They threw him
Out of the vineyard.
They killed him.
What then will the owner
Of the vineyard
Do to them?”
καὶ ἐκβαλόντες αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος ἀπέκτειναν. τί οὖν ποιήσει αὐτοῖς ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος;
Luke indicated that Jesus said that these farmer tenants threw the beloved son of the vineyard owner out of the vineyard (καὶ ἐκβαλόντες αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). They killed him (ἀπέκτειναν). What do you think that the lord or owner of the vineyard was going to do to them (τί οὖν ποιήσει αὐτοῖς ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος)? This parable of the killing of the landowner’s son can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:39, and Mark, chapter 12:8, almost word for word. Mark indicated that Jesus continued with this story. Thus, these wicked tenants seized the owner’s son (καὶ λαβόντες) and killed him (ἀπέκτειναν αὐτόν). Finally, they threw him out or cast him out of the vineyard (καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). Both Luke and Matthew had him thrown out before he was killed, but Mark said that they killed him and then threw him out. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that these wicked tenants seized the son (καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν) of the vineyard owner and cast him out of the vineyard (ἐξέβαλον ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος), where they killed him (καὶ ἀπέκτειναν). The meaning of this parable was becoming clearer. The landowner was God the Father. The vineyard was Israel. The tenants were the Jewish religious leaders. The slaves were the Israelite prophets. Jesus was the beloved son of the Father. He was killed either outside of Jerusalem, the vineyard, or thrown out after his death. Clearly, Jesus would not have to explain this parable to his disciples and apostles. Did you get the meaning of this story?
Into the Temple
The other was
A tax collector.”
Ἄνθρωποι δύο ἀνέβησαν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν προσεύξασθαι, ὁ εἷς Φαρισαῖος καὶ ὁ ἕτερος τελώνης.
Luke has Jesus tell a parable about the Pharisee and the tax collector that is only found in this gospel. Luke indicated that Jesus said that two men (Ἄνθρωποι δύο) went up into the Temple (ἀνέβησαν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν) to pray (προσεύξασθαι). One was a Pharisee (ὁ εἷς Φαρισαῖος). The other was a tax collector (καὶ ὁ ἕτερος τελώνης). Both of these men were well intentioned, since they went to the Temple to pray to God, a good thing. Socially, they were of two different strata. The Pharisee was a pillar of Jewish society as an interpreter of the Mosaic Law. The tax collector, on the other hand, was considered a traitor to the Jewish community, since he worked for the Roman Empire, the occupation force. These tax collectors were often compared to public sinners. The contrast was real and set out at the beginning of this story. Is there a social strata in your religious culture?
“I tell you!
He will quickly
When the Son of Man
Will he find faith
λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ποιήσει τὴν ἐκδίκησιν αὐτῶν ἐν τάχει. πλὴν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐλθὼν ἆρα εὑρήσει τὴν πίστιν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς;
Luke is the only synoptic writer with this parable about the widow and the bad judge. Luke indicated that Jesus concluded this story with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν) that God will quickly grant justice to them (ὅτι ποιήσει τὴν ἐκδίκησιν αὐτῶν ἐν τάχει). When the Son of Man comes (πλὴν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐλθὼν), will he find faith (ἆρα εὑρήσει τὴν πίστιν) on earth (ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς)? What will the Son of Man find on the judgment day? His justice will be quick. The solution, be ready at all times. Are you ready for the Son of Man to return?
καὶ αὐτοὶ ἦραν φωνὴν λέγοντες Ἰησοῦ Ἐπιστάτα, ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς
Only Luke has this story about the curing of the ten lepers. Luke indicated that the lepers cried out (καὶ αὐτοὶ ἦραν φωνὴν λέγοντες), calling Jesus “Master! (Ἰησοῦ Ἐπιστάτα)”. They wanted him to have mercy on them (ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς). This was a common approach to Jesus. They wanted mercy or compassion. They called Jesus their master, as if they were slaves. Luke alone, among the biblical writers, used this term Ἐπιστάτα, that means master, teacher, chief, or commander, 7 times in this gospel. However, they did not call him “Lord”. What is your favorite title for Jesus?
Entered a village,
καὶ εἰσερχομένου αὐτοῦ εἴς τινα κώμην ἀπήντησαν δέκα λεπροὶ ἄνδρες, οἳ ἔστησαν πόρρωθεν
Only Luke has this story about the curing of the ten lepers, although Luke had Jesus cure a leper earlier in chapter 5:12-16, that can be found in the other synoptics, Matthew, chapter 8:1-4, and Mark, chapter 1:40-45. Luke indicated that Jesus entered a village (καὶ εἰσερχομένου αὐτοῦ εἴς τινα κώμην), where 10 lepers approached or met him (ἀπήντησαν δέκα λεπροὶ ἄνδρες). However, these lepers kept their distance (οἳ ἔστησαν πόρρωθεν). Leprosy was some kind of skin disease that was usually found among poor people. Today, there are about 2,000,000 people with leprosy or Hansen’s disease, mostly in India, Indonesia, and Brazil. The Greek word “λέπρας” used here is a broader definition of leprosy than just Hansen’s disease. Leprosy was a Jewish religious problem also. What to do about it was clearly defined in Leviticus, chapters 13-14. Leprosy in the wide sense was considered unclean and had religious connotations, since only a priest could declare a person clean, with a distinct ritual for cleansing the leper. As a leper, they were considered unclean and not fit to live in normal communal life. Thus, there were spiritual, physical, social, and religious implications with being a leper. Here there were 10 lepers in this village, so that they might have been a small leper colony. They approached Jesus, but kept their appropriate distance from him, since they were quarantined from being with other non-leper people. Have you ever met a leper?
“Which of you,
Does not first
You have to see
Whether you have enough
To complete it.”
Τίς γὰρ ἐξ ὑμῶν θέλων πύργον οἰκοδομῆσαι οὐχὶ πρῶτον καθίσας ψηφίζει τὴν δαπάνην, εἰ ἔχει εἰς ἀπαρτισμόν;
Luke uniquely has Jesus tell this story about intending or wishing to build a tower (Τίς γὰρ ἐξ ὑμῶν θέλων πύργον οἰκοδομῆσαι). Did they not first sit down (οὐχὶ πρῶτον καθίσας) and calculate the cost (ψηφίζει τὴν δαπάνην)? They would want to see if they had enough money to complete it (εἰ ἔχει εἰς ἀπαρτισμόν). Luke uniquely used the word ἀπαρτισμόν that means completion or perfection. This story about building a tower would assume a sophistication on the part of his audience. Very few people would have enough assets to build a tower. Do you calculate the cost of things before you start something?
With a spirit
That had crippled her
For eighteen years.
She was bent over.
She was unable
To stand up straight.”
καὶ ἰδοὺ γυνὴ πνεῦμα ἔχουσα ἀσθενείας ἔτη δέκα οκτώ, καὶ ἦν συνκύπτουσα καὶ μὴ δυναμένη ἀνακύψαι εἰς τὸ παντελές.
Luke uniquely said that there was a woman (καὶ ἰδοὺ γυνὴ) with a spirit that had crippled her (ἔχουσα ἀσθενείας) for 18 years (ἔτη δέκα οκτώ). She was bent over (καὶ ἦν συνκύπτουσα). This is the only appearance of the word συνκύπτουσα in the biblical literature, since it means bent forward, or doubled up. She was unable to stand up straight or lift herself to her full height (αὶ μὴ δυναμένη ἀνακύψαι εἰς τὸ παντελές). No one else had this story about the crippled lady, who for 18 years was possessed by some evil spirit that caused her problem. Illness and the role of evil spirits was always connected. Due to some evil spirit, she could not stand up straight. Do you know anyone who is bent over?