Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus responded to these Pharisees (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς). Jesus told them to go tell that fox Herod (Πορευθέντες εἴπατε τῇ ἀλώπεκι ταύτῃ) that he, Jesus, was casting out demons (Ἰδοὺ ἐκβάλλω δαιμόνια) and performing cures (καὶ ἰάσεις ἀποτελῶ). He was doing this today (σήμερον), tomorrow (καὶ αὔριον), and on the 3rd day (καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ) until he finished his work (τελειοῦμαι). Earlier in Luke, there were comments about John the Baptist and Herod. Here, however, there is nothing about John the Baptist at all. This little unique saying in Luke had Jesus refer to Herod as a fox, either indicating that he was shrewd or trying to insult him. There was also an allusion to the 3rd day or the day of the Lord’s resurrection. Jesus had not yet finished his work in Galilee or Perea. Has anyone ever called you a fox?
Luke indicated that Jesus said to his disciples (εἰπὼν) that the Son of Man had to undergo great suffering (ὅτι Δεῖ τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου πολλὰ παθεῖν). He would be rejected (καὶ ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι) by the elders or presbyters (ἀπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων), the chief priests (καὶ ἀρχιερέων), and by the Scribes (καὶ γραμματέων). He would be killed (καὶ ἀποκτανθῆναι), but on the third day (καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ), he would be raised up (ἐγερθῆνα). Jesus began to talk about his future suffering that can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 16:21-23, Mark, chapter 8:31-33, and here. All this took place right after Peter’s strong profession of faith. Notice that the synoptics gospel writers did not blame the Pharisees or the Sadducees for the suffering and death of Jesus. There also was no mention of the Roman authorities. Mark said that Jesus began to teach them that it was necessary that the Son of Man undergo many great sufferings. Jesus used the term “Son of Man” in Luke and Mark to refer to himself not “Jesus Christ,” as in Matthew. He was going to be rejected by the elders or presbyters, the chief priests, and the Scribes. Eventually, he would be killed. There was no mention of Jesus going to Jerusalem here. After 3 days, he would rise again. Matthew disliked Jerusalem with everything and everybody attached to it. For the first time he used the full name of Jesus Christ (Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς). From that time on, after Jesus had put Peter in charge, Jesus Christ began to show or let his disciples know that he had to go to Jerusalem. There he would undergo great suffering from the Israelite Jerusalem elders or presbyters, the chief priests, and the Scribes. Eventually, he would be killed, but he would be raised up on the 3rd day. Clearly, this was a prediction about the future suffering, death, and resurrection of Jesus. Whom do you blame for the death of Jesus Christ?
This is unique to Matthew, who remarked that this group of high priests and Pharisees called Pilate “Lord (λέγοντες Κύριε)!” They said that they remembered (ἐμνήσθημεν) what this impostor or deceiver had said (ὅτι ἐκεῖνος ὁ πλάνος εἶπεν), while he was still alive or living (ἔτι ζῶν). He had said that after three days (Μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας), he would rise up again (ἐγείρομαι). Thus, they wanted Pilate to command (κέλευσον οὖν) that the tomb be made secure (ἀσφαλισθῆναι τὸν τάφον) until the third day (ἕως τῆς τρίτης ἡμέρας). Otherwise, Jesus’ disciples might come and steal him away (μή ποτε ἐλθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ κλέψωσιν αὐτὸν). Then they would tell the people (καὶ εἴπωσιν τῷ λαῷ) that he had risen from the dead (Ἠγέρθη ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν). Finally, this last deception or sin would be worse than the first deceptions (καὶ ἔσται ἡ ἐσχάτη πλάνη χείρων τῆς πρώτης). In other words, these Jewish leaders wanted Pilate to have guards around the tomb of Jesus because they remembered that while he was alive he said that he would arise in 3 days. Mathew has these chief priests and Pharisees predict the resurrection of Jesus.
This saying about the fate of the Son of Man can also be found in Mark, chapter 9:30-31, and Luke, chapter 9:44, with some minor changes. This was not the first time that Jesus had talked about this, since it was mentioned earlier in this work, chapter 16:21, in more detail. Jesus and his disciples were gathering together in Galilee (Συστρεφομένων δὲ αὐτῶν ἐν τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ), probably getting ready to go to Jerusalem. Jesus said to them (εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) that the Son of Man was about to be betrayed by human hands (Μέλλει ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδοσθαι εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων), without mentioning any particular group as he had done earlier. They were going to kill him or put him to death (καὶ ἀποκτενοῦσιν αὐτόν). However, on the third day (καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ), he would be raised up (ἐγερθήσεται). On hearing this, the disciples were greatly vexed, pained, or distressed (καὶ ἐλυπήθησαν σφόδρα). This was shocking news to them.
Jesus began to talk about his future suffering that can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Mark, chapter 8:31, Luke, chapter 9:22, and here, almost word for word. Notice that Matthew and the other synoptics do not blame the Pharisees or the Sadducees for the suffering and death of Jesus. There also was no mention of Roman authorities. Matthew disliked Jerusalem and everything and everybody attached to it. For the first time he used the full name of Jesus Christ (Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς). From that time on (Ἀπὸ τότε), after Jesus had set up Peter in charge, Jesus Christ began to show or let his disciples know (ἤρξατο Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς δεικνύειν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ) that he had to go to Jerusalem (ὅτι δεῖ αὐτὸν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ἀπελθεῖν). There he would undergo great suffering (καὶ πολλὰ παθεῖν) from the Israelite Jerusalem elders or presbyters (ἀπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων), the chief priests (καὶ ἀρχιερέων), and the Scribes (καὶ γραμματέων). Eventually, he would be killed (καὶ ἀποκτανθῆναι), but he would be raised up on the 3rd day (καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι).
“On the third day Queen Esther put on her royal robes. She stood in the inner court of the king’s palace, opposite the king’s hall. The king was sitting on his royal throne inside the palace opposite the entrance to the palace. As soon as the king saw Queen Esther standing in the court, she won his favor. He held out to her the golden scepter that was in his hand. Then Queen Esther approached and touched the top of the scepter. The king said to her.
‘What is it, Queen Esther?
What is your request?
It shall be given you, even to the half of my kingdom.’”
Now we are back to the Hebrew text which is a summary of what preceded in the Greek text with a slightly different ending. It is the 3rd day. However, here she stands in the court opposite the king’s hall. He summons her because she is so beautiful. There is no fainting. She just accepts the golden scepter. The king spoke first. He was willing to give her any request she might make, even giving half the kingdom to her. Surprisingly the Hebrew text shows the king as more gentle.
“On the third day, when Queen Esther ended her prayer, she took off the garments in which she had worshiped. She arrayed herself in splendid attire. Then, majestically adorned, after invoking the aid of the all-seeing God and Savior, she took her two maids with her. She leaned gently for support on one, while the other followed carrying her train. She was radiant with perfect beauty. She looked happy, as if beloved, but her heart was frozen with fear. When she had gone through all the doors, she stood before the king.”
One again the Greek text continues. After this 3 day prayer, Queen Esther took off her sack cloth garments. Now she put on royal clothes. She invoked God to help her. However, she took 2 maids with her, one to lean on and the other to carry the train of her splendid dress. She looked radiant, beautiful and happy, but she was fearful. Finally, she stood before the king.
“Then Isaiah said. ‘Bring a lump of figs. Let them take it and apply it to the boil, so that he may recover. King Hezekiah said to Isaiah. ‘What shall be the sign that Yahweh will heal me, and that I shall go up to the house of Yahweh on the third day?’ Isaiah said. ‘This is the sign to you from Yahweh. Yahweh will do the thing that he has promised. The shadow has now advanced ten intervals. Shall it retreat ten intervals?’ King Hezekiah answered. ‘It is normal for the shadow to lengthen ten intervals. Rather let the shadow retreat ten intervals.’ The prophet Isaiah cried to Yahweh. He brought the shadow back ten intervals, by which the sun had declined on the dial of King Ahaz.”
Isaiah healed King Hezekiah by taking a lump of figs and putting it on the boil. However, King Hezekiah wanted a sign that Yahweh had healed him. Then he would know that he was to the go to the house of Yahweh on the 3rd day. The sign would be the sundial shadow that King Ahaz had installed. Since moving forward would not be difficult, if the shadow moved backward that would be a miracle. Isaiah cried to Yahweh and the sundial moved back 10 intervals to show the curing of King Hezekiah. This indicated that the sun had moved backwards which would have been miraculous.
“Then Yahweh said to Moses, ‘I am going to come to you in a dense cloud, in order that the people may hear when I speak with you and so trust you ever after.’ When Moses had told the words of the people to Yahweh, Yahweh said to Moses, ‘Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow. Have them wash their clothes and prepare for the third day, because on the third day Yahweh will come down upon Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people. You shall set limits for the people all around, saying, ‘Be careful not to go up the mountain or to touch the edge of it. Any who touches the mountain shall be put to death. No hand shall touch them, but they shall be stoned or shot with arrows. Whether animal or human being, they shall not live. When the trumpet sounds a long blast, they may go up on the mountain.’ So Moses went down from the mountain to the people. He consecrated the people. They washed their clothes. He said to the people, ‘Prepare for the third day. Do not go near a woman.’”
Yahweh told Moses that he was going to come in a dense cloud. The people could hear him but not see him. Moses was told to consecrate the people and have them wash their clothes to prepare for the third day, when Yahweh would come down upon Mount Sinai. They have certain limitations and restrictions. They could not go up the mountain or to touch it. The men could not touch women. If they touched the mountain they would be put to death. No hand would touch them, but they would be stoned or shot with arrows. However, when the trumpet sounded a long blast, they could go up the mountain. Moses conveyed this to the people. Yahweh has very clear strict regulations about purifying themselves and if they failed to follow them, they would die. Notice that the killing by stoning and arrows meant that you did not kill with your own hands, but used materials to kill them.