Luke indicated that Jesus said to them (εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς) to show him a denarius (Δείξατέ μοι δηνάριον), which was a Roman coin. He asked them whose image or head and title or inscription did it have (τίνος ἔχει εἰκόνα καὶ ἐπιγραφήν)? They said it was the Emperor Caesar’s head and title (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Καίσαρος). There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:19-21, and in Mark, chapter 12:15-16, almost word for word. Mark said that Jesus wanted to see the coin that was used for paying the Roman poll tax. Thus, they brought Jesus one of these small silver Roman coins, a denarius. (φέρετέ μοι δηνάριον). Jesus then asked them (καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς) whose image and whose inscription title (Τίνος ἡ εἰκὼν αὕτη καὶ ἡ ἐπιγραφή) were on this coin? They answered him (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ) that the image and inscription belonged to the Emperor Caesar (Καίσαρος). Matthew indicated that Jesus wanted to see the coin that was used for paying the poll tax (ἐπιδείξατέ μοι τὸ νόμισμα τοῦ κήνσου). They brought or presented him with a small silver Roman coin, a denarius (οἱ δὲ προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δηνάριον). He then asked them (καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς) whose image and whose inscription title (Τίνος ἡ εἰκὼν αὕτη καὶ ἡ ἐπιγραφή) were on this coin? They answered (λέγουσιν) that the image and inscription belonged to Emperor Caesar (Καίσαρος). This was a simple question with a simple answer. Jesus wanted them to bring him the Roman coin, a denarius, worth a little more than a US dollar. He wanted to see what coin was being used for paying the Roman poll tax. What kind of money do you use?
Only Luke has this story about the curing of the ten lepers. Luke indicated that the lepers cried out (καὶ αὐτοὶ ἦραν φωνὴν λέγοντες), calling Jesus “Master! (Ἰησοῦ Ἐπιστάτα)”. They wanted him to have mercy on them (ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς). This was a common approach to Jesus. They wanted mercy or compassion. They called Jesus their master, as if they were slaves. Luke alone, among the biblical writers, used this term Ἐπιστάτα, that means master, teacher, chief, or commander, 7 times in this gospel. However, they did not call him “Lord”. What is your favorite title for Jesus?
What is a gospel? Who is Luke? The musical play “Godspell” that opened on Broadway in 1971, was based on the Old English ‘godspel.’ Like the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον, this Germanic based word gospel means good news or good tidings. This term originally meant the Christian message itself. However, in the second century, it came to be used for the books where this message was set out. Thus, the gospels became known as the written accounts of the life, actions, and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. This title, the Gospel of Luke (κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον), was added some time in the second century, perhaps by Papias of Hierapolis (60–130 CE), an early bishop and apostolic father. Traditionally, this work has been ascribed to Luke, a companion of the apostle Paul. He was a gentile and not a Jew, so that his Greek style of writing was more refined. Perhaps Greek may have been his first language. Paul described him in the Letter to the Colossians, chapter 4:14, as his physician. Thus, Luke was a well-educated non-Israelite who tried to situate the presence of Jesus and his followers within a historic setting, to be precise a salvation history outlook. He also wrote the Acts of the Apostles, since the Greek style and the same dedication is at the beginning of each work. Both were addressed to Theophilus, and both assume an educated Greek speaking audience. This gospel is a movement towards Jerusalem, while the second work of the Acts is away from Jerusalem. The dating for this work usually extends from about the late 60s CE to as late as 110 CE. This gospel is the longest book in the New Testament and thus the longest of the 4 gospels. In fact, more than 25% of the whole New Testament was written by Luke if you include the Acts. Luke probably used Mark with a second document called the Q source, as well as some material that is unique to him, about 35%. 41% of Luke can be found in both Mark and Matthew. The Q source is a hypothetical written or oral collection of Jesus’ sayings that was common to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, but not in the Gospel of Mark, that makes up about 23% of his work. This Q source, from the German word Quelle, included many parables and the beatitudes. Did Q even predate the Gospel of Mark? Another question is whether Luke used Matthew instead of having a common source.
καὶ ἦν ἡ ἐπιγρὴ τῆς αἰτίας αὐτοῦ ἐπιγεγραμμένη Ο ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΤΩΝ ΙΟΥΔΑΙΩΝ.
This is similar to Matthew, chapter 27:37, but the inscription had the name of Jesus on it also there. In Luke, chapter 23:38, it was the same as here in Mark. John, chapter 19:19-22, has a dialogue with Pilate and the Jewish leaders about the appropriateness of this inscription, whether it should have said that he claimed to be the King of the Jews, not that he was the King of the Jews. Mark simply stated that this was the inscription charge or accusation written against Jesus (καὶ ἦν ἡ ἐπιγρὴ τῆς αἰτίας αὐτοῦ ἐπιγεγραμμένη). The written charge was “The King of the Jews (Ο ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΤΩΝ ΙΟΥΔΑΙΩΝ).” Clearly, this was the Roman charge against Jesus, insurrection, since he claimed to be the King of the Jews against the Roman rule. There is some dispute whether this title was in Greek or Latin. John, chapter 19:19-20, said that the inscription was written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. In the Catholic tradition the Latin title abbreviation was INRI for Iesvs Nazarenvs Rex Iudaeorvm that can be found on many crucifixes.
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 27:29, but not in Luke. In John, chapter 19:3, there is something similar. Mark said that these Roman soldiers began to salute Jesus (καὶ ἤρξαντο ἀσπάζεσθαι αὐτόν), as they mocked him, saying, “Hail (Χαῖρε)! King of the Jews (Βασιλεῦ τῶν Ἰουδαίων)!” Clearly, the title “King of the Jews” had become popular for addressing Jesus in a teasing way.
What is a gospel? Who is Mark? The musical play “Godspell” that opened on Broadway in 1971, was based on the Old English ‘godspel.’ Like the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον, this Germanic based word gospel means good news or good tidings. This term originally meant the Christian message itself. However, in the second century, it came to be used for the books where this message was set out. Thus, the gospels became known as the written accounts of the life, actions, and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. This Gospel of Mark is anonymous since there is no explicit mention of a named author within the text itself. This title (Τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον), however was added some time in the second century, perhaps by Papias of Hierapolis (60–130 CE), an early bishop and apostolic father.Traditionally, this work has been ascribed to John Mark, the companion of the apostle Peter, who may have transcribed the teachings of Simon Peter. This John Mark was the son of a widow named Mary as indicated in Acts, chapter 12:12. He also accompanied Paul and Barnabas on their missionary journeys, since he was also the cousin of Barnabas, as indicated in Colossians, chapter 4:10. However, he left Paul and Barnabas for some unknown reasons in Acts, chapter 13:13. Today, most scholars agree that his anonymous Gospel ofMark was the first written gospel, probably written between 66–70 CE, during Emperor Nero’s persecution of the Christians in Rome or the Jewish revolt. Thus, the authors of Matthew and Luke used Mark with a second document called the Q source. This short Gospel of Mark was written for a gentile audience in a simple Greek style that is often called “street Greek.” This Greek style is thus vivid and concrete showing a very active Jesus with less teaching or preaching. Mark explained Jewish traditions and translated Aramaic terms for his Greek-speaking Christian audience who would not have understood them. Some suggest Rome as the origin of this gospel since there are some Latin terms. Others have suggested Antioch, the 3rd largest city in the Roman Empire. This author may have been influenced by Greco-Roman writings, but all his references are from the Jewish Greek version of the Septuagint Bible or the Old Testament.
What is a gospel? Who is Matthew? The English term gospel comes from the Old English ‘godspel.’ There was a musical play with the name “Godspell” that opened on Broadway in 1971. Like the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον, gospel means good news or good tidings. This term originally meant the Christian message itself. However, in the second century, it came to be used for the books where this message was set out. Thus, the gospels became known as written accounts of the career and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. This Gospel of Matthew is anonymous, since there is no explicit mention of a named author within the text itself. This title (Τὸ κατὰ Ματθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον), however was added some time in the second century, perhaps with Papias of Hierapolis (100–140 CE), an early bishop and apostolic father. The apostle Matthew was among the early followers and apostles of Jesus. He was a first century Galilean, the son of Alpheus. As a tax collector he would have been literate in Aramaic and Greek. His fellow Jews would have despised him because he was seen as collaborating with the Roman occupation force. What we do know for certain is that the author of this gospel was probably a traditional male Jew, familiar with the technical and legal aspects of Hebrew Scripture. He wrote in a polished Semitic synagogue Greek style. Most scholars hold that the Gospel of Matthew was a product of the last quarter of the 1st century, a work of the second generation of Christians, probably sometime between 70-110 CE, or more precisely between 80-90 CE. The defining event for this community was the Roman destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in 70 CE, during the Jewish–Roman War of 66–73 CE. The author of this Gospel of Matthew wrote for a community of Greek-speaking Jewish Christians probably located in Syria, just north of Galilee. Antioch was the largest city in Roman Syria and the third-largest city in the Roman Empire, after Rome and Alexandria. This is where the term “Christian” was first used. Thus, it would seem like an appropriate place for Jewish Christians in the second half of the first century. For practical traditional purposes, I will use the name Matthew as the author of this gospel.
The word of Yahweh came to the prophet Zechariah in the same year as it had come to Haggai, the second year of Persian King Darius I in 520 BCE. However, this was the 8th month and not the 6th month as with Haggai, so that it was 2 month later. Zechariah was the son of Berechiah and the grandson of Iddo. In the Book of Ezra, chapter 5, there is an explicit mention of Haggai and Zechariah, the son of Iddo. Nehemiah, chapter 12, mentioned Iddo as one of the high priests who came with Zerubbabel when he left Babylon in 538 BCE. Thus, Iddo would have been an important person. Berechiah seemed to be less important, but could be the father of the young Zechariah. Nehemiah mentioned Berechiah as the son of Meshezabel, in chapter 3.
Yahweh stirred up the spirits of the people of Jerusalem. This included the 2 leaders, Governor Zerubbabel and the high priest Joshua. Once again, they were mentioned with their father’s name and title also. All the rest of the people in Jerusalem were also stirred up. Thus, they came to work on the house of Yahweh, their God, 23 days after Haggai had first spoken to them at the beginning of this chapter.
There is a precise date to this prophetic happening, August, 520 BCE, the second year of the great King Darius of Persia (522-486 BCE). During his reign, he ruled over nearly ½ of the known world, over 50,000,000 people. The word of Yahweh came through the prophet Haggai, although there is no mention of his family. Perhaps he was one of those returning from the exile in Babylon. In the Book of Ezra, chapter 5, Haggai and Zechariah were explicitly mentioned as prophets. There was also a eunuch servant Haggai in the Book of Esther, but there seems to be no connection to this Haggai. This Haggai was to prophesize to Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, who was the grandson of one of the last kings of Judah, King Jehoiachin (598 BCE). Thus, he could be in the Davidic line. He probably died sometime around 520 BCE, sometime around the events described here. King Cyrus had appointed Zerubbabel to be the Governor of Judah in 538 BCE, when he was among the first exiles sent back to Jerusalem. Joshua, the son of Jehozadak was the high priest in Jerusalem from 515-490 BCE.