Luke indicated that Jesus said that he was going to tell them another parable (Καὶ εἶπεν παραβολὴν αὐτοῖς). They were to look at the fig tree (Ἴδετε τὴν συκῆν), in fact, all the trees (καὶ πάντα τὰ δένδρα). This is similar to Matthew, chapter 24:32, and Mark, chapter 13:28, who are word for word the same as each other. Mark indicated that Jesus said they were to learn a lesson or parable (μάθετε τὴν παραβολήν) about the fig tree (Ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς συκῆς). Earlier in Matthew, chapter 21:19-20, Jesus had cursed a fig tree for not having fruit, but here there was a lesson or a little parable to be learned (μάθετε τὴν παραβολήν) from the fig tree (Ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς συκῆς). These fig trees play an important role in these stories or parables. Have you ever seen a fig tree?
Luke indicated that Jesus wanted to justify his behavior. Thus, he told them (εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτοὺς) this parable (τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην λέγων). This parable of the lost sheep can also be found in Matthew, chapter 18:12, with some minor changes. Perhaps this is a Q source. Matthew indicated that Jesus asked them to think (Τί ὑμῖν δοκεῖ) about these things or this parable, although he did not call it a parable like Luke did here. Do you like stories or parables?
This saying of Peter is unique to Matthew, emphasizing the role of Peter and his lack of faith and understanding. In Mark, chapter 7:17, the disciples in general and not Peter ask for an explanation of the parable. Peter may also have been speaking for the rest of the disciples, as their leader. Peter replied to Jesus (Ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Πέτρος εἶπεν αὐτῷ). He wanted Jesus to explain this parable to his disciples (Φράσον ἡμῖν τὴν παραβολήν).
This is the explanation about the sower parable, especially the seeds on the path that can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Mark, chapter 4:13-15, and Luke, chapter 8:11-12, with Matthew closer to Mark. Jesus had asked them to hear this parable about the sower (Ὑμεῖς οὖν ἀκούσατε τὴν παραβολὴν τοῦ σπείραντος). He then explained that this was all about hearing the word of the kingdom (Παντὸς ἀκούοντος τὸν λόγον τῆς βασιλείας). However, they did not understand what they heard (καὶ μὴ συνιέντος). Thus, the evil one would come (ἔρχεται ὁ πονηρὸς) and seize or snatch away what had been sown in their hearts (καὶ ἁρπάζει τὸ ἐσπαρμένον ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ). Jesus said that this is the explanation about the seeds that had been thrown on the path or road (οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν σπαρείς). These seeds were the words of the kingdom. The birds were the evil ones that came and devoured them, because they did not understand the words of the kingdom. Listening to the word was not enough. There had to be good circumstances or pre-depositions to hearing and understanding for the word or the seed to be effective.