“Then Jesus said to them.
‘The Son of Man is
Lord of the Sabbath.’”
καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.
Luke indicated that Jesus then said to them (καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς) that the Son of Man (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) is Lord of the Sabbath (Κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 12:8, and Mark, chapter 2:28, probably indicating that Mark was the source of this comment. However, the other 2 gospels had more elaboration. Mark had Jesus say to those around him that the Sabbath was made for man, humans, or mankind, not humans for the Sabbath. Then he added the comment that is here in Luke that the Son of Man was the Lord of the Sabbath, which was picked up by the other two synoptic gospels. Matthew had Jesus begin with a solemn proclamation that someone greater than the Temple was here, a clear reference to Jesus himself. They did not know what the saying about mercy was all about. Matthew then used the same citation of Hosea chapter 6:6, that he had earlier in chapter 9:13. Jesus explained that he desired mercy, just as Yahweh wanted real faithful love, not mere sacrifices. Hosea wanted the Israelites to have real knowledge of God, rather than worry about burnt offerings. Thus, the Pharisees should not have condemned the innocent or guiltless ones, since Jesus and his disciples had done nothing wrong. He then concluded with the saying that the Son of Man was the Lord of the Sabbath. Jesus then could control the Sabbath, not the other way around. Instead of the Sabbath as a gift to humans, Jesus would reinterpret the laws of the Sabbath as the Lord of the Sabbath.
“Then he said to them.
Was made for humans,
Not humans for the Sabbath.
The Son of Man
Even of the Sabbath.’”
καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Τὸ σάββατον διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐγένετο, καὶ οὐχ ὁ ἄνθρωπος διὰ τὸ σάββατον·
ὥστε κύριός ἐστιν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου.
There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 12:8, and Luke, chapter 6:5, probably indicating that Mark was the source of this comment. Mark had Jesus say to those around him (καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς) that the Sabbath was made for man, humans, or mankind (Τὸ σάββατον διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐγένετο,), not humans for the Sabbath (καὶ οὐχ ὁ ἄνθρωπος διὰ τὸ σάββατον). Then he added the comment that the Son of Man was the Lord of the Sabbath (ὥστε κύριός ἐστιν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου) that was picked up by the other two synoptic gospels. Jesus then could control the Sabbath, not the other way around. Instead, the Sabbath was a gift to humans. Jesus, the Son of Man, would reinterpret the laws of the Sabbath as the Lord of the Sabbath.
“All the presidents
Of the kingdom,
He should enforce
For thirty days,
Except to you,
Shall be cast
Into a den of lions.
Establish the interdict!
Sign the document!
It cannot be changed,
According to the law
Of the Medes,
Of the Persians.
It cannot be revoked.’
King Darius signed
Thus, the two other presidents of the kingdom, with the prefects, the satraps, the counselors, and the governors all agreed that the king should establish an ordinance to be enforced as an interdict. This ordinance would say that anyone who prayed to any divine or human for the next 30 days, except to the king himself, should be cast into a den of lions. Then the king established this interdict and signed the document that could not be changed, according to the laws of Medes and Persia. This is somewhat reminiscent of the story of the king in Book of Esther, chapters 3-4 and 8-9, against the Jews.
“Yahweh said to me.
‘Son of man!
To all that I shall tell you
Concerning all the ordinances
Of the temple
With all its laws!
Those who may be admitted
To the temple!
Those who are to be excluded
From the sanctuary!’”
Yahweh then proceeded to outline all the ordinances about the Temple to Ezekiel, the son of man. Ezekiel was to be observant, pay attention, and listen to what Yahweh had to say. Yahweh was going to enumerate all the laws about the Temple of Yahweh. Ezekiel was to take special notice about who would be admitted into the Temple. Certain people were to be excluded from the sanctuary.
“You shall say.
Is in the right.
There is open shame
On us today,
On the people of Judah,
On the inhabitants of Jerusalem,
On our kings,
On our rulers,
On our priests,
On our prophets,
On our ancestors.
Because we have sinned
Before the Lord.
We have disobeyed him.
We have not heeded
Of the Lord,
In the statutes
Of the Lord
That he set
Baruch told them how to pray. They were to say that they were ashamed because the Lord their God was right. However, it was just not the exiles, but the people in Judah and Jerusalem, along with their kings, rulers, priests, prophets, and their ancestors who had sinned. They had disobeyed and not heeded the voice of the Lord their God. They had not followed the laws that the Lord set before them.
“The earth dries up.
The world languishes.
The heavens languish
Together with the earth.
The earth lies polluted
Under its inhabitants.
They have transgressed laws.
They have violated the statutes.
They have broken the everlasting covenant.
Therefore a curse devours the earth.
Its inhabitants suffer
For their guilt.
Therefore the inhabitants of the earth dwindled.
Few people are left.”
This oracle of Isaiah says that the earth and the heavens were drying up and withering away. The earth was polluted by its inhabitants. Does that sound familiar? They had transgressed the laws, violated the statutes, and broken the eternal covenant. The Mosaic laws and statutes only pertained to the Israelites. However, the eternal covenant came after the flood for all people. Thus everyone was guilty. Yahweh was going to curse all the earth and its inhabitants because of their guilty ways. A lot of people would be wiped out, but a few would be left, like the “Left Behind” series of books, movies, and video games by Tim LaHaye (1926-2016).
“When the terrible rage of wild beasts
Came upon your people,
They were being destroyed
By the bites of writhing serpents.
Your wrath did not continue to the end.
They were troubled for a little while
As a warning.
They received a symbol of deliverance
To remind them of your law’s command.
The ones who turned toward it
Not by the thing that he saw,
But by you,
The Savior of all.”
This is a reference to Moses and the bronze serpent in Numbers, chapter 21. The Israelites, after Yahweh had sent poisoned snakes to them, repented. These wild terrible snakes were biting and killing the Israelites. However, Yahweh put a stop to it. This was then seen as a symbol of God’s deliverance for his people. They were reminded to keep the laws. Those who turned to the law’s commandments (ἐντολῆς νόμου σου·) would be saved by the Savior of all (πάντων σωτῆρα), God.
“Remember your word to your servant!
You have made me hope.
This is my comfort in my distress.
Your promise gives me life.
The arrogant utterly deride me.
But I do not turn away from your law.
When I think of your ordinances from of old,
I take comfort.
Hot indignation seizes me
Because of the wicked.
They forsake your law.
Your statutes have been my songs,
Wherever I make my home.
I remember your name in the night.
I keep your law.
This blessing has fallen to me.
I have kept your precepts.”
This psalmist wanted Yahweh to remember what he promised. His promises gave hope to him when he was in distress. Even though arrogant people made fun of him, he did not turn away from the laws of Yahweh. He was comforted by remembering the ordinances of Yahweh. He really was mad about those who had not followed Yahweh’s precepts. This psalmist was putting the commandments of Yahweh to song. He remembered them when he lay in bed at night. He considered the precepts of the law to be a blessing. So ends this section on the seventh consonant letter of the Hebrew alphabet, Zain.
“Deal bountifully with your servant.
Thus I may live and observe your word.
Open my eyes!
Thus I may behold
Wondrous things out of your law.
I am an alien in the land.
Do not hide your commandments from me!
My soul is consumed with longing
For your ordinances at all times.
You rebuke the insolent.
You rebuke the accursed ones,
You rebuke those who wander from your commandments.
Take away from me their scorn and contempt.
I have kept your decrees.
Even though princes sit plotting against me,
Your servant will meditate on your statutes.
Your decrees are my delight.
They are my counselors.”
This psalmist maintained that he was a trustworthy servant. He wanted to live and observe the word of God. He wanted his eyes opened so that he could see all the wondrous things of the law. He was like an alien in his own land. He did not want Yahweh to hide the commandments from him. He was consumed with following the laws of Yahweh. He knew that Yahweh rebuked those who wandered from keeping his commandments, the insolent and the accursed ones. Even if other princes were plotting against him, this psalmist would continue to meditate on Yahweh’s statutes. The psalmist delighted in Yahweh’s decrees since they were like his counselors. Thus this section on the third consonant letter of the Hebrew alphabet, Gimel, came to an end.
“Can you bind the chains of the Pleiades?
Can you loosen the cords of Orion?
Can you lead forth the Mazzaroth in their season?
Can you guide the Bear with its children?
Do you know the ordinances of the heavens?
Can you establish their rule on the earth?”
The ancients were well aware of the heavens and their clusters of stars. The Greek named the Pleiades constellation as the nearest cluster of stars to earth. It has 7 bright blue stars, usually referred to as the 7 sisters chained together. Orion was a cluster of stars as a great Greek hunter. Mazzaroth is more difficult to ascertain, but it may mean the whole star system. The Bear constellation may refer to the big bear and little bear constellations. Job was asked if he knew the laws of the heavens. If he did not know them, then how could he establish any rules on earth? This was a common thought. Since you did not know the laws of heaven, how could you determine the laws of earth?