Not bread alone (Lk 4:4-4:4)

“Jesus

Answered him.

‘It is written.

‘One does not live

By bread alone.’”

 

καὶ ἀπεκρίθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς Γέγραπται ὅτι Οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος.

 

Once again, this is the same as Matthew, chapter 4:3, nearly word for word.  Luke said that Jesus responded to the devil (καὶ ἀπεκρίθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by citing a Septuagint written phrase (Γέγραπται) from Deuteronomy, chapter 8:3, about the fact that man does not live by bread alone (ὅτι Οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος).  Luke did not finish this phrase the way that Matthew did by saying that man lives by all the words that come from the mouth of God.  In Deuteronomy, Yahweh had reminded the Israelites that they had been tested for 40 years with hunger.  Then came this saying about not living by bread alone, but by every word that came from the mouth of Yahweh, an anthropomorphism for Yahweh’s law.  The Book of Deuteronomy was the most quoted book of the Torah in these New Testament writings.

Advertisements

What comes out defiles a person (Mk 7:20-7:20)

“Jesus said.

‘What comes out

Of a person

Defiles a person.”

 

ἔλεγεν δὲ ὅτι Τὸ ἐκ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκπορευόμενον, ἐκεῖνο κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον.

 

There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 15:18.  Jesus indicated that the true defilement was what came out of a person, not what went into him.  Matthew often talked about the mouth of a person, but Mark did not do that here, as he clearly explained defilement.  Mark reported that Jesus said (ἔλεγεν) that what came out of a person or a man (δὲ ὅτι Τὸ ἐκ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκπορευόμενον) defiled him (ἐκεῖνο κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον), not what went into him.

Jesus explains the role of the mouth (Mt 15:16-15:17)

“Then Jesus said.

‘Are you also still

Without understanding?

Do you not see

That whatever goes

Into the mouth

Enters the stomach?

Then it goes out

Into the sewer.’”

 

ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Ἀκμὴν καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀσύνετοί ἐστε;

ὐ νοεῖτε ὅτι πᾶν τὸ εἰσπορευόμενον εἰς τὸ στόμα εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν χωρεῖ καὶ εἰς ἀφεδρῶνα ἐκβάλλεται;

 

There is something similar to this in Mark, chapter 7:18-19.  Jesus seemed a little upset that they still did not understand what he was telling them about defilement (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Ἀκμὴν καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀσύνετοί ἐστε).  He pointed out that they had to understand (ὐ νοεῖτε) that everything entering into the mouth (ὅτι πᾶν τὸ εἰσπορευόμενον εἰς τὸ στόμα) went into the stomach (εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν χωρεῖ).  From the stomach, it came out in a bowel movement that ended up in a sewer, latrine, or dung heap (καὶ εἰς ἀφεδρῶνα ἐκβάλλεται).  There was a famous saying that it is harder to sell corn after it has been eaten by a pig than before it was eaten.  Whatever went into your mouth would end up as defecation.

The den was sealed with a stone (Dan 6:17-6:18)

“A stone was brought.

They laid it

On the mouth

Of the den.

The king sealed it

With his own signet,

As well as with the signet

Of his lords.

Thus,

Nothing might be changed

Concerning Daniel.

Then the king

Went to his palace.

He spent the night

Fasting.

No food was brought

To him.

Sleep fled from him.”

They took a stone and put it at the mouth of the den. The king sealed the opening to the den with his own signet, as well as that of his lords. Nothing would be changed concerning Daniel. Then the king went to his palace that night and fasted. He did not sleep. He was still a little uneasy about this whole Daniel affair.

The power of Yahweh (Lam 3:37-3:39)

Mem

“Who can command

To have it done,

If Yahweh

Has not ordained it?

Is it not

From the mouth

Of the Most High

That good

As well as evil comes?

Why should anyone,

Who draws breath,

Complain

About the punishment

Of their sins?”

This author indicates that nothing can get done without the consent of Yahweh. From the mouth of the Most High God comes both good and evil. Once again, there is the question of God and evil. No one should complain about the punishment for their sins from this almighty God. These three verses start with the Hebrew consonant letter Mem in this acrostic poem.

The positive response of Yahweh (Jer 15:19-15:21)

“Therefore thus says Yahweh.

‘If you turn back,

I will take you back.

You shall stand before me.

If you utter what is precious,

Not what is worthless,

You shall serve as my mouth.

They will turn to you,

But you will not turn to them.

I will make you to this people

A fortified wall of bronze.

They will fight against you.

But they shall not prevail over you.

I am with you

To save you.

I am with you

To deliver you.’

Says Yahweh!

‘I will deliver you

Out of the hand of the wicked.

I will redeem you

From the grasp of the ruthless.’”

Yahweh was very receptive to the Jeremiah’s plea. If he turned back, Yahweh would accept him. In fact, he was going to stand in front of him. If Jeremiah uttered what was precious and worthwhile, he would then serve as the mouth of Yahweh, a true prophet. The people were to turn to him, but he was not to turn to them. Jeremiah was going to become a fortified bronze wall. Many people would fight against him, but they would not prevail, because Yahweh was with him. Yahweh would save him. He would deliver him from the hands of the wicked and the grasp of the ruthless ones.

The seraphim approach Isaiah (Isa 6:6-6:7)

“Then one of the seraphim

Flew to me.

He was holding

A live burning coal

That he had taken

From the altar

With tongs.

The seraph touched

My mouth with it.

He said.

‘Now that this has touched your lips,

Your guilt has departed.

Your sin blotted out.’”

One of the seraphim flew over to Isaiah, holding a burning coal taken from the altar with tongs. This seraph touched the mouth of Isaiah with the burning coals. Then he said that his guilt and sin had been blotted out and gone away. Isaiah was made clean.