“From now on,
Five in one household
Will be divided
Three against two,
And two against three.”
ἔσονται γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν πέντε ἐν ἑνὶ οἴκῳ διαμεμερισμένοι, τρεῖς ἐπὶ δυσὶν καὶ δύο ἐπὶ τρισίν
This is a unique saying of Jesus only found here in Luke. Jesus said that from now on (ἔσονται γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν), if there are 5 people in a house (πέντε ἐν ἑνὶ οἴκῳ), they would be divided (διαμεμερισμένοι) 3 against 2 (τρεῖς ἐπὶ δυσὶν) and 2 against 3 (καὶ δύο ἐπὶ τρισίν). There will not be uniformity in households. The time of division had come. Do you think that Jesus was a divider?
“Someone in the crowd
Said to Jesus.
Tell my brother
The family inheritance
Εἶπεν δέ τις ἐκ τοῦ ὄχλου αὐτῷ Διδάσκαλε, εἰπὲ τῷ ἀδελφῷ μου μερίσασθαι μετ’ ἐμοῦ τὴν κληρονομίαν.
This is a unique saying in Luke, not found in the other synoptics. Luke said that someone in the crowd yelled to Jesus (Εἶπεν δέ τις ἐκ τοῦ ὄχλου αὐτῷ), calling him respectfully teacher (Διδάσκαλε). He wanted Jesus to tell his brother (εἰπὲ τῷ ἀδελφῷ μου) to divide up the family inheritance with him (μερίσασθαι μετ’ ἐμοῦ τὴν κληρονομίαν). Apparently, the oldest son got twice as much as the other sons, according to Deuteronomy, chapter 21:17. This man wanted Jesus to get involved with a family dispute. This is the second time that someone in the crowd uniquely yelled out something here in Luke. Have you ever been involved in a family inheritance dispute?
“One of the lawyers
When you say
You insult us too.’”
Ἀποκριθεὶς δέ τις τῶν νομικῶν λέγει αὐτῷ Διδάσκαλε, ταῦτα λέγων καὶ ἡμᾶς ὑβρίζεις.
This appears to be a unique saying of Luke. He said that one of the lawyers (δέ τις τῶν νομικῶν), who might have been at this dinner party, responded to Jesus (Ἀποκριθεὶς…λέγει αὐτῷ). He respectfully called him “Teacher (Διδάσκαλε)”. However, he said that some of these things that Jesus was saying was an insult to the lawyers also (ταῦτα λέγων καὶ ἡμᾶς ὑβρίζεις), since they followed the law. Apparently, one of the lawyers felt that Jesus was offending them also along with the Pharisees. These may have been Mosaic law lawyers, friends of the Pharisees. Have you ever insulted a lawyer?
I have given you
I have given you
Over all the power
Of the enemy.
ἰδοὺ δέδωκα ὑμῖν τὴν ἐξουσίαν τοῦ πατεῖν ἐπάνω ὄφεων καὶ σκορπίων, καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ ἐχθροῦ, καὶ οὐδὲν ὑμᾶς οὐ μὴ ἀδικήσει.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that he had given these special 70 disciples (ἰδοὺ δέδωκα ὑμῖν) the authority (τὴν ἐξουσίαν τοῦ) to tread on (πατεῖν ἐπάνω) snakes (ὄφεων) and scorpions (καὶ σκορπίων). They had the authority over all the power (καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν δύναμιν) of the enemy (τοῦ ἐχθροῦ). Nothing would hurt them (καὶ οὐδὲν ὑμᾶς οὐ μὴ ἀδικήσει). This is another unique saying of Jesus only found in Luke because he was the only one to mention these 70 special disciples and their return. The enemy mentioned here was Satan. This idea that nothing will hurt them can also be found at the end of the gospel of Mark, chapter 16:18, as well as Psalm 91:13, that they would dash the snakes. This is the same psalm that was cited in the temptations of Jesus. Do you know anyone who is not hurt by snakes or scorpions?
“Jesus said to him.
Who puts his hand
To the plow
And looks back
For the kingdom of God.’”
εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς Οὐδεὶς ἐπιβαλὼν τὴν χεῖρα ἐπ’ ἄροτρον καὶ βλέπων εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω εὔθετός ἐστιν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ.
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus responded to this person (εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by saying that no one who puts his hand to the plow (Οὐδεὶς ἐπιβαλὼν τὴν χεῖρα ἐπ’ ἄροτρον) and then looks back (καὶ βλέπων εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω) was fit (εὔθετός ἐστιν) for the kingdom of God (τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ). This was another unique saying of Luke that was not found in Matthew. Being a disciple was not going to be easy. You could not even say goodbye to your family. Once you got started on your plow, there was no looking back. Everything was centered on the kingdom of God. Nothing else counted. Do you often turn away from Jesus?
“Another person said.
‘I will follow you!
But let me first
To those at my home!’”
Εἶπεν δὲ καὶ ἕτερος Ἀκολουθήσω σοι, Κύριε· πρῶτον δὲ ἐπίτρεψόν μοι ἀποτάξασθαι τοῖς εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου.
Luke indicated that another person said (Εἶπεν δὲ καὶ ἕτερος) that he would follow Jesus (Ἀκολουθήσω σοι), the Lord (Κύριε), but he first wanted to say farewell (πρῶτον δὲ ἐπίτρεψόν μοι ἀποτάξασθαι) to those at his home (εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου). This was another unique saying of Luke that was not found in Matthew. Being a disciple of Jesus was not going to be easy. This disciple just wanted to say goodbye to his family. Is your belief in Jesus stronger than your family ties?
“Do not condemn!
Then you will not be condemned.”
καὶ μὴ καταδικάζετε, καὶ οὐ μὴ καταδικασθῆτε.
This unique saying of Luke indicated that Jesus continued to expand on not judging others by telling them they were not to condemn others (καὶ μὴ καταδικάζετε). Then they themselves would not be condemned (καὶ οὐ μὴ καταδικασθῆτε). Luke emphasized this mercifulness to a greater degree. Have you ever condemned someone?
“Woe to you
Who are laughing now!
You will mourn
οὐαί, οἱ γελῶντες νῦν, ὅτι πενθήσετε καὶ κλαύσετε
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that the laughing ones now (οἱ γελῶντες νῦν) would be cursed (οὐαί), using the second person plural. They would mourn and weep (ὅτι πενθήσετε καὶ κλαύσετε) in the future. Once again, this unique saying of Luke is the reverse of one of his beatitudes in verse 21, where he indicated that Jesus said that those who were weeping now (οἱ κλαίοντες νῦν) would be blessed, happy or fortunate (μακάριοι) because they would later laugh (ὅτι γελάσετ), using the second person plural. There is no equivalent to this in Matthew, except for the mourners in chapter 5:4. Luke has Jesus say the opposite thing about those laughing now, as they would weep later.
To deserted places
αὐτὸς δὲ ἦν ὑποχωρῶν ἐν ταῖς ἐρήμοις καὶ προσευχόμενος.
This is a unique saying about Jesus that is not found elsewhere. Luke said that Jesus would withdraw (αὐτὸς δὲ ἦν ὑποχωρῶν) to deserted places (ἐν ταῖς ἐρήμοις) to pray (καὶ προσευχόμενος). Notice the emphasis on the role of solitary prayer in Luke.