Only worship the Lord (Lk 4:8-4:8)

“Jesus answered him.

‘It is written.

‘Worship

The Lord

Your God!

Serve only him!’”

 

καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Γέγραπται Προσκυνήσεις Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σου καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις.

 

Just like in Matthew, chapter 4:10, the wording is nearly the same, indicating perhaps a common Q source.  Once again, Jesus had a very direct response to the devil (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ).  He referred to another scriptural writing (Γέγραπται) from Deuteronomy, chapter 6:13.  This was again a simple statement that you should only worship the Lord your God (Προσκυνήσεις Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου).  You should serve him alone (καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις).  In Deuteronomy, chapter 6:13, Yahweh had said they should only fear and serve Yahweh and swear by his name only.  The only main difference with Matthew, is that Jesus told the devil to go away.  That was not here in Luke.

In the fields (Matt 24:18-24:18)

“The one in the field

Must not turn back

To get a coat.”

 

καὶ ὁ ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ μὴ ἐπιστρεψάτω ὀπίσω ἆραι τὸ ἱμάτιον αὐτοῦ.

 

This is almost the same, word for word, in Mark, chapter 13:16, but not in Luke.  If you were in the field working (καὶ ὁ ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ), you were not to turn back or return to your house (μὴ ἐπιστρεψάτω ὀπίσω) to get or take a coat or outer garment (ἆραι τὸ ἱμάτιον αὐτοῦ).  You had no need for clothes because the end was near.

The woman who married seven brothers (Mt 22:25-22:27)

“Now there were seven brothers

Among us.

The first one married.

Then he died

Childless.

He left his widow wife

To his brother.

The second did the same.

As also did the third,

Down to the seventh.

Last of all,

The woman herself died.”

 

ἦσαν δὲ παρ’ ἡμῖν ἑπτὰ ἀδελφοί· καὶ ὁ πρῶτος γήμας ἐτελεύτησεν, καὶ μὴ ἔχων σπέρμα ἀφῆκεν τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ·

ὁμοίως καὶ ὁ δεύτερος καὶ ὁ τρίτος, ἕως τῶν ἑπτά·

ὕστερον δὲ πάντων ἀπέθανεν ἡ γυνή.

 

This story about the woman who married 7 brothers can be found in Mark, chapter 12:20-22, and in Luke, chapter 20:29-32, almost word for word.  Thus, this story was fairly well known.  There were 7 brothers among them (ἦσαν δὲ παρ’ ἡμῖν ἑπτὰ ἀδελφοί).  The first one married (καὶ ὁ πρῶτος γήμας).  Then he died (ἐτελεύτησεν).  He was childless since he had no descendants or offspring (καὶ μὴ ἔχων σπέρμα).  Thus, he left his widowed wife to his brother (ἀφῆκεν τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ).  Likewise, the same thing happened to the 2nd and 3rd brother all the way down to the 7th brother (ὁμοίως καὶ ὁ δεύτερος καὶ ὁ τρίτος, ἕως τῶν ἑπτά).  Last of all, this woman widow herself died (ὕστερον δὲ πάντων ἀπέθανεν ἡ γυνή).  This was a nice simple but improbable story.

The falling cornerstone (Mt 21:44-21:44)

“The one who falls

On this stone

Will be broken

To pieces.

It will crush anyone

On whom it falls.”

 

καὶ ὁ πεσὼν ἐπὶ τὸν λίθον τοῦτον συνθλασθήσεται· ἐφ’ ὃν δ’ ἂν πέσῃ, λικμήσει αὐτόν

 

This is exactly the same in Luke 20:18, but it is missing in many manuscripts of Matthew.  Jesus came back to his cornerstone idea.  If anyone fell on this key stone (καὶ ὁ πεσὼν ἐπὶ τὸν λίθον), they would be broken or shattered into pieces (τοῦτον συνθλασθήσεται).  If this stone fell on anyone (ἐφ’ ὃν δ’ ἂν πέσῃ), it would crush and grind them into powder (λικμήσει αὐτόν).  You had to be careful with this cornerstone.

The third and fourth group of laborers (Mt 20:5-20:5)

“When the landowner

Went out again

About noon,

The sixth hour,

And about three o’clock,

The ninth hour,

He did the same.”

 

πάλιν δὲ ἐξελθὼν περὶ ἕκτην καὶ ἐνάτην ὥραν ἐποίησεν ὡσαύτως.

 

Jesus continued with this parable that is unique to Matthew.  This landowner needed more workers so that every 3 hours, he went into the marketplace to see if there were any day workers available.  Thus, this landowner of the vineyards went out again (πάλιν δὲ ἐξελθὼν) about noon, the sixth hour (περὶ ἕκτην), and about 3:00 PM, the ninth hour (καὶ ἐνάτην ὥραν).  He did the same (ἐποίησεν ὡσαύτως) as he had done at the third hour or 9 AM.  He asked them to work in the vineyard and he would pay them whatever was right, fair or just, without a specific agreed wage.

Seekers (Mt 7:7-7:8)

“Ask!

It will be given you.

Search!

You will find it.

Knock!

The door

Will be opened to you.

Everyone

Who asks,

Receives.

Everyone

Who searches,

Finds.

Everyone

Who knocks,

The door

Will be opened.”

 

Αἰτεῖτε, καὶ δοθήσεται ὑμῖν· ζητεῖτε, καὶ εὑρήσετε· κρούετε, καὶ ἀνοιγήσεται ὑμῖν.

πᾶς γὰρ ὁ αἰτῶν λαμβάνει καὶ ὁ ζητῶν εὑρίσκει καὶ τῷ κρούοντι ἀνοιγήσεται.

 

This saying of Jesus is exactly the same as in Luke, chapter 11:9-10, indicating a common Q source.  Jesus told them to ask (Αἰτεῖτε), and they would get it (καὶ δοθήσεται ὑμῖν).  Seek (ζητεῖτε), and they would find (καὶ εὑρήσετε).  Knock (κρούετε), and it will be opened (καὶ ἀνοιγήσεται ὑμῖν).  Everyone who asked would receive (πᾶς γὰρ ὁ αἰτῶν λαμβάνει) what he asked for.  The seeker will find (καὶ ὁ ζητῶν εὑρίσκει) what he is looking for.  The one knocking will see it open (καὶ τῷ κρούοντι ἀνοιγήσεται).  All is well that ends well.  You just need a little effort.

Earthly and heavenly treasures (Mt 6:19-6:21)

“Do not store up

For yourselves

Treasures on earth.

Moths

And rust

Will consume them.

Thieves

Will break in

And steal them.

But store up

For yourselves

Treasures in heaven.

Where neither moth

Nor rust

Consumes them.

Where thieves

Do not break in

And steal them.

Where your treasure is,

There will your heart be also.”

 

Μὴ θησαυρίζετε ὑμῖν θησαυροὺς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ὅπου σὴς καὶ βρῶσις ἀφανίζει, καὶ ὅπου κλέπται διορύσσουσιν καὶ κλέπτουσιν·

θησαυρίζετε δὲ ὑμῖν θησαυροὺς ἐν οὐρανῷ, ὅπου οὔτε σὴς οὔτε βρῶσις ἀφανίζει, καὶ ὅπου κλέπται οὐ διορύσσουσιν οὐδὲ κλέπτουσιν

ὅπου γάρ ἐστιν ὁ θησαυρός σου, ἐκεῖ ἔσται καὶ ἡ καρδία σου.

 

This is another unique saying of Jesus in Matthew, although the idea can be found in Luke, chapter 12:33-34, with the last verse exactly the same.  You should not store up treasures (Μὴ θησαυρίζετε ὑμῖν θησαυροὺς) here on earth (ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς), because it was too much trouble to store things.  Either moths (ὅπου σὴς) would eat up the garments or rust would consume them.  This is one of the 3 times that moths are mentioned in the biblical New Testament.  The other was the Luke comparative and later in Matthew.  Garments were often considered treasures.  Rust was a more common term and applied to other goods.  Otherwise, thieves might break in and steal it anyhow (καὶ ὅπου κλέπται διορύσσουσιν καὶ κλέπτουσιν).  The opposite of the earthly treasures were the heavenly treasures (θησαυρίζετε δὲ ὑμῖν θησαυροὺς ἐν οὐρανῷ) that you should store up.  Moths and rust could not consume them (ὅπου οὔτε σὴς οὔτε βρῶσις ἀφανίζει).  Thieves could not break in and steal them either (καὶ ὅπου κλέπται οὐ διορύσσουσιν οὐδὲ κλέπτουσιν).  Finally, we have the wonderful saying about where your treasure is (ὅπου γάρ ἐστιν ὁ θησαυρός σου), there is your heart (ἐκεῖ ἔσται καὶ ἡ καρδία σου).  What you really care about is what is important to you.