New wine in old wine skins (Mk 2:22-2:22)

“No one puts

New wine

Into old wine skins.

Otherwise,

The wine

Will burst

The skins.

The wine is lost.

So are the skins.

But one puts

New wine

Into fresh wine skins.”

 

καὶ οὐδεὶς βάλλει οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς παλαιούς· εἰ δὲ μή, ῥήξει ὁ οἶνος τοὺς ἀσκούς, καὶ ὁ οἶνος ἀπόλλυται καὶ οἱ ἀσκοί. ἀλλὰ οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινούς.

 

Luke, chapter 5:37-38, and Matthew, chapter 9:17, are similar to Mark, so that Mark might be the source of this saying about wine skins.  Luke also had a more elaborate explanation.  Mark has Jesus continue with his metaphors or parables.  No one pours new wine (καὶ οὐδεὶς βάλλει οἶνον νέον) into old wine skins or leather pouches (εἰς ἀσκοὺς παλαιούς), because they would crack.  The old wine skins would burst open (εἰ δὲ μή, ῥήξει ὁ οἶνος τοὺς ἀσκούς).  The new wine would be spilled, lost, or destroyed (καὶ ὁ οἶνος ἀπόλλυται) as well as the wine skins (καὶ οἱ ἀσκοὶ).  New wine should be poured (ἀλλὰ οἶνον νέον) into fresh or new wine skin leather pouches (εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινούς).  Do not mix up the new with the old.

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Golgotha (Mt 27:33-27:34)

“They came to a place

Called Golgotha.

This means

Place of a skull.

They offered him

Wine to drink.

This wine was

Mixed with gall.

But when Jesus

Tasted it,

He would not drink it.”

 

Καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τόπον λεγόμενον Γολγοθᾶ, ὅ ἐστιν κρανίου τόπος λεγόμενος,

ἔδωκαν αὐτῷ πιεῖν οἶνον μετὰ χολῆς μεμιγμένον· καὶ γευσάμενος οὐκ ἠθέλησεν πιεῖν.

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 15:22-23, but Mark has myrrh not gall.  In Luke, chapter 23:33, the place was simple called the skull, while in John, chapter 19:17, it was also called Golgotha with the explanation.  Matthew said that they came to a place called Golgotha (Καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τόπον λεγόμενον Γολγοθᾶ) that means “Place of a skull (ὅ ἐστιν κρανίου τόπος λεγόμενος).”  There they offered him some wine to drink (ἔδωκαν αὐτῷ πιεῖν οἶνον) in order to dull the pain.  This wine was mixed with gall or bitter herbs (μετὰ χολῆς μεμιγμένον).  But when Jesus experienced this taste (καὶ γευσάμενος), he did not want to drink it (οὐκ ἠθέλησεν πιεῖν).  This Golgotha apparently is a transliteration of the Aramaic word for skull.  This place was near Jerusalem.  The exact location is not known, but the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is the traditional place for Calvary, based on the Latin translation of Golgotha, probably a little east of Jerusalem.

This is my blood (Mt 26:27-26:28)

“Then he took a cup.

After giving thanks,

He gave it

To them.

He said.

‘Drink from it!

All of you!

This is my blood

Of the covenant,

Which is poured out

For many

For the forgiveness of sins.”

 

καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς λέγων Πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες·

τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυννόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν.

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 14:23-24, and similar in Luke, chapter 22:17, but preceding the blessing of the bread.  John, chapter 13:53-58, has Jesus preaching about eating and drinking the body and blood of the Son of Man.  Matthew and Mark agree that Jesus took a drinking cup (καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον), assuming this cup was filled with wine.  After giving thanks (καὶ εὐχαριστήσας), Jesus gave them this drinking cup (ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς).  He told all of them to drink from this cup (λέγων Πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες).  He said that this was his blood of the covenant (τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης), that was to be poured out for many people (τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυννόμενον) in order to forgive sins (εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν).  The blessing of the wine had a more elaborate narrative than the bread.  However, both would become part of the new developing Christian Eucharistic worship service.  Thus, the Greek word “εὐχαριστήσας (giving thanks)” became the name of the Last Supper Eucharist remembrance event.

The fourth beatitude about righteousness (Mt 5:6-5:6)

“Blessed are

Those who hunger for righteousness,

Those who thirst for righteousness,

They shall be filled.”

 

μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην, ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσοντ

 

The happy, blessed, and fortunate ones (μακάριοι) were those who hungered and thirsted for righteousness (οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην).  They would not go away empty handed.  They would be satisfied or filled (ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσοντ).  Isaiah, chapter 55:1-2 has an invitation to those without money to come to drink and eat.  They could have water, wine, milk and bread.  They would enjoy themselves at this banquet.  Matthew may have been referencing Psalm 107:4-9, where Yahweh had helped a small group of lost Israelites who were hungry and thirsty, while wandering in the desert.  He satisfied their thirst and filled their hunger with good food.  In their distress, they called out to Yahweh, who heard them.  He led them in a straight path to an inhabited town.  Thus, they gave thanks to Yahweh.  So too, those who hungered and thirsted for righteousness, the right way of doing things, would be satisfied or filled with this righteousness.

Yahweh is on their side (Zech 9:14-9:15)

“Then Yahweh will appear

Over them.

His arrow goes forth

Like lightning.

Yahweh God

Will sound the trumpet.

He will march forth

In the whirlwinds of the south.

Yahweh of hosts

Will protect them.

They shall devour their enemies.

They shall tread down

Those shooting sling shot stones.

They shall drink

Their blood

Like wine.

They will be full of blood

Like a drenched bowl,

As the corners of the altar.”

Yahweh will clearly be on their side.  Yahweh was going to be like a lightning arrow.  He was going to sound the trumpet for them to march forward.  He was going to be like a whirlwind protecting them.  Thus, they would devour their enemies and tread down the sling shot shooters.  They would be so successful that they would drink the blood of their enemies like wine.  Their bowls would be so drenched with blood that it would look like the corners of the sacrificial altars in the Temple.

Question for the priests about holiness (Hag 2:11-2:12)

“Thus says Yahweh of hosts.

‘Ask the priests

For a ruling.

If one carries

Consecrated meat

In the fold

Of one’s garment,

Then if the fold

Of his garment,

Touches

Bread,

Or stew,

Or wine,

Or oil,

Or any kind of food,

Does it become holy?’

The priests answered.

‘No.’”

Haggai gave an example of what Yahweh was talking about.  Haggai was to ask the priests about holiness.  If someone was carrying consecrated holy meat in the fold or cover of his garment and it touched bread, stew, wine, oil, or any other kind of food, would that food then become holy by touching it?  That was the dilemma.  How could holiness be passed on?  The priests answered negatively, by saying no, because these things could not become holy by merely touching a holy thing accidently.

The ironic wine preacher (Mic 2:11-2:11)

“If someone were to go about

Uttering empty falsehoods,

Saying.

‘I will preach to you

About wine.

I will preach to you

About strong drink.’

Such a one

Would be

The preacher

For this people!”

In an ironic twist, Micah said that if someone were to preach empty lies by talking about the great value of wine and strong alcoholic drinks, then he surely would be a popular preacher among the people.