Who is the Lord for David? (Mt 22:43-22:45)

“Jesus said to them.

‘How is it then

That David,

Inspired by the Spirit,

Calls him Lord?

Saying.

‘The Lord said

To my Lord.

‘Sit at my right hand,

Until I put your enemies

Under your feet.’

If David thus calls him Lord,

How can he be his son?’”

 

λέγει αὐτοῖς Πῶς οὖν Δαυεὶδ ἐν Πνεύματι καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον λέγω

Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου;

εἰ οὖν Δαυεὶδ καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον, πῶς υἱὸς αὐτοῦ ἐστιν;

 

There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:35-37, and Luke, chapter 20:41-44, almost word for word.  Jesus said to these Pharisees (λέγει αὐτοῖς).  What did David mean when, inspired by the Spirit, he called the future Messiah, a son of David, “Lord” (Πῶς οὖν Δαυεὶδ ἐν Πνεύματι καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον λέγω).  Jesus then cited Psalm 110:1, where David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου).  He should sit there until he put all his enemies under his feet (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου).  Jesus then posed the big question.  How can David call the Messiah Lord (εἰ οὖν Δαυεὶδ καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον) if he is the son of David (πῶς υἱὸς αὐτοῦ ἐστιν)?  This is a trick question.  Why would David call his future son or descendant his own Lord, master, or greater than him?  The response was that Jesus, the Son of Man, and descendant of David, was greater than David.  Peter repeated this citation of Psalm 110 in his preaching in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 2:34-35, also.

The ruah spirit comes to the bones (Ezek 37:9-37:10)

“Then Yahweh

Said to me.

‘Prophesy to the spirit!

Prophesy!

Son of man!

Say to the spirit!

Thus says Yahweh God!

Come!

From the four winds!

O spirit!

Breathe

Upon these slain ones

That they may live!’

I prophesied

As he commanded me.

The spirit

Came into them,

They lived.

They stood

On their feet,

A vast multitude.”

Yahweh told Ezekiel to prophesize to the spirit. He was to tell the spirit, ruah, to come from the four winds, ruah, and breathe, ruah, on these dead fleshy dry bones. Thus, they might live. Ezekiel, as usual, did what Yahweh had asked him to do. Then the Spirit of Yahweh, ruah, came to these dried-out bones. All these dead bones got a new life. This great multitude of former dry bones stood on their feet. Mission accomplished.

The skin and flesh of the bones (Ezek 37:8-37:8)

“I looked!

There were sinews

On the dry bones.

Flesh had come

Upon them.

Skin

Had covered them.

But there was

No spirit

In them.”

As Ezekiel looked on, the moving dry bones picked up some sinew or muscle, flesh, and skin. However, they did not have the spirit yet, just bones with some fleshy muscled skin.

The movement of the cherubim (Ezek 10:16-10:17)

“When the cherubim moved,

The wheels moved

Beside them.

When the cherubim

Lifted up their wings

To rise up from the earth,

The wheels

At their sides

Did not veer.

When they stopped,

The others stopped.

When they rose up,

The others rose up with them.

The Spirit

Of the living creatures

Was in them.”

Ezekiel said the same thing here about the cherubim that he said about the living creatures in chapter 1. When the cherubim moved, the wheels moved with them. When the cherubim rose from the earth, the wheels also rose. Wherever the cherubim would go, the wheels went with them. However, the Spirit of the living creatures was in the cherubim here.

Ezekiel lies on his left side for Israel (Ezek 4:4-4:5)

“Then lie on your left side!

Place the punishment

Of the house of Israel

On it!

You shall bear

Their punishment

For the number of the days

That you lie there.

I assign to you

A number of days,

Three hundred ninety days.

This is equal

To the number of the years

Of their punishment.

So you shall bear

The punishment

Of the house of Israel.”

The voice of Yahweh or the Spirit continued telling Ezekiel to lie on his left side for 390 days to indicate the number of years that Israel would be punished. Thus Ezekiel would assume this punishment that was intended for Israel, lying there on his left side one day for every year, like a scapegoat. It is hard to figure out where this number came from since it is more than a year of days. The exile did not last this long.

Ezekiel is the son of man (Ezek 2:1-2:3)

“Yahweh said to me.

‘Son of man!

Stand up

On your feet!

I will speak with you!’

When he spoke

To me,

The Spirit entered

Into me.

He set me

On my feet.

I heard him

Speaking to me.

He said to me.

‘Son of man!

I am sending you

To the people

Of Israel,

To a nation

Of rebels.

They have rebelled

Against me.

Their ancestors

Have transgressed

Against me.

They

Have transgressed

Against me

To this very day.”

Yahweh spoke to Ezekiel with the title, the son of man, a mere mortal. He told him to stand up on his feet, because he wanted to speak with him. When Yahweh spoke to Ezekiel, the Spirit entered into Ezekiel. Yahweh set him on his feet. Then Ezekiel heard Yahweh speaking to him, as if he was not directly speaking to him. Yahweh told Ezekiel that he was sending him to the people of Israel, a nation of rebels that had rebelled against Yahweh. Both their ancestors and they themselves have transgressed against Yahweh even to this very day.

The connection of the four wheels to the living creatures (Ezek 1:19-1:21)

“When the living creatures

Moved,

The wheels

Moved beside them.

When the living creatures

Rose from the earth,

The wheels rose.

Wherever the Spirit

Would go,

They went.

The wheels

Rose along

With them.

The Spirit

Of the living creatures

Was in the wheels.

When they moved,

The others moved.

When they rose

From the earth,

The wheels rose

Along with them.

The Spirit

Of the living creatures

Was in the wheels.”

Ezekiel said that when the living creatures moved, the wheels moved with them. When the living creatures rose from the earth, the wheels also rose. Wherever the Spirit would go, the living creatures went. The wheels went with them. The Spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels. Thus when they moved, the others moved. Then repeating what was in the earlier verse, he said that when the living creatures rose from the earth, so did the wheels. Then repeating again, he said that the Spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels. Thus there was a clear connection between the four living creatures and these wheels. I am not sure where this is going.

The activity of the living creatures (Ezek 1:12-1:14)

“Each creature moved

Straight ahead.

Wherever the Spirit

Would go,

They went

Without turning,

As they went.

In the middle

Of the living creatures

There was something

That looked

Like burning coals

Of fire.

Like torches

They moved to and fro

Among the living creatures.

The fire was bright.

Lightning

Issued from the fire.

The living creatures

Darted to and fro,

Like a flash of lightning.”

Ezekiel explained that these living creatures moved straight ahead. They went wherever the Spirit would go, but without turning. In the middle of these living creatures, there was something that looked like burning coals of fire or torches that moved back and forth. These bright lights were in the living creatures, so that they almost seemed like lightning. Thus when these creatures moved about, it was like a flash of traveling lightning.

 

God the creator (Isa 42:5-42:5)

“Thus says God!

Yahweh!

‘I created the heavens.

I stretched them out.

I spread forth the earth.

I spread forth what comes from it.

I give breath to the people upon it.

I give the Spirit to those who walk on it.’”

Another strong theme in Second Isaiah is God the creator. There is no doubt that God, Yahweh, is speaking here. He explicitly says that he created and stretched out the heavens and the earth below. He also spread out the earth and all its vegetation. He gives breath and the Spirit to all the people who walk on this earth. Everything depends on God, Yahweh.