Food and drink (Lk 12:29-12:29)

“Do not keep seeking!

What are you

To eat?

What are you

To drink?

Do not be anxious!”

 

καὶ ὑμεῖς μὴ ζητεῖτε τί φάγητε καὶ τί πίητε, καὶ μὴ μετεωρίζεσθε

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that they should not keep seeking (καὶ ὑμεῖς μὴ ζητεῖτε) about what they were to eat (τί φάγητε) and to drink (καὶ τί πίητε).  They should not be anxious or unsure (καὶ μὴ μετεωρίζεσθε).  This is a unique Luke usage of the word μετεωρίζεσθε, that means suspended or vacillating.  Once again, Matthew, chapter 6:31, had a similar Jesus saying, indicating a common Q source.  The same theme continued.  They should not be worried or anxious (μὴ οὖν μεριμνήσητε λέγοντες).  Why were they anxious about what to eat (Τί φάγωμεν), to drink (ἤ Τί πίωμεν), or to wear (ἤ·Τί περιβαλώμεθα)?  Luke had already mentioned clothing.  He just wanted to know why they were so worried or anxious.  Are you worried or anxious?

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Do not be anxious! (Lk 12:22-12:22)

“Jesus said

To his disciples.

‘Therefore,

I tell you!

Do not worry

About your life!

What will you eat?

Do not worry

About your body!

What will you wear?’”

 

Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ Διὰ τοῦτο λέγω ὑμῖν· μὴ μεριμνᾶτε τῇ ψυχῇ τί φάγητε, μηδὲ τῷ σώματι τί ἐνδύσησθε.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to his disciples (Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ), with a solemn pronouncement (Διὰ τοῦτο λέγω ὑμῖν), that because of this, they did not have to worry or be anxious (μὴ μεριμνᾶτε) about their life or soul (τῇ ψυχῇ), what to eat (τί φάγητε), or about their body (μηδὲ τῷ σώματι), what to wear (τί ἐνδύσησθε).  Matthew, chapter 6:25, had a similar Jesus saying, indicating a common Q source.  Matthew had Jesus begin with his solemn saying (λέγω ὑμῖν) that if they were to serve God only (Διὰ τοῦτο), then they did not have to be worried or anxious (μὴ μεριμνᾶτε).  They should not worry about their life (τῇ ψυχῇ ὑμῶν), their food (τί φάγητε) or their drink (ἢ τί πίητε).  They should not worry about their body (μηδὲ τῷ σώματι ὑμῶν), and what to wear (τί ἐνδύσησθε).  Thus, worry about God and what to eat and wear will be taken care of for you.  What do you worry about?

What to take on their mission (Mk 6:8-6:9)

“Jesus ordered them

To take nothing

For their journey,

Except a staff.

There would be

No bread,

No bag,

No money in their belts.

But they were

To wear sandals,

But not put on

Two tunics.”

 

καὶ παρήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδὲν αἴρωσιν εἰς ὁδὸν εἰ μὴ ῥάβδον μόνον, μὴ ἄρτον, μὴ πήραν, μὴ εἰς τὴν ζώνην χαλκόν,

ἀλλὰ ὑποδεδεμένους σανδάλια, καὶ μὴ ἐνδύσησθε δύο χιτῶνας.

 

Equivalent passages to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 10:9-10, and Luke, chapter 9:3, who is closer to Mark.  Thus, Mark indicated that Jesus told them what they could not bring with them on their mission.  Jesus instructed them that they should bring nothing for their journey (καὶ παρήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδὲν αἴρωσιν εἰς ὁδὸν).  They could only bring a staff or walking stick (εἰ μὴ ῥάβδον μόνον).  They could not bring any bread (μὴ ἄρτον), a bag or sack (μὴ πήραν), or money in their belts (μὴ εἰς τὴν ζώνην χαλκόν).  This was similar to what Matthew had said about not bringing any gold, silver, or copper in their money belts, since they did not need money.  Matthew had said that they should not bring a staff or sandals, but bring food.  Mark was the reverse here, since he said that they should wear sandals (ἀλλὰ ὑποδεδεμένους σανδάλια) and have a walking stick without any food or bread.  However, they both agreed that they did not need two tunics (καὶ μὴ ἐνδύσησθε δύο χιτῶνας), since one would be enough.  This was a very strong demand on these missionaries of Jesus.

You took care of me (Mt 25:35-25:36)

“I was hungry!

You gave me food!

I was thirsty!

You gave me something

To drink!

I was a stranger!

You welcomed me!

I was naked!

You gave me

Clothing!

I was sick!

You took care of me!

I was in prison!

You visited me!”

 

ἐπείνασα γὰρ καὶ ἐδώκατέ μοι φαγεῖν, ἐδίψησα καὶ ἐποτίσατέ με, ξένος ἤμην καὶ συνηγάγετέ με,

γυμνὸς καὶ περιεβάλετέ με, ἠσθένησα καὶ ἐπεσκέψασθέ με, ἐν φυλακῇ ἤμην καὶ ἤλθατε πρός με.

 

This last judgment section is unique to Matthew.  Jesus said to the sheep on the right side that they had taken care of him.  He said that when he was hungry, they gave him food to eat (ἐπείνασα γὰρ καὶ ἐδώκατέ μοι φαγεῖν).  When he was thirsty, they gave him something to drink (ἐδίψησα καὶ ἐποτίσατέ με).  When he was a stranger, they kindly took him in (ξένος ἤμην καὶ συνηγάγετέ με).  When he was naked, they gave him clothes to wear (γυμνὸς καὶ περιεβάλετέ με).  When he was sick, they visited and took care of him (ἠσθένησα καὶ ἐπεσκέψασθέ με).  When he was in prison, they came to visit him (ἐν φυλακῇ ἤμην καὶ ἤλθατε πρός με).  All of this was in the first person singular.  This sounds like the beatitudes mentioned earlier in chapter 5:3-11, but here they are more specific and personal.

Seek the kingdom first (Mt 6:31-6:33)

“Therefore,

Do not be anxious!

Saying.

‘What will we eat?

What will we drink?

What will we wear?’

The gentiles

Strive for all these things.

Your heavenly Father

Knows

That you need

All these things.

But strive first

For the kingdom!

Strive

For his righteousness!

Then all these things

Will be given

To you as well.”

 

μὴ οὖν μεριμνήσητε λέγοντες· Τί φάγωμεν; ἤ· Τί πίωμεν; ἤ· Τί περιβαλώμεθα;

πάντα γὰρ ταῦτα τὰ ἔθνη ἐπιζητοῦσιν· οἶδεν γὰρ ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος ὅτι χρῄζετε τούτων ἁπάντων.

ζητεῖτε δὲ πρῶτον τὴν βασιλείαν καὶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην αὐτοῦ, καὶ ταῦτα πάντα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν.

 

Once again, Luke, chapter 12:29-31, has a similar Jesus saying, indicating a common Q source.  The same theme continues.  They should not be worried or anxious (μὴ οὖν μεριμνήσητε λέγοντες).  Why are they anxious about what to eat (Τί φάγωμεν), to drink (ἤ Τί πίωμεν), or to wear (ἤ·Τί περιβαλώμεθα)?  Those are the kind of questions that gentiles ask about (πάντα γὰρ ταῦτα τὰ ἔθνη ἐπιζητοῦσιν).  Matthew continued his attack on the gentile, non-Jewish people.  Their heavenly Father knew about everything that they needed (οἶδεν γὰρ ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος ὅτι χρῄζετε τούτων ἁπάντων).  Thus, they should seek or strive first (ζητεῖτε δὲ πρῶτον) for the kingdom (τὴν βασιλείαν) and his righteousness (καὶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην αὐτοῦ).  Then all these other things would be taken care of for them (καὶ ταῦτα πάντα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν).  A couple of manuscripts say kingdom of God (βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ), instead of just the kingdom, but that is not in the main manuscripts.  Matthew always used the kingdom of heaven, not the kingdom of God.

The failure of the future false prophets (Zech 13:3-13:6)

“If any prophets appear again,

Their fathers,

With their mothers who bore them,

Will say to them.

‘You shall not live.

You speak lies

In the name of Yahweh!’

Their fathers,

With their mothers who bore them,

Shall pierce them through

When they prophesy.

On that day,

The prophets,

Every one of them,

Will be ashamed

Of their visions

When they prophesy.

They will not put on

A hairy mantle

In order to deceive.

But each of them will say.

‘I am no prophet.

I am a tiller of the soil.

The land has been my possession

Since my youth.’

If anyone asks them.

‘What are these wounds

On your chest?’

The answer will be.

‘I received

These wounds

In the house of my friends.’”

Yahweh warned, via Zechariah, that future prophets would not fare well.  Fathers and mothers who had children who wanted to become prophets were told to tell them that they are lying in the name of Yahweh.  In fact, these young men were not to live, since their parents would kill them with a sword.  All the prophets would be ashamed.  They would not wear their normal prophetic hairy coats.  Instead, they would pretend to be farmers.  If anyone wanted to know why they had cuts on their chests like prophets, they would say that their friends had done it.  Clearly, this was the end of institutional prophecy.  The very few remaining prophets would be afraid to be pointed out, since they might be put to death.

The future of Israel (Hos 3:4-3:5)

“The Israelites

Shall remain many days

Without a king

Or a prince.

They shall remain

Without sacrifice

Or pillar,

Without ephod

Or teraphim.

Afterward,

The Israelites

Shall return.

They shall seek

Yahweh,

Their God,

With David

Their king.

They shall come

In awe

To Yahweh,

To his goodness,

In the latter days.”

Hosea that predicted that the Israelites would spend many days without a king, prince, or leader. They also would be without sacrifices, since there would be no temple or pillar to worship at. There would be no high priest who would wear the ephod. There would be no teraphim or household gods, implying that the Israelites had some of these gods as in Genesis, chapter 31. The good news was that these Israelites would eventually seek Yahweh, their God. They would have David or his descendants as their king. In awe, they would return to the good Yahweh in the days to come.