“I will give you
That none of your opponents
Will be able
ἐγὼ γὰρ δώσω ὑμῖν στόμα καὶ σοφίαν, ᾗ οὐ δυνήσονται ἀντιστῆναι ἢ ἀντειπεῖν ἅπαντες οἱ ἀντικείμενοι ὑμῖν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that he would give them (ἐγὼ γὰρ δώσω ὑμῖν) words or more precisely a mouth to speak (στόμα) wisdom (καὶ σοφίαν) that none of their opponents (ᾗ οὐ… ἅπαντες οἱ ἀντικείμενοι ὑμῖν) would be able to withstand (δυνήσονται ἀντιστῆναι) or contradict (ἀντειπεῖν). Mark chapter 13:11, and Matthew, chapter 10:20, had a somewhat similar saying of Jesus. Mark indicated that Jesus said that they were to say (τοῦτο λαλεῖτε) whatever would be given to them (ἀλλ’ ὃ ἐὰν δοθῇ ὑμῖν) at that hour in time (ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ). They would not be speaking (οὐ γὰρ ἐστε ὑμεῖς οἱ λαλοῦντες), but the Holy Spirit would be speaking (ἀλλὰ τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον) for them. Matthew, also indicated that Jesus said that they would not be speaking (οὐ γὰρ ὑμεῖς ἐστε οἱ λαλοῦντες), but the Spirit of their Father would be speaking through them (ἀλλὰ τὸ Πνεῦμα τοῦ Πατρὸς ὑμῶν τὸ λαλοῦν ἐν ὑμῖν). Both Mark and Matthew emphasized that the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of the Father, would speak for them and through them, so that they did not have to worry or prepare anything beforehand. Luke never mentioned the Holy Spirit, who otherwise appeared quite often in this gospel, like Mark and Matthew did. Instead, Luke emphasized that Jesus himself would give them important words of wisdom. Have you ever gotten words from the Holy Spirit?
“Salt is good.
But if salt
Has lost its taste,
How can its saltiness
Καλὸν οὖν τὸ ἅλας· ἐὰν δὲ καὶ τὸ ἅλας μωρανθῇ, ἐν τίνι ἀρτυθήσεται;
Luke indicated that Jesus said that salt was good (Καλὸν οὖν τὸ ἅλας). But if the salt has lost its taste (ἐὰν δὲ καὶ τὸ ἅλας μωρανθῇ), how can its saltiness be restored or re-seasoned (ἐν τίνι ἀρτυθήσεται)? This saying of Jesus can be found in Mark, chapter 9:50, and Matthew, chapter 5:13. Salt was important not just as a spice and preservative, but it represented wisdom and purity in the ancient world and Judaism. Matthew had Jesus turn to his disciples to remind them that they were the salt of the earth or the land (Ὑμεῖς ἐστε τὸ ἅλας τῆς γῆς). The other two gospel writers just had statements about salt, rather than speaking explicitly to the disciples. Matthew switched to the 3rd person from the 2nd person, when he explained about salt losing its taste (ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ἅλας μωρανθῇ). How can that taste be restored to the salt (ἐν τίνι ἁλισθήσεται)? Mark indicated that Jesus said that salt was good (καλὸν τὸ ἅλας). However, if the salt has lost its taste or saltiness (ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ἅλας ἄναλον γένηται), if it is insipid, how can the taste be restored to the salt (ἐν τίνι αὐτὸ ἀρτύσετε)? How can you season the salt?
“The queen of the South
At the judgment
Against the people
Of this generation.
She will condemn them.
Because she came
From the ends of the earth
To listen to
The wisdom of Solomon.
βασίλισσα νότου ἐγερθήσεται ἐν τῇ κρίσει μετὰ τῶν ἀνδρῶν τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης καὶ κατακρινεῖ αὐτούς· ὅτι ἦλθεν ἐκ τῶν περάτων τῆς γῆς ἀκοῦσαι τὴν σοφίαν Σολομῶνος, καὶ ἰδοὺ πλεῖον Σολομῶνος ὧδε.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that the queen of the South (βασίλισσα νότου) would rise (ἐγερθήσεται) at the judgment time (ἐν τῇ κρίσει) against the men or people of this generation. She will condemn them (καὶ κατακρινεῖ αὐτούς), because she came from the ends of the earth (ὅτι ἦλθεν ἐκ τῶν περάτων τῆς γῆς) to listen to the wisdom of Solomon (ἀκοῦσαι τὴν σοφίαν Σολομῶνος). However, someone greater than Solomon is here (καὶ ἰδοὺ πλεῖον Σολομῶνος ὧδε). This saying about the Queen of Sheba can also be found in Matthew, chapter 12:42, so that perhaps this is a Q source. However, in Luke here, it preceded the comments about the men of Nineveh, while it was the reverse in Matthew. Why was this unnamed Queen of Sheba able to give a judgment on this generation? She was not even Jewish. However, she visited King Solomon in 1 Kings, chapter 10:1-13, with the same story repeated in 2 Chronicles, chapter 9:1-12. This mythical mysterious woman came from Sheba, but no one knows exactly where that was or her specific name. She might have been from around the gold mines at Ophir, wherever that might be. This might explain her wealth in spices, gold, and precious stones. Anyway, King Solomon answered all her questions with great wisdom. She observed all his wisdom, plus his house, his food, his clothing, and his servants. She praised King Solomon, the son of King David, because his wisdom exceeded what she had anticipated and his prosperity exceeded her expectations. Matthew and Luke both called her the Queen of the South (βασίλισσα νότου). Matthew also said that she would rise up at the judgment time against this generation and condemn them. She had come from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon. Now, Matthew reminded them that someone greater than King Solomon was there among them, Jesus himself. Do you recognize greatness when you see it?
By all her children.”
καὶ ἐδικαιώθη ἡ σοφία ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that wisdom (ἡ σοφία) would be vindicated (καὶ ἐδικαιώθη) by all her children (ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς). This is similar to Matthew, chapter 11:19. This personification of wisdom would have the justified end result that righteousness would show up in its deeds or its children. Do your children show that you are wise?
“All spoke well of him.
They were amazed
At the gracious words
From his mouth.
‘Is not this Joseph’s son?’”
καὶ πάντες ἐμαρτύρουν αὐτῷ καὶ ἐθαύμαζον ἐπὶ τοῖς λόγοις τῆς χάριτος τοῖς ἐκπορευομένοις ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔλεγον Οὐχὶ υἱός ἐστιν Ἰωσὴφ οὗτος;
This story of Jesus astonishing the people in Nazareth can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Mark, chapter 6:2, and Matthew, chapter 13:54, and Luke here. Luke said that all the people in the synagogue spoke well or testified in favor of Jesus (καὶ πάντες ἐμαρτύρουν αὐτῷ). They were amazed at the gracious words (καὶ ἐθαύμαζον ἐπὶ τοῖς λόγοις τῆς χάριτος) that came from his mouth (τοῖς ἐκπορευομένοις ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ). At first, they were excited about how good Jesus was. Then they said (καὶ ἔλεγον) was he not Joseph’s son (Οὐχὶ υἱός ἐστιν Ἰωσὴφ οὗτος)? Thus, they were astonished and wondered where did he get all his wisdom. They seemed surprised that Jesus was so smart or so important. They would have known him for some time as merely the son of Joseph in Nazareth.
Καὶ Ἰησοῦς προέκοπτεν ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ καὶ ἡλικίᾳ καὶ χάριτι παρὰ Θεῷ καὶ ἀνθρώποις.
Luke said that Jesus increased or progressed (Καὶ Ἰησοῦς προέκοπτεν) in wisdom (ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ) and maturity (καὶ ἡλικίᾳ). He also increased in grace or favor before God and men (καὶ χάριτι παρὰ Θεῷ καὶ ἀνθρώποις). In other words, Jesus matured as a human person, just as he done earlier in verse 40, and John had done in chapter 1:80. This also had happened to the prophet Samuel in 1 Samuel, chapter 2:26. Matthew, in his infancy story, chapters 1-2, never mentioned any growth or increase on the part of the infant child. Jesus truly was divine and human at the same time. In both his divine and human nature, Jesus grew or matured.
“The child grew.
He became strong.
Filled with wisdom.
The grace of God
Was upon him.”
Τὸ δὲ παιδίον ηὔξανεν καὶ ἐκραταιοῦτο πληρούμενον σοφίᾳ, καὶ χάρις Θεοῦ ἦν ἐπ’ αὐτό.
Interesting enough, Luke has Jesus grow in wisdom in the same way that John had done earlier in chapter 1:80. Growth implies movement from an inferior stage to a higher stage. Clearly, this was an important part of showing the human side of Jesus. Luke said that the child Jesus grew (Τὸ δὲ παιδίον ηὔξανεν). He became a strong person (καὶ ἐκραταιοῦτο), filled with wisdom (πληρούμενον σοφίᾳ), because the grace or favor of God (καὶ χάρις Θεοῦ) was upon him (ἦν ἐπ’ αὐτό). This also implies that God the Father favored or graced him, showing the distinction between God the Father and God the Son. Jesus was a special child.