20:14. This was something all the Jewish people knew, since they had heard it said often (Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη). Everyone knew that they should not commit adultery (Οὐ μοιχεύσεις), having sex with a married woman who was not your wife. However, Matthew has this solemn statement of Jesus (γὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν) that he was demanding more. Everyone who looked at a woman lustfully (ὅτι πᾶς ὁ βλέπων γυναῖκα πρὸς τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι αὐτὴν), has already committed adultery with her in his heart (ἤδη ἐμοίχευσεν αὐτὴν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ). This was a much higher standard, not merely the act of adultery, but the planning to do so was wrong. This was adultery of the heart.
Jesus may not be the only Savior. We can learn from other religions. New is not wrong, just like the ideas of slavery have changed. This psychology of faith says we have to follow the example of Jesus, really experience the presence of God in Jesus. The Christian mission to teach all remains, but Christianity is not the final or superior religion. Christianity is the best good news, not the only good news. We appreciate all colors, but those in love say that the most beautiful woman in the world is the women that that they love.
The New Testament references the Hebrew Bible that came to be known as the Old Testament. The New Testament books were not referred to until the second century of the common era. Consensus on its contents did not occur until the late fourth century. There is nothing wrong with different points of view or inconsistencies. The first two chapters of Genesis are not contradictory. The synoptic gospels give different versions of the Baptism of Jesus. Most of us just say “so what?” We understand different points of view. The Bible had different authors over a considerable amount of time. The Old Testament took hundreds of years to complete. The New Testament took thirty to sixty years to finish. Very few could write, so that oral tradition dominated in that society. The texts themselves were rewritten, so that we say that the texts we have, with all its corrections, is the one that God wants us to have.