Luke said that the Scribes (οἱ γραμματεῖς) and the chief priests (καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς) realized or perceived (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ) that he had told this parable against them (ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην). There was something similar in Matthew chapter 21:45, and Mark, chapter 12:12. Mark said that the unnamed “they” realized or knew that Jesus had told this parable against them (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν εἶπεν). They were the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard. The landowner was God the Father. The slaves were the Israelite prophets, while Jesus was the Son of the Father. In Matthew, the chief priests and the Pharisees (οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) did not have to wait for an explanation of this parable about the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard. They knew or realized, on hearing (Καὶ ἀκούσαντες) this parable story (τὰς παραβολὰς αὐτοῦ), that these evil tenants that Jesus was talking about was them (ἔγνωσαν ὅτι περὶ αὐτῶν λέγει). Thus, the Jerusalem Jewish religious leaders understood that this parable was clearly aimed at them. Have you ever realized that people were talking about you?
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that there was need of only one thing (ὀλίγων δέ ἐστιν χρεία ἢ ἑνός). Mary had chosen the better part (Μαριὰμ γὰρ τὴν ἀγαθὴν μερίδα ἐξελέξατο), in listening. This would not be taken away from her (ἥτις οὐκ ἀφαιρεθήσεται αὐτῆς). Jesus was clear, being a listening disciple was better than running around serving people. Listening was important. Household duties can wait. Martha, the welcoming lady, lost out to her listening sister, Mary. Quit complaining. Just do the work and listen to Jesus. Do you prefer to work or listen?
Luke said that the 2 disciples from John went to Jesus (παραγενόμενοι δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν οἱ ἄνδρες). They said (εἶπαν) that John the Baptist had sent them to him (Ἰωάνης ὁ Βαπτιστὴς ἀπέστειλεν ἡμᾶς πρὸς σὲ) to ask him if he was the one to come (λέγων Σὺ εἶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος) or should they wait or expect another one (ἢ ἄλλον προσδοκῶμεν)? This is the same question that can be found in Matthew, chapter 11:3, indicating a possible Q source. These disciples of John came to Jesus. They had one big important question to ask. Was he the expected Messiah or should they wait for someone else? Who are you waiting for?
Luke said that John the Baptist summoned two of his disciples (καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος δύο τινὰς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ὁ Ἰωάνης). He sent them to the Lord (ἔπεμψεν πρὸς τὸν Κύριον) to ask him if he was the one who was to come (λέγων Σὺ εἶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος)? Or should they wait for another (ἢ ἄλλον προσδοκῶμεν)? Matthew, chapter 11:3 has something similar. John the Baptist sent a few of his disciples, rather than two as indicated by Luke. Notice that this is the first time that Matthew called Jesus the Christ (τοῦ Χριστοῦ), while Luke called him the Lord (Κύριον). Neither called him Jesus. The question in both Luke and Matthew is exactly the same, indicating a possible Q source. These disciples of John came to Jesus. They had one big important question to ask him. Was Jesus the expected Messiah or should they wait for someone else? The disciples of John were true messianic Jews, waiting for the Messiah. Did they not realize that Jesus had been baptized by John the Baptist? In fact, John had already met Jesus, had a conversation with him, and witnessed his baptism. What more did he need? In one sense this is strange since Luke already established that John and Jesus were cousins of some sort, so that they would have known each other, to say nothing about John’s baptism of Jesus. Is Jesus the one that you have been waiting for?
This ending is not quite the same as in Matthew, chapter 4:11, where angels came to wait on Jesus. Here there are no angels, but the show was over for now. Luke said that the devil had finished every test (Καὶ συντελέσας πάντα πειρασμὸν). Thus, he departed from Jesus (ὁ διάβολος ἀπέστη ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ) until a later opportunity or another time (ἄχρι καιροῦ). The devil had failed to convince Jesus in any of these temptations. He was gone for now, but would return again. Jesus had passed his first test. Score one for the good guys.
Luke had Jesus respond in a sharp fashion. Jesus said to them (καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς) why were they searching for him (Τί ὅτι ἐζητεῖτέ με). Did they not know (οὐκ ᾔδειτε) that he had to be or that it was his duty to be in his Father’s house (ὅτι ἐν τοῖς τοῦ Πατρός μου δεῖ εἶναί με)? This sounds like a rebuke to his parents. However, Jesus seemed to indicate that he had a higher mission. The main question is why did he wait nearly 20 years after this before he began his special Fatherly mission?
This is almost word for word in Mathew, chapter 27:48-49. In Luke, chapter 23:36, there was an indication of a soldier who gave some sour wine to Jesus. In John, chapter 19:28-29, Jesus said that he was thirsty before they gave him this sour wine that was standing nearby. Mark said that someone ran to get a sponge (δραμὼν δέ τις). He filled this sponge with sour wine or vinegar (καὶ γεμίσας σπόγγον ὄξους), a common Roman solder drink. Then he put it on a stick or reed (περιθεὶς καλάμῳ) to give Jesus something to drink (ἐπότιζεν αὐτόν). He said to wait and see if Elijah would come to take Jesus down from the cross (λέγων Ἄφετε ἴδωμεν εἰ ἔρχεται Ἡλείας καθελεῖν αὐτόν). This sour wine or vinegar might have been a reference to Psalm 69:21, where the psalmist complained that they gave him vinegar to drink. This sour wine or vinegar mixed with water might also have been an anesthetic to ease the pain of Jesus. Thus, this action might have been an act of compassion for Jesus hanging on the cross.
This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 15:36. There was nothing about Elijah in Luke, chapter 23, and in John, chapter 19. Matthew said that some of the other bystanders (οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ εἶπαν) wanted to wait and see whether Elijah would come to save Jesus (Ἄφες ἴδωμεν εἰ ἔρχεται Ἡλείας σώσων αὐτόν). Other ancient manuscripts have the additional symbolic phrase that can be found in John, 19:34 that happened after Jesus had died. This verse read “Another soldier took a spear and pierced his side. Then out came water and blood (ἄλλος δὲ λαβὼν λόγχην ἔνυξεν αὐτοῦ τὴν πλευράν, καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὕδωρ καὶ αἷμα).”
This admission by both the chief priests and the Pharisees, no longer the elders, can be found in Mark, chapter 12:12, and Luke, chapter 20:19, but slightly different. The chief priests and the Pharisees (οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) did not have to wait for an explanation of this parable about the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard and the other parables. They knew or realized, on hearing (Καὶ ἀκούσαντες) this parable story (τὰς παραβολὰς αὐτοῦ), that these evil tenants that Jesus was talking about were them (ἔγνωσαν ὅτι περὶ αὐτῶν λέγει).
Yahweh, in this oracle via Zephaniah, told them to wait for the day when he would gather all the countries and kingdoms together to pour out all his indignation and anger. He said that the fire of his passion would consume the whole earth on this final judgment day.