Joy over a repentant sinner (Lk 15:7-15:7)

“Just so,

I tell you!

There will be more joy

In heaven

Over one sinner

Who repents

Than over ninety-nine

Righteous persons

Who need no repentance.”

 

λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι οὕτως χαρὰ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἔσται ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι ἢ ἐπὶ ἐνενήκοντα ἐννέα δικαίοις οἵτινες οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν μετανοίας.

 

Luke had Jesus conclude this parable about the lost sheep.  Jesus said with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν) that there would be more joy in heaven (ὅτι οὕτως χαρὰ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἔσται) over one repentant sinner (ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι) than over the 99 righteous people (ἢ ἐπὶ ἐνενήκοντα ἐννέα δικαίοις) who do not need repentance (οἵτινες οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν μετανοίας).  This explanation of the lost sheep parable can also be found in Matthew, chapter 18:14, with some minor changes, indicating a Q source.  Luke compared this lost sheep to a repentant sinner.  In Matthew, Jesus explained that it was not the will of his heavenly Father (οὕτως οὐκ ἔστιν θέλημα ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ Πατρὸς ὑμῶν τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς) that these little ones should be lost or perish (ἵνα ἀπόληται ἓν τῶν μικρῶν τούτων).  The heavenly Father did not want to lose anyone, just like the good shepherd did not want to lose any one of his wandering sheep.  Have you ever lost someone close to you?

Light and heavy beatings (Lk 12:48-12:48)

“But the one

Who did not know,

Yet did

What deserved a beating,

Will receive

A light beating.

Everyone

To whom much is given,

Much will be required.

The one

To whom much

Has been entrusted,

Even more

Will be demanded.” 

 

ὁ δὲ μὴ γνοὺς, ποιήσας δὲ ἄξια πληγῶν, δαρήσεται ὀλίγας. παντὶ δὲ ᾧ ἐδόθη πολύ, πολὺ ζητηθήσεται παρ’ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ᾧ παρέθεντο πολύ, περισσότερον αἰτήσουσιν αὐτόν.

 

This is once again, unique to Luke.  He indicated that Jesus said that the one slave who did not know (ὁ δὲ μὴ γνοὺς) the will of his master, yet did the bad things that were worthy of punishment (ποιήσας δὲ ἄξια πληγῶν), also deserved a light beating (δαρήσεται ὀλίγας).  Everyone to whom much is given (παντὶ δὲ ᾧ ἐδόθη πολύ), much will be required (πολὺ ζητηθήσεται παρ’ αὐτοῦ).  The one to whom much has been entrusted (καὶ ᾧ παρέθεντο πολύ), even more will be demanded (περισσότερον αἰτήσουσιν αὐτόν).  Jesus made a distinction between those who knew the will of the master or lord and still disobeyed him, and those who did not know the will of the master but acted badly.  The latter would not be punished as much as those that knew what they should have been doing.  Those who have much, even much more would be required or demanded.  Do you live up to your responsibilities?

The beating (Lk 12:47-12:47)

“That slave

Who knew what

His master wanted,

But did not prepare himself

Or do what was wanted,

Will receive

A severe beating.”

 

ἐκεῖνος δὲ ὁ δοῦλος ὁ γνοὺς τὸ θέλημα τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ καὶ μὴ ἑτοιμάσας ἢ ποιήσας πρὸς τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ δαρήσεται πολλάς·

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that this slave who knew what his master or lord wanted (ἐκεῖνος δὲ ὁ δοῦλος ὁ γνοὺς τὸ θέλημα τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ), but did not prepare himself (καὶ μὴ ἑτοιμάσας) or do the will of his master (ἢ ποιήσας πρὸς τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ), will receive a severe beating with many blows (δαρήσεται πολλάς).  This addition about the knowing and not knowing slave was the end of this parable in Luke, but not in Matthew.  Do you think that slaves should be beaten?

Do what I tell you! (Lk 6:46-6:46)

“Why do you call me?

‘Lord!

Lord!’

But you do not do

What I tell you.”

 

Τί δέ με καλεῖτε Κύριε, καὶ οὐ ποιεῖτε ἃ λέγω;

 

Luke indicated that Jesus asked this question.  Why do you call me Lord! Lord (Τί δέ με καλεῖτε Κύριε κύριε)?  However, you do not do what I tell you to do (καὶ οὐ ποιεῖτε ἃ λέγω).  This verse is somewhat similar to Matthew, chapter 7:21.  There Jesus said that not everyone who called him Lord, Lord, would enter the kingdom of heaven, but only those who did the will of his Father in heaven.  It was not good enough to simply call Jesus the Lord, but you had to do his will and the will of his Father to enter the heavenly kingdom.  Do you do what Jesus tells you to do?

The kingdom of heaven (Mt 7:21-7:21)

“Not everyone

Who says to me.

‘Lord!

Lord!’

Will enter

The kingdom of heaven.

But only the one

Who does the will

Of my Father

In heaven.”

 

Οὐ πᾶς ὁ λέγων μοι Κύριε, εἰσελεύσεται εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν, ἀλλ’ ὁ ποιῶν τὸ θέλημα τοῦ Πατρός μου τοῦ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς.

 

This verse is somewhat similar to Luke, chapter 6:46.  Matthew has Jesus say that not everyone who called Jesus Lord! Lord! (Οὐ πᾶς ὁ λέγων μοι Κύριε Κύριε) would enter the kingdom of heaven (εἰσελεύσεται εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν).  Only those who did the will of his Father in heaven (ἀλλ’ ὁ ποιῶν τὸ θέλημα τοῦ Πατρός μου τοῦ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς) would enter the kingdom of heavens.  It was not good enough to simply call Jesus the Lord, but you had to do the will of his Father to enter the heavenly kingdom,

The sixth beatitude on pure of heart (Mt 5:8-5:8)

“Blessed are

The pure in heart!

They will see God.”

 

μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ, ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν Θεὸν ὄψονται.

 

The happy, blessed, and fortunate ones (μακάριοι) would be those who have a pure heart (οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ).  Their reward would be that they would see or behold God (ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν Θεὸν ὄψονται).  The heart was considered the center of thought and will.  Thus, we often hear people today who say that a person has a good heart.  They are good hearted.  The heart represents the whole person, so if the heart is pure, the whole person was pure.  Only the pure in heart would see God, which was a special reward.  In Psalm 24:3-4, they wanted to know who could ascend the hill to enter the holy place of Yahweh’s Temple.  Only those who had clean hands and a pure heart could enter the holy place, since they could not have a false or deceptive heart.  Then, they would receive the blessing from Yahweh.  They were the ones who would see the face of the God of Jacob.

Justification by Faith

Faith is the response of the total self, the mind, will and affections.  Being justified is a personal phenomenon.  Service and love are more important than right beliefs and sound doctrine.  You do your own believing.  God transforms the heart and you experience God’s love.  Good works are a correlation to faith.  Protestants love the apostle Paul.  They have a tendency to over emphasis the written Bible with an emphasis on private religious experience.  Diversity is good, since most Protestant groups have broken off from another Protestant group or from the Roman Catholic Church.  In a certain sense heretical or diverse views are expected rather than one orthodox single view.