Eternal life (Lk 18:18-18:18)

“A certain ruler

Asked Jesus.

‘Good Teacher!

What must I do

To inherit

Eternal life?’”

 

Καὶ ἐπηρώτησέν τις αὐτὸν ἄρχων λέγων Διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ, τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω;

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that a certain ruler questioned Jesus (Καὶ ἐπηρώτησέν τις αὐτὸν ἄρχων), calling him a good teacher (λέγων Διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ).  What did he have to do to inherit eternal life (τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω)?  This incident about the man asking about eternal life can be found in Mark, chapter 10:17, and Matthew, chapter 19:16, but slightly different.  Mark had Jesus setting out on a journey (Καὶ ἐκπορευομένου αὐτοῦ εἰς ὁδὸν), when a man, not a ruler as in Luke, came running up to Jesus (προσδραμὼν εἷς).  He knelt down before Jesus (καὶ γονυπετήσας αὐτὸν).  He then questioned Jesus (ἐπηρώτα αὐτόν), calling him a good teacher (Διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ), like in Luke.  He wanted to know what he had to do (τί ποιήσω) to inherit, possess, or acquire eternal life (ἵνα ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω).  Matthew said this person was not a ruler as in Luke, but he also came to Jesus (Καὶ ἰδοὺ εἷς προσελθὼν αὐτῷ).  He called Jesus a teacher (εἶπεν Διδάσκαλε), but not a good teacher as in Luke and Mark.  He wanted to know what one good deed he could do (τί ἀγαθὸν ποιήσω) to achieve eternal life (ἵνα σχῶ ζωὴν αἰώνιον).  This person wanted to know about his own personal eternal salvation, while the normal Jewish attitude would have been to talk about how they could all be saved.  Are you worried about your eternal life?

Everybody needs food and clothing (Lk 12:30-12:30)

“The nations

Of the world

Seek after

All these things.

Your Father knows

That you need them.”

 

ταῦτα γὰρ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη τοῦ κόσμου ἐπιζητοῦσιν· ὑμῶν δὲ ὁ Πατὴρ οἶδεν ὅτι χρῄζετε τούτων·

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the nations of the world (τὰ ἔθνη τοῦ κόσμου) seek after (ἐπιζητοῦσιν) all these things (ταῦτα γὰρ πάντα).  However, your Father (ὑμῶν δὲ ὁ Πατὴρ) knows (οἶδεν) that you need them (ὅτι χρῄζετε τούτων).  Once again, Matthew, chapter 6:32, had a similar Jesus saying, indicating a common Q source, as the same theme continued.  Matthew attacked the gentile, non-Jewish people, what Luke called “the nations of the world”.  Matthew had Jesus say that those were the kinds of questions that gentiles sought or asked about (πάντα γὰρ ταῦτα τὰ ἔθνη ἐπιζητοῦσιν).  Their heavenly Father knew about everything that they needed (οἶδεν γὰρ ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος ὅτι χρῄζετε τούτων ἁπάντων).   They should not be worried, since their heavenly Father would take care of them, unlike all the other gentile, non-Jewish countries who needed to worry.  Do you worry a lot?

Food and drink (Lk 12:29-12:29)

“Do not keep seeking!

What are you

To eat?

What are you

To drink?

Do not be anxious!”

 

καὶ ὑμεῖς μὴ ζητεῖτε τί φάγητε καὶ τί πίητε, καὶ μὴ μετεωρίζεσθε

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that they should not keep seeking (καὶ ὑμεῖς μὴ ζητεῖτε) about what they were to eat (τί φάγητε) and to drink (καὶ τί πίητε).  They should not be anxious or unsure (καὶ μὴ μετεωρίζεσθε).  This is a unique Luke usage of the word μετεωρίζεσθε, that means suspended or vacillating.  Once again, Matthew, chapter 6:31, had a similar Jesus saying, indicating a common Q source.  The same theme continued.  They should not be worried or anxious (μὴ οὖν μεριμνήσητε λέγοντες).  Why were they anxious about what to eat (Τί φάγωμεν), to drink (ἤ Τί πίωμεν), or to wear (ἤ·Τί περιβαλώμεθα)?  Luke had already mentioned clothing.  He just wanted to know why they were so worried or anxious.  Are you worried or anxious?

The lilies (Lk 12:27-12:27)

“Consider the lilies!

They neither toil

Nor spin.

Yet I tell you!

Even Solomon,

In all his glory,

Was not clothed

Like one of these.”

 

κατανοήσατε τὰ κρίνα, πῶς οὔτε νήθει οὔτε ὑφαίνει· λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν, οὐδὲ Σολομὼν ἐν πάσῃ τῇ δόξῃ αὐτοῦ περιεβάλετο ὡς ἓν τούτων.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that they should consider the lilies (κατανοήσατε τὰ κρίνα).  They neither toil (πῶς οὔτε νήθει) nor spin (οὔτε ὑφαίνει).  Yet, Jesus said, with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν), that not even Solomon (οὐδὲ Σολομὼν) in all his glory (ἐν πάσῃ τῇ δόξῃ αὐτοῦ), was clothed like one of these flowers (περιεβάλετο ὡς ἓν τούτων).  Once again, Matthew, chapter 6:28-29, had a similar Jesus saying, almost word for word, indicating a common Q source, about the lilies.  Matthew indicated that Jesus wanted to know why they were worried about their clothes (καὶ περὶ ἐνδύματος τί μεριμνᾶτε).  He wanted them to look and consider the lilies of the field (καταμάθετε τὰ κρίνα τοῦ ἀγροῦ).  This is the only time that the word “καταμάθετε” appears in the New Testament writings.  It means to understand, take in a fact, consider carefully.  These lilies grew without any weary work in the field or any spinning (πῶς αὐξάνουσιν· οὐ κοπιῶσιν οὐδὲ νήθουσιν).  The verb to spin, “νήθουσιν” is unique to Matthew among all the New Testament writings.  Matthew also had Jesus utter his solemn saying (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν) that King Solomon in all his glory (ὅτι οὐδὲ Σολομὼν ἐν πάσῃ τῇ δόξῃ αὐτοῦ) did not have better looking clothing than these field flowers (περιεβάλετο ὡς ἓν τούτων).  In 1 Kings, chapter 10:1-5, the Queen of Sheba remarked about the wonderful clothes of King Solomon and his palace. Thus, the lilies of the field looked great without any work or care.  Do you look good without any care or work?

The value of sparrows (Lk 12:6-12:6)

“Are not five sparrows

Sold for two pennies?

Yet not one of them

Is forgotten

In God’s sight.”

 

οὐχὶ πέντε στρουθία πωλοῦνται ἀσσαρίων δύο; καὶ ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν οὐκ ἔστιν ἐπιλελησμένον ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus asked them about the value of 5 sparrows.  Jesus said these sparrows were sold for two pennies or assarions (οὐχὶ πέντε στρουθία πωλοῦνται ἀσσαρίων δύο).  This Roman Empire Greek “assarion” coin (ἀσσαρίων) was worth about 2 cents.  So, this total would have been about 4 cents.  Yet none of them are forgotten or neglected (καὶ ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν οὐκ ἔστιν ἐπιλελησμένον) in God’s sight (ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ).  This verse is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:29, indicating a Q source.  Jesus, via Matthew, compared human life to 2 sparrows, not 5 sparrows as here.  He asked whether these 2 sparrows (οὐχὶ δύο στρουθία) that sold for a penny or a Greek “assarion” (ἀσσαρίου πωλεῖται), were more valuable than humans.  Not one of these sparrows would fall to the ground without the heavenly Father (καὶ ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν οὐ πεσεῖται ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ἄνευ τοῦ Πατρὸς ὑμῶν).  Thus, if God was worried about these somewhat valueless sparrows, how much more would he be concerned about humans.  Do you worry about sparrows?

Martha was troubled (Lk 10:41-10:41)

“But the Lord

Answered her.

‘Martha!

Martha!

You are worried

And distracted

By many things!’”

 

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῇ ὁ Κύριος Μάρθα Μάρθα, μεριμνᾷς καὶ θορυβάζῃ περὶ πολλά

 

Luke said that the Lord answered Martha (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῇ ὁ Κύριος).  Jesus, the Lord, told Martha (Μάρθα Μάρθα) that she was too worried, anxious, troubled and distracted by many things (μεριμνᾷς καὶ θορυβάζῃ περὶ πολλά).  This almost sounds like a reprimand.  Jesus simply stated that Martha was too concerned about all the serving things that it distracted her from him.  Does your work sometimes distract you from listening to the Lord?

Do you not understand? (Mk 8:17-8:17)

“Jesus became aware

Of this.

He said to them.

‘Why are you talking

About not having

Any bread?

Do you still not

Perceive

Or understand?

Are your hearts

Hardened?’”

 

καὶ γνοὺς λέγει αὐτοῖς Τί διαλογίζεσθε ὅτι ἄρτους οὐκ ἔχετε; οὔπω νοεῖτε οὐδὲ συνίετε; πεπωρωμένην ἔχετε τὴν καρδίαν ὑμῶν;

 

This is similar to Matthew, chapter 16:8.  However, this reprimand is much sharper.  Jesus became aware or knew of their discussions (καὶ γνοὺς).  He asked them (λέγει αὐτοῖς) why were they worried, talking, or debating (Τί διαλογίζεσθε) about not having any bread (ὅτι ἄρτους οὐκ ἔχετε)?  Jesus wanted to know if they still did not perceive (οὔπω νοεῖτε) or understand (οὐδὲ συνίετε) because of their hardened hearts (πεπωρωμένην ἔχετε τὴν καρδίαν ὑμῶν).  These disciples were missing the point about Jesus, since he would provide nourishment for them.  Instead of calling them men of little faith, as Matthew did, Mark implies that Jesus seemed to indicate that they were stupid with hard hearts.