“The Jews answered Pilate.
‘We have a law.
According to that law,
He ought to die,
He has claimed
The Son of God.’”
ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι Ἡμεῖς νόμον ἔχομεν, καὶ κατὰ τὸν νόμον ὀφείλει ἀποθανεῖν, ὅτι Υἱὸν Θεοῦ ἑαυτὸν ἐποίησεν.
John uniquely indicated that this group of Jewish leaders (οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι) answered Pilate (ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ) that they had a law (Ἡμεῖς νόμον ἔχομεν). According to that law (καὶ κατὰ τὸν νόμον), Jesus ought to die (ὀφείλει ἀποθανεῖν), because he had claimed or made himself to be (ἑαυτὸν ἐποίησεν) the Son of God (ὅτι Υἱὸν Θεοῦ). However, this was not in the other synoptic gospels. This was a reference to the law of blasphemy as in Leviticus, chapter 24:16. Anyone who blasphemed the name of Yahweh should be put to death. The whole congregation should stone this blasphemer. They should send him outside the camp, lay hands on his head and stone him. Stoning was the communal punishment, so that the evil person was removed from their community by the death penalty. According to John, this was not the first time that the Jewish religious leaders had hurled this charge of blasphemy at Jesus. John indicated the same thing in chapter 5:18, when Jesus’ last saying (διὰ τοῦτο οὖν), about the Father and Son set off this ambiguous Jewish group (οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι). They sought all the more to kill him (μᾶλλον ἐζήτουν αὐτὸν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἀποκτεῖναι). Not only had he broken the Sabbath law (ὅτι οὐ μόνον ἔλυεν τὸ σάββατον), but he also called God his Father (ἀλλὰ καὶ Πατέρα ἴδιον ἔλεγεν τὸν Θεόν). He was making himself equal to God (ἴσον ἑαυτὸν ποιῶν τῷ Θεῷ). This was a much stronger reason to get rid of Jesus. Jesus was calling himself equal to God as the Son of the Father, as he claimed to be a divine Son. Thus, for the Jews of Jerusalem, he was violating the sense of one God, monotheism. In John, chapter 10:33, this group of Jews (οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι) answered Jesus (ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ). They said that it was not for a good work (Περὶ καλοῦ ἔργου οὐ) that they were going to stone him (λιθάζομέν σε), but for his blasphemy (περὶ βλασφημίας). He was only a human being, a man (καὶ ὅτι σὺ ἄνθρωπος), but he was making himself into God (ὢν ποιεῖς σεαυτὸν Θεόν). This Jewish group was not complaining about his good healing works. They were upset because he as a fellow human being was saying that he was equal to God, the Father. This was blasphemy. Therefore, he had to be stoned. Thus, they would have stoned Jesus if he had not gotten away from them. Now here, they claimed that they did not have the legal Roman authority to kill Jesus, but that Jesus deserved to die because he claimed that he was the Son of God. Do you believe that Jesus is the Son of God?
of them asked.
Son of God?’
say that I am.’”
δὲ πάντες Σὺ οὖν εἶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ; ὁ δὲ πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἔφη Ὑμεῖς λέγετε ὅτι ἐγώ
Only Luke uniquely indicated
that all the people of the council asked Jesus (εἶπαν δὲ πάντες) if he was the
Son of God (εἶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ). This
was a very direct question that seemed to be from everybody there at this
meeting. Jesus then said to them (ὁ δὲ
πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἔφη), if you say it (Ὑμεῖς λέγετε), then he was (ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι). This was like the response that Jesus had
given in Matthew, chapter 26:63 (Σὺ εἶπας),
not the more direct positive response as in Mark,
chapter, 14:62 (Ἐγώ εἰμι). Clearly, Jesus
was the Son of God, in this ambiguous statement. Do you believe that Jesus is the Son of God?
“The son of Enos,
The son of Seth,
The son of Adam,
The son of God.”
τοῦ Ἐνὼς τοῦ Σὴθ τοῦ Ἀδὰμ τοῦ Θεοῦ.
These names are listed in 1 Chronicles 1:2-1:3, and Genesis, chapter 5:1-8. Luke concluded his genealogy with Adam, whom he called the son of God. This terminology was not part of the Jewish tradition. Of course, this term was applied to Jesus, the Son of God. Luke said that Cainan was the son of Enos (τοῦ Ἐνὼς), the son of Seth (τοῦ Σὴθ), the son of Adam (τοῦ Ἀδὰμ), the son of God (τοῦ Θεοῦ). The grouping has the so-called first man Adam, with his son, and grandson. His son, besides Cain and Abel who are not even mentioned here, was Seth who lived to be 912 years old. Seth’s son was Enosh who lived to be 905 years old. Obviously, there were other brothers and sisters, but they are not mentioned. This genealogy repeats the theme of Genesis, chapter 1. God created humans in the image of God, male and female. When Adam had lived 130 years, he became the father of a son in his likeness, according to his image. He named this son Seth. Adam had other sons and daughters. Thus, all the days that Adam lived were 930 years. The offspring of Seth, and not Cain, were to lead to Noah. Most of these patriarchs began having children in old age, but they all had other sons and daughters. Seth became the father of Enosh. Enosh was the son of Seth, but also the father of Kenan or Cainan. Thus, Luke completed his genealogy by going from Jesus to Adam, while Matthew went from Abraham to Jesus. These 77 names of Luke represented a lucky completion or fullness of time. Jesus would not only be a Jewish leader of the tribe of Abraham, but a worldwide universal leader.
“Jesus cured many
Who were sick
With various diseases.
He cast out
He would not permit
Because they knew him.”
καὶ ἐθεράπευσεν πολλοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας ποικίλαις νόσοις, καὶ δαιμόνια πολλὰ ἐξέβαλεν, καὶ οὐκ ἤφιεν λαλεῖν τὰ δαιμόνια, ὅτι ᾔδεισαν αὐτόν.
Matthew, chapter 8:16, has something similar, but Jesus cast out these demons with merely a word. Luke, chapter 4:41, is also similar, but there the cast out demons knew and spoke out that Jesus was the Messiah, the Son of God. Mark said that Jesus cured many sick people (καὶ ἐθεράπευσεν πολλοὺς κακῶς) having various diseases (ἔχοντας ποικίλαις νόσοις), without indicating how this was done. Jesus also cast out many demons (καὶ δαιμόνια πολλὰ ἐξέβαλεν). However, he would not permit or allow these cast out demons to speak (καὶ οὐκ ἤφιεν λαλεῖν τὰ δαιμόνια), because they knew who he was (ὅτι ᾔδεισαν αὐτόν). Some older texts added that these demons knew that Jesus was the Christ, the Messiah (Χριστὸν εἶναι), as in Luke. This idea of not telling people that Jesus was the Christ or Messiah has come to be known as the Messianic secret. Those who knew about the true role of Jesus were told to be quiet about it.
Of the gospel
Of Jesus Christ,
The Son of God.”
Ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ Υἱοῦ Θεοῦ.
When you compare the beginnings of the other gospels to Mark, you can see the differences. Matthew, chapter 1:1, called his account a book or account (Βίβλος) that starts with a genealogy, while Luke, chapter 1-4, talked about an orderly account for his friend Theophilus. John, chapter l:18, had his long logos prologue. Mark was the only one to call his work a gospel (τοῦ εὐαγγελίου), or more precisely, the beginning of a gospel (Ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου). Just like in Genesis, chapter 1:1, this is the beginning (Ἀρχὴ) of something important, the gospel of Jesus Christ, the good news about Jesus Christ (τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ). Like Matthew, Mark called Jesus the Christ (Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ) or the Messiah right from the beginning. Jesus was the anointed one, the “Christ (Χριστοῦ).” This author clearly stated at the beginning of this book that it would be about Jesus the expected anointed Messiah, Christ. However, there is nothing about the genealogy or the birth of Jesus as in Matthew and Luke. Instead, like John, the emphasis was on the divine Jesus, the Son of God (Υἱοῦ Θεοῦ). Right from the beginning, Jesus is and was the Son of God.
“Then the devil took Jesus
To the holy city.
He placed him
On the pinnacle
Of the temple.
He said to him.
If you are the Son of God,
Throw yourself down.
It is written.
‘He will command his angels
‘On their hands,
They will bear you up,
So that you will not dash
Against a stone.’”
Τότε παραλαμβάνει αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολος εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν, καὶ ἔστησεν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸ πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ,
καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Εἰ Υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ Θεοῦ, βάλε σεαυτὸν κάτω· γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι Τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ καὶ ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε, μή ποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου.
There is a difference between Matthew and Luke, chapter 4:5-11, since Luke has this temptation as the last temptation, not the second one. However, the wording is the same indicating a shared common source, perhaps Q. Interesting enough, the devil or the tempter cited Psalm 91:11-12, so that even the devil can quote scripture. This devil took Jesus to the holy city (Τότε παραλαμβάνει αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολος εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν), which was Jerusalem. The devil placed Jesus on the top of the Temple (καὶ ἔστησεν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸ πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ). Once again, the devil said that if Jesus was truly the Son of God (καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Εἰ Υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ Θεοῦ), he could throw himself down (βάλε σεαυτὸν κάτω). Then God’s angels would catch him (γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι Τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ). The devil, citing Psalm 91:11-12, said that God would command these angels to protect him (ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ). They could catch him in their hands (καὶ ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε), as if angels had hands. Thus, their feet would never touch a stone (καὶ ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε). Yahweh, in this original psalm was going to send his angels to protect the good ones, so that they would never stub their feet on any stones.