The necessities of life (Hos 2:8-2:9)

“She did not know

That it was I

Who gave her

The grain,

The wine,

The oil.

I lavished upon her


With gold,

That they used for Baal.


I will take back

My grain,

In its time.

I will take back

My wine,

In its season.

I will take away

My wool,

With my flax,

That were to cover

Her nakedness.

The prophet Hosea, like Yahweh, had given Gomer, like Israel, grain, wine, and oil. Silver and gold also came from him. Then they, the Israelites, like Gomer, used these precious metals on Baal. Therefore, he was going to take back his grain and wine at the right time in the season. He also was going to take back his wool and flax that she had used as clothing to cover her naked body. It was a sign of reproach to have a naked body.

No pity for the children (Hos 2:4-2:5)


I will have no pity

Upon her children,

Because they are children

Of whoredom.

Their mother

Has played the whore.

She conceived them,

But she has acted shamefully.

She said.

‘I will go after

My lovers.

They give me

My bread,

My water,

My wool,

My flax,

My oil,

My drink.’”

The prophet Hosea also has no pity on his or her children since they were considered the children of a prostitute. She conceived them and bore them, but she had acted shamefully. She went after her lovers in order to get bread, water, wool, flax, oil, and something to drink, basically the necessities of life. Obviously, Gomer, the prostitute, was the Israelite people, who sought their lovers among the various fertility Canaanite gods and Baals.

The correct linen holy vestments or garments (Ezek 44:17-44:19)

“When they enter

The gates

Of the inner court,

They shall wear

Linen vestments.

They shall have nothing

Of wool on them,

While they minister

At the gates

Of the inner court,

As well as within.

They shall have

Linen turbans

On their heads.

They shall have

Linen undergarments

On their loins.

They shall not

Bind themselves

With anything

That causes sweat.

When they go out

Into the outer court

To the people,

They shall remove

The vestments

In which

They have been ministering,

They shall lay them

In the holy chambers.

They shall put on

Other garments,

So that they may not

Communicate holiness

To the people

With their vestments.”

When these Zadok Levitical priests entered the gates of the inner court, they had to wear certain garments or vestments made of linen when they ministered to Yahweh. They could not have anything made of wool on them, when they were in the inner court. They would have to wear linen turbans on their heads. They also would have to wear linen underwear. They could not wear any binding clothes, anything that would make them sweat. When they went out to the outer court, they had to change clothes. They were not allowed to communicate holiness to the people in the outer court with their holy vestments. Thus, the holy linen garments were kept in the holy chambers or rooms.

Eternal salvation (Isa 51:7-51:8)

“Listen to me!

You who know righteousness!

You people!

You have my teaching in your hearts!

Do not fear the reproach of others!

Do not be dismayed

When they revile you!

The moth will eat them up

Like a garment.

The worm will eat them

Like wool.

But my deliverance will be forever.

My salvation is to all generations.”

Again, Second Isaiah asks people, especially the righteous who have his teaching in their hearts, to listen to Yahweh. They should not be afraid of the reproach of others when they are reviled. Forget about that! These revilers would be eaten up like a moth destroys a garment or worms ruin wool. Never fear, the deliverance and salvation of Yahweh is forever into many generations to come.

The good wife provides food (Prov 31:13-31:15)


“She seeks wool.

She seeks flax.

She works with willing hands.


She is like the ships of the merchant.

She brings her food from afar.


She rises while it is still night.

She provides food for her household.

She gives tasks to her servant girls.”

The good wife seeks wool and flax to work with her willing hands. She provides and gets food for the household like a ship at sea. She gets up early in the morning so that she can provide food for her household. She prepares tasks for her female servants. Obviously, this good wife is a well to do female with her servants.

The revolt of the King Mesha of Moab (2 Kings 3:4-3:5)

“King Mesha of Moab was a sheep breeder. He used to deliver annually to the king of Israel one hundred thousand lambs, and the wool of one hundred thousand rams. However when King Ahab died, the king of Moab rebelled against the king of Israel.”

King Mesha of Moab was a sheep breeder. He had to deliver 100,000 lambs and the wool of 100,000 rams to King Ahab of Israel. Once Mesha found out that King Ahab had died, he decided to stop shipping them to Israel. Interesting enough, archeologists have found a Moabite stone found in the 19th century that talks about the wars of King Mesha of Moab with King Jehoram and King Jehoshaphat. So now we have further identification of the time line.


Leprous clothing (Lev 13:47-13:59)

“When a leprous disease appears in the clothing, in woolen or linen cloth, in a warp or woof of linen or wool, or in a skin or in anything made of skin, if the disease shows greenish or reddish in the garment, whether in a warp or woof or in skin or in anything made of skin, it is a leprous disease and shall be shown to the priest.   The priest shall examine the disease.  He shall put the diseased article aside for seven days.  He shall examine the disease on the seventh day.  If the disease has spread in the cloth, in the warp or woof, or in the skin, whatever is the use of the skin, this is a spreading leprous disease.  It is unclean.   He shall burn the clothing, whether diseased in warp or woof, woolen or linen, or anything of skin, for it is a malignant spreading leprous disease.  It shall be burned in fire.”

The lepers could wear woolen, linen, or skin clothing.  If the disease showed greenish or reddish in the garment, it had to be shown to the priest.  This warp and wool refers to the threads in a fabric.  The priest was to wait 7 days to see if this mold, mildew, or stain had spread on the cloth.  If it had, he burnt the clothing.  The clothing was unclean because of the leprosy.

“If the priest makes an examination, and the disease has not spread in the clothing, in the warp or woof, or in anything of skin, then the priest shall command them to wash the article in which the disease appeared.  He shall put it aside seven days more.  The priest shall examine the diseased article after it has been washed. If the diseased spot has not changed color, though the disease has not spread, it is unclean.  You shall burn it in fire, whether the leprous spot is on the inside or the outside.”

If the disease had not spread, you were to wash the article and put it aside 7 days more.  If there is no change after the washing, then burn it.  Even after this, it is still unclean.

“If the priest makes an examination, and the disease has abated after it is washed, he shall tear the spot out of the cloth, in the warp or woof, or out of the skin.  If it appears again in the garment, in the warp or woof, or in anything of skin, it is spreading.  You shall burn with fire that in which the disease appears.  But the cloth, warp or woof, or anything of skin from which the disease disappears when you have washed it, shall then be washed a second time.  Then it shall be clean. This is the ritual law for a leprous disease in a cloth of wool or linen, either in warp or woof, or in anything of skin, to decide whether it is clean or unclean.” 

If there is nothing after it has been washed, the priest shall tear the spot out of the cloth.  If it still appears, that you burn it.   However, if everything is okay, then it should be washed a second time.  Then it shall be clean.  There were very specific rules about what made a garment clean or unclean.