“But the landowner replied
To one of them.
I am doing you no wrong!
Did you not agree
For a denarius?
Take what belongs to you!
I choose to give
To this last
As I give to you.
Am I not allowed to do
What I choose
With what belongs to me?
Or are you envious
Because I am generous?’”
ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς ἑνὶ αὐτῶν εἶπεν Ἑταῖρε, οὐκ ἀδικῶ σε· οὐχὶ δηναρίου συνεφώνησάς μοι;
ἆρον τὸ σὸν καὶ ὕπαγε· θέλω δὲ τούτῳ τῷ ἐσχάτῳ δοῦναι ὡς καὶ σοί·
οὐκ ἔξεστίν μοι ὃ θέλω ποιῆσαι ἐν τοῖς ἐμοῖς; ἢ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου πονηρός ἐστιν ὅτι ἐγὼ ἀγαθός εἰμι;
This parable is unique to Matthew, as Jesus concluded this parable. The landowner replied to one of them (ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς ἑνὶ αὐτῶν) with a sarcastic greeting of companion or friend (εἶπεν Ἑταῖρε). He had done nothing wrong to them (οὐκ ἀδικῶ σε). They had agreed to the one denarius pay for a day’s work (οὐχὶ δηναρίου συνεφώνησάς μοι). They should just take their money and go (ἆρον τὸ σὸν καὶ ὕπαγε). If the landowner was generous that was not the problem of this day laborer. He could give to the last hired what he gave to the first hired (θέλω δὲ τούτῳ τῷ ἐσχάτῳ δοῦναι ὡς καὶ σοί). Was he not allowed (οὐκ ἔξεστίν μοι) to do whatever he wanted to do with his own belongings (ὃ θέλω ποιῆσαι ἐν τοῖς ἐμοῖς). Were they envious with an evil eye (ἢ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου πονηρός ἐστιν) because he was generous (ὅτι ἐγὼ ἀγαθός εἰμι)? In fact, they did not mind generosity. They just wanted to know why none of that generosity came their way. That is the problem with generosity. The person who worked hard for a fair payment sometimes resents the generosity towards those who did not do as much work. Why was the hard worker for the whole day not compensated more generously than the one-hour worker? There are always two sides to every story.
“But like Adam,
They transgressed the covenant.
There they dealt faithlessly
Gilead is a city
Tracked with blood.
As robbers lie in wait
Are banded together.
On the way to Shechem.
A monstrous crime.”
Yahweh, via Hosea, compared the sin of Adam with the other later Israelites. They had broken the covenant. Perhaps the “there” mentioned here was the 40 years in the wilderness, when sometimes they were unfaithful to Yahweh. The city of Gilead, on the other side of the Jordan River, was a city of bloody evil people. Just as robbers wait for someone to come by to rob, so the priests have joined together to murder people on their way to the northern shrine at Shechem. They have committed all kinds of monstrous crimes. Perhaps, this northern Israelite Samaritan sanctuary was considered the great monstrosity. Notice the continual anti-clericalism of the prophets.
‘Because the daughters of Zion
With outstretched necks.
They glance wantonly
With their eyes.
They mince along
As they go.
With their feet.
Yahweh will afflict them
On the heads
Of the daughters of Zion.
Yahweh will lay bare
Their secret parts.”
Now Isaiah presents another oracle of Yahweh about the prideful women of Zion in Jerusalem. The women of Zion were proud, since they stretched out their necks. They were provocative with their wandering unrestrained sexual looks in their eyes. They minced or played around as they went their way. They made noises or tinkled bells with their feet as they walked to gain attention. Yahweh was not content to let this go. Instead he was going to put scabs on their heads. He was going to make them naked, revealing their private parts. Obviously, this is a strong anti-feminism attitude.
“The Romans also sent them a letter, which read thus.
‘Quintus Memmius and Titus Manius,
Envoys of the Romans,
To the people of the Jews,
With regard to what Lysias the kinsman of the king has granted you,
We also give consent.
But as to the matters which he decided
Those are to be referred to the king,
As soon as you have considered them,
Send someone promptly,
So that we may make proposals appropriate for you.
For we are on our way to Antioch.
Therefore make haste and send some men,
So that we may have your judgment.
The one hundred and forty-eighth year,
All these letters are in the same time frame in 164 BCE after King Antiochus V has taken over as the king. This letter is 2 days after the previous letter. Little is known about these 2 Roman envoys. They were on their way to Antioch. The Romans had some kind of relationship with the Jews as later indicated in 1 Maccabees, chapter 12-15. However, this is the time of Judas and not Jonathan or Simon. These envoys seem concerned about the status of the Jews in the Seleucid Empire. They wanted more information about what was happening.