No marriage in the resurrection (Lk 20:35-20:35)

“But those who are

Considered worthy

Of a place

In that age,

In the resurrection

From the dead,

Neither marry

Nor are given in marriage.”

 

οἱ δὲ καταξιωθέντες τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου τυχεῖν καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῆς ἐκ νεκρῶν οὔτε γαμοῦσιν οὔτε γαμίζονται·

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that those who were considered worthy of a place in that age (οἱ δὲ καταξιωθέντες τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου τυχεῖν) of the resurrection from the dead (καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῆς ἐκ νεκρῶν) would neither marry (οὔτε γαμοῦσιν) or be given in marriage (οὔτε γαμίζονται).  Jesus’ explanation in Matthew, chapter 22:30, is almost word for word with Mark, chapter 12:25.  Mark said that in the afterlife resurrection, when the dead rise (ὅταν γὰρ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῶσιν), there will be no marriage or giving in marriage (οὔτε γαμοῦσιν οὔτε γαμίζονται).  Matthew said basically the same.  In the afterlife of the resurrection (ἐν γὰρ τῇ ἀναστάσει), there will be no marriage or giving in marriage (οὔτε γαμοῦσιν οὔτε γαμίζονται).  There will be no marriages in the afterlife.  Are you disappointed that there are no marriages in the resurrected afterlife?

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The son admits he is a sinner (Lk 15:21-15:21)

“Then the son

Said to him.

‘Father!

I have sinned

Against heaven

And before you.

I am no longer worthy

To be called

Your son.’”

 

εἶπεν δὲ ὁ υἱὸς αὐτῷ Πάτερ, ἥμαρτον εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ ἐνώπιόν σου, οὐκέτι εἰμὶ ἄξιος κληθῆναι υἱός σου.

 

This long parable story about the prodigal son can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories.  Luke indicated that Jesus said that the son said to his father (εἶπεν δὲ ὁ υἱὸς αὐτῷ Πάτερ) that he had sinned (ἥμαρτον) against heaven (εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν) and his own father (καὶ ἐνώπιόν σου).  He was no longer worthy to be called his son (οὐκέτι εἰμὶ ἄξιος κληθῆναι υἱός σου).  Some of the Greek texts have the ending sentence of verse 19, where he wanted to be treated like one of his hired hands (ποίησόν με ὡς ἕνα τῶν μισθίων σου).  This seems to be a very true contrite statement, since the words are exactly what he was thinking when he decided to return home.  Thus, this prodigal son confessed his sins and asked for repentance, after his father had already accepted him back.  Have you ever confessed that you are a sinner?

Hired servant (Lk 15:19-15:19)

“I am no longer worthy

To be called

Your son.

Treat me

Like one

Of your hired hands.”

 

οὐκέτι εἰμὶ ἄξιος κληθῆναι υἱός σου· ποίησόν με ὡς ἕνα τῶν μισθίων σου.

 

This long parable story about the prodigal son can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories.  Luke indicated that Jesus said that the prodigal son was going to say to his father that he was no longer worthy to be called his son (οὐκέτι εἰμὶ ἄξιος κληθῆναι υἱός σου).  Instead, he wanted to be treated like one of his hired hands (ποίησόν με ὡς ἕνα τῶν μισθίων σου).  Luke was the only writer in the biblical literature to use this term μισθίων 3 times within this story.  μισθίων means a paid worker, a hired servant, or a hireling, but certainly not a slave.  This unique term indicated that his father had hired people to work on his farm.  Apparently, he did not use slaves.  Have you ever disgraced your parents?

Bear the cross (Lk 14:27-14:27)

“Whoever does not carry

His cross

And follow me,

Cannot be my disciple.”

 

ὅστις οὐ βαστάζει τὸν σταυρὸν ἑαυτοῦ καὶ ἔρχεται ὀπίσω μου, οὐ δύναται εἶναί μου μαθητής.

 

Luke then had Jesus utter this famous saying about whoever does not carry his own cross (ὅστις οὐ βαστάζει τὸν σταυρὸν ἑαυτοῦ) and follow after him (καὶ ἔρχεται ὀπίσω μου), cannot be or is not able to be his disciple (οὐ δύναται εἶναί μου μαθητής).  This verse is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:38.  Matthew had Jesus repeat this remark that whoever did not take up his cross (καὶ ὃς οὐ λαμβάνει τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ) and follow after Jesus (καὶ ἀκολουθεῖ ὀπίσω μου,), was not worthy of him (οὐκ ἔστιν μου ἄξιος).  Matthew, chapter 16:24, had Jesus tell his disciples (Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ) that if anyone wanted to become his follower (Εἴ τις θέλει ὀπίσω μου ἐλθεῖν), they would have to deny themselves (ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν).  They would have to take up their cross (καὶ ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ) and follow him (καὶ ἀκολουθείτω μοι).  Mark, chapter 8:34, has the carrying of the cross as a condition of discipleship.  If you did not take up your cross (καὶ ὃς οὐ λαμβάνει τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ) and follow after Jesus (καὶ ἀκολουθεῖ ὀπίσω μου), you were not worthy of Jesus (οὐκ ἔστιν μου ἄξιος).  This assumes knowledge of the cross and suffering of Jesus.  To be a follower of Jesus, you had to follow him and take up his cross.  The hanging on the cross was the Roman way of punishment and execution.  After the death and resurrection of Jesus, the cross became a symbol of the death of Jesus.  Are you willing to take up the cross of Jesus?

Hate and discipleship (Lk 14:25-14:26)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Whoever comes

To me

And does not hate

Father,

And mother,

Wife,

And children,

Brothers

And sisters,

Yes,

Even life itself,

Cannot be my disciple.’”

 

εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς

Εἴ τις ἔρχεται πρός με καὶ οὐ μισεῖ τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν μητέρα καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ τὰ τέκνα καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς καὶ τὰς ἀδελφάς, ἔτι τε καὶ τὴν ψυχὴν ἑαυτοῦ, οὐ δύναται εἶναί μου μαθητής.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to them (εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς) that whoever came to him (Εἴ τις ἔρχεται πρός με) had to hate or love less (καὶ οὐ μισεῖ), his father (τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ), his mother (καὶ τὴν μητέρα), his wife (καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα), his children (καὶ τὰ τέκνα), his brothers (καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς), his sisters (καὶ τὰς ἀδελφάς), and his own life itself (ἔτι τε καὶ τὴν ψυχὴν ἑαυτοῦ).  Otherwise, they were not able to be his disciples (οὐ δύναται εἶναί μου μαθητής).  This verse is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:37, indicating a Q source.  Matthew indicated that Jesus called for an unconditional love with this harsh saying.  If you loved your mother or father more than Jesus (Ὁ φιλῶν πατέρα ἢ μητέρα ὑπὲρ ἐμὲ), you were not worthy of him (οὐκ ἔστιν μου ἄξιος).  If you loved your son or daughter more than Jesus (καὶ ὁ φιλῶν υἱὸν ἢ θυγατέρα ὑπὲρ ἐμὲ), then you were not worthy of him (οὐκ ἔστιν μου ἄξιος).  There were no halfway measures.  Luke also indicated that Jesus had to come first over all original family members, father, mother, brothers, and sisters, as well new family members like a wife and children.  All had to be esteemed less than Jesus.  Otherwise, they could not be his disciples.  Do you love Jesus more than any of your own family members?

The original invited ones (Lk 14:24-14:24)

“I tell you!

None of those men

Who were invited

Will taste

My dinner banquet.”’

 

λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐδεὶς τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἐκείνων τῶν κεκλημένων γεύσεταί μου τοῦ δείπνου.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that this house owner told his slave (λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν) that none of those men who were invited (ὅτι οὐδεὶς τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἐκείνων τῶν κεκλημένων) would taste his dinner banquet (γεύσεταί μου τοῦ δείπνου).  Once again, this is similar to Matthew, chapter 22:8, where this king told his slaves (τότε λέγει τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ) that the wedding feast was ready (Ὁ μὲν γάμος ἕτοιμός ἐστιν), but those originally invited were not worthy or deserving of his invitation (οἱ δὲ κεκλημένοι οὐκ ἦσαν ἄξιοι).  In either case, those originally invited would not be able to eat at this banquet.  Was this a hint about the originally invited Israelites?  Notice the original chosen ones, the Israelites, were not considered worthy.  Now the invitation went out to all people to come to the banquet feast of the son, Jesus.  Have you turned down the invitation of Jesus?

Get somebody in here (Lk 14:21-14:21)

“Thus,

The slave returned.

He reported this

To his master.

Then the owner

Of the house

Became angry.

He said

To his slave.

‘Go out at once

Into the streets

And into the lanes

Of the town!

Bring in

The poor,

The crippled,

The blind,

And the lame!’”

 

καὶ παραγενόμενος ὁ δοῦλος ἀπήγγειλεν τῷ κυρίῳ αὐτοῦ ταῦτα. τότε ὀργισθεὶς ὁ οἰκοδεσπότης εἶπεν τῷ δούλῳ αὐτοῦ Ἔξελθε ταχέως εἰς τὰς πλατείας καὶ ῥύμας τῆς πόλεως, καὶ τοὺς πτωχοὺς καὶ ἀναπήρους καὶ τυφλοὺς καὶ χωλοὺς εἰσάγαγε ὧδε.

 

Luke continued this parable.  Jesus said that this slave returned (καὶ παραγενόμενος ὁ δοῦλος).  Then he reported (ἀπήγγειλεν) to his master, the lord (τῷ κυρίῳ), all these things (ταῦτα).  The owner of the house (ὁ οἰκοδεσπότης) then became very angry (τότε ὀργισθεὶς).  He told his slave (εἶπεν τῷ δούλῳ αὐτοῦ) to go out at once (Ἔξελθε ταχέως) into the streets (εἰς τὰς πλατείας) and the lanes of the town (καὶ ῥύμας τῆς πόλεως,).  He was to bring in the poor (καὶ τοὺς πτωχοὺς), the crippled (καὶ ἀναπήρους), the blind (καὶ τυφλοὺς), and the lame (καὶ χωλοὺς) in there (ὧδε).  Once again, there are some differences with Matthew, chapter 22:8-9, who was less descriptive of those who were invited this time.  Jesus said that this king told his slaves (τότε λέγει τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ) that the wedding feast was ready (Ὁ μὲν γάμος ἕτοιμός ἐστιν).  Those originally invited were not worthy or deserving of his invitation (οἱ δὲ κεκλημένοι οὐκ ἦσαν ἄξιοι).  Therefore, they were to go into the main streets or the meeting places on the roads (πορεύεσθε οὖν ἐπὶ τὰς διεξόδους τῶν ὁδῶν).  Then they should invite everyone or as many as they could find to this wedding banquet (καὶ ὅσους ἐὰν εὕρητε καλέσατε εἰς τοὺς γάμους).  This king was intent on having this wedding dinner.  However, Luke extended the new invitations to the vulnerable in our society, the poor, the crippled, the blind, and the lame, a slightly different perspective.  Who would you invite to a dinner feast?