“The first slave
Ten more minas.’”
παρεγένετο δὲ ὁ πρῶτος λέγων Κύριε, ἡ μνᾶ σου δέκα προσηργάσατο μνᾶς.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that the first slave came forward (παρεγένετο δὲ ὁ πρῶτος) and said to the nobleman lord (λέγων Κύριε), that he turned his original mina into 10 more minas (ἡ μνᾶ σου δέκα προσηργάσατο μνᾶς). Once again, this is the only Greek biblical use of the word προσηργάσατο, that means to work or gain besides, or produce in addition. This nobleman’s original investment had made 10 times more than what he had originally. This first slave had turned his one mina into 10 minas. Matthew, chapter 25:20, had something similar, as if a Q source. In Matthew, the first slave only doubled his investment. Jesus said that the one slave who had received the five talents (καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ τὰ πέντε τάλαντα λαβὼν) came forward with 5 more talents (προσήνεγκεν ἄλλα πέντε τάλαντα). He explained to his lord and master (λέγων Κύριε) that he had been given 5 talents (πέντε τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας), but now he had made, acquired, or gained 5 more talents (ἴδε ἄλλα πέντε τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα). He had doubled his investment as a wise trader. However, Luke’s trader had a higher rate of return with less money. Have you ever traded money in investments?
“Then the father
Said to him.
You are always
All that is mine
ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Τέκνον, σὺ πάντοτε μετ’ ἐμοῦ εἶ, καὶ πάντα τὰ ἐμὰ σά ἐστιν·
This long parable story about the 2 sons can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories. Luke indicated that Jesus said that the father turned to his son, calling him son (Τέκνον). He said to him (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ) that he was always with him (σὺ πάντοτε μετ’ ἐμοῦ εἶ). All that that belonged to the father belonged to him, this oldest son (καὶ πάντα τὰ ἐμὰ σά ἐστιν). Who does the oldest son represent? Is it the Pharisees, or the newly forming righteous followers of Jesus? These are honest hard-working people trying to do God’s will. What was the big deal about this sinning brother? Why not just forget about him? Which brother do you feel more like?
“Now large crowds
He turned to them.”
Συνεπορεύοντο δὲ αὐτῷ ὄχλοι πολλοί, καὶ στραφεὶς
Luke uniquely indicated that that there were great large crowds traveling with Jesus (Συνεπορεύοντο δὲ αὐτῷ ὄχλοι πολλοί). He was no longer going to places where crowds gathered. They were traveling with him now. He turned to them (καὶ στραφεὶς). He was about to talk to them about the cost of being a disciple of Jesus. Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945), the German Lutheran theologian wrote the Cost of Discipleship (1937), outlining the problems of being a Christian in Nazi Germany, when he argued against cheap grace, the easy way out. Do you go along with the crowd?
‘Woe to you!
You load people
Hard to bear!
Do not lift
To ease them.’”
ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Καὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς νομικοῖς οὐαί, ὅτι φορτίζετε τοὺς ἀνθρώπους φορτία δυσβάστακτα, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἑνὶ τῶν δακτύλων ὑμῶν οὐ προσψαύετε τοῖς φορτίοις.
Then Luke indicated that Jesus turned on these lawyers, also. Jesus cursed them also (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Καὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς νομικοῖς οὐαί). They had loaded people with hard burdens to bear (ὅτι φορτίζετε τοὺς ἀνθρώπους φορτία δυσβάστακτα). At the same time, they did not lift a finger to ease their burdens (καὶ αὐτοὶ ἑνὶ τῶν δακτύλων ὑμῶν οὐ προσψαύετε τοῖς φορτίοις). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 23:4, where Jesus said that the Pharisees and the Scribes, not the lawyers, tied up heavy burdens on the people that were hard or oppressive to bear. They put these burdens on the shoulders of other men, but they themselves were unwilling to lift a finger to help them remove these burdens. These heavy burdens of the Torah may have been their multiple perplexing oral interpretations of the law rather than the law itself that was usually considered a blessing. Here in Luke, Jesus was talking about lawyers, who may have been Pharisaic lawyers of the Law of Moses, who also would not help others in any way. Do you know any religious lawyers?
“If I cast out demons
By whom do
Your exorcist sons
Cast them out?
Let them be
εἰ δὲ ἐγὼ ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια, οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν ἐν τίνι ἐκβάλλουσιν; διὰ τοῦτο αὐτοὶ ὑμῶν κριταὶ ἔσονται.
Luke indicated that Jesus turned the questions back on his inquisitors. If Jesus was casting out demons by Beelzebul (εἰ δὲ ἐγὼ ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια), how were their own exorcist sons able to cast out evil spirits (οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν ἐν τίνι ἐκβάλλουσιν)? Let them be your judges (διὰ τοῦτο αὐτοὶ ὑμῶν κριταὶ ἔσονται). Matthew, chapter 12:27 noted that if Satan was casting out Satan, then he was divided against himself. If Jesus was casting out demons by Beelzebul, how were their own sons or other exorcists able to cast out demons? Therefore, their own sons would be their judges. Mark did not have this question and the argument about how their own sons or other exorcists were able to cast out demons. What do you think about exorcism?
“But Jesus turned.
He rebuked them.”
στραφεὶς δὲ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς.
However, Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus turned around (στραφεὶς) to these two apostles. He was not going to have any fire from heaven. He rebuked both James and John (δὲ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς). This was not the first or last time that Jesus would be upset with his apostles. A Byzantine text added that Jesus said something to them. He said that they did not know (Οὐκ οἴδατε) what spirit was in them (οἵου πνεύματός ἐστε ὑμεῖς). Do you think that you have ever upset God?
‘Do not fear!
She will be saved!’”
ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀκούσας ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Μὴ φοβοῦ· μόνον πίστευσον, καὶ σωθήσεται.
Luke said that when Jesus heard this (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀκούσας), he replied to the synagogue leader (ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ) that he should not fear (Μὴ φοβοῦ), but only believe (μόνον πίστευσον), because she would be saved (καὶ σωθήσεται). Mark chapter 5:36, was similar to Luke here, almost word for word. However, Matthew did not have this conversation, since the child was dead from the beginning. Mark said that Jesus overheard what they were talking about. He then turned to this synagogue leader and told him not to fear, but only believe. Belief was a key element in many of these healing cases with Jesus. Would you believe in Jesus at a time of death?