The new covenant (Hos 2:18-2:18)

“On that day,

I will make

For you

A covenant

With the wild animals,

The birds of the air,

The creeping things

Of the ground.

I will abolish

The bow,

The sword,

War from the land.

I will make you

Lie down in safety.”

On that day to come, Yahweh said that he was going to make a new covenant with the wild animals, the birds, and the creeping things. He was going to abolish the bow, the sword, and even fighting in general. War would be no more. This futuristic peace time would mean that they could lie down in safety. Was this the messianic age to come with worldwide peace?

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The new covenant (Jer 31:33-31:34)

“‘But this is the covenant

That I will make

With the house of Israel,

After those days.’

Says Yahweh.

‘I will put my law

Within them.

I will write it

On their hearts.

I will be their God.

They shall be my people.

No longer shall they teach

One another.

‘Know Yahweh!’

They shall all know me,

From the least of them

To the greatest.’

Says Yahweh.

‘I will forgive

Their iniquity.

I will remember their sin

No more.’”

Yahweh says that the new covenant will be written in the hearts of the people of Israel. It will be within them, so that they will not have to teach each other to know Yahweh. Yahweh was going to be their God. They were to be his people, plain and simple. There was no great need for any kind of education. From the least to the greatest, they would all know Yahweh, since he was going to forget their iniquity. He was not going to remember their sins anymore. There would be a clean slate with this new covenant of interior knowledge and love. God, Yahweh, has taken the imitative to create this new spiritual personal covenant of the heart. He was going to take away retribution for past sins but wanted personal responsibility for here on out. The law was no longer imposed from outside but came from within.

The new covenant (Jer 31:31-31:31)

“Says Yahweh.

‘The days are surely coming,

When I will make

A new covenant

With the house of Israel

As well as the house of Judah.’”

Yahweh says, via Jeremiah, that the days are coming when he would make a new covenant with both the house of Israel and the house of Judah. What then happened to the old alliance between Yahweh and his people?

The new covenant (Neh 9:38-9:38)

“Because of all this we make a firm agreement in writing. On that sealed document are inscribed the names of our officials, our Levites, and our priests.”

Apparently Nehemiah came up with the idea of a new written covenant, which is nothing more than a renewal of the old covenant, after this great prayer of Ezra. He wanted all the officials, Levites, and priests to sign it or put their seal on it. Actually King Josiah (640-609 BCE), before the Exile, had a renewal of the covenant but it was only an oral one, not written. We shall see how this written covenant works out.