Jesse (Lk 3:32-3:32)

“The son of Jesse,

The son of Obed,

The son of Boaz,

The son of Sala,

The son of Nahshon.”

 

τοῦ Ἰεσσαὶ τοῦ Ἰωβὴδ τοῦ Βοὸς τοῦ Σαλὰ τοῦ Ναασσὼν

 

This is pretty much the same as Matthew, chapter 1:5-6, as the genealogies almost match here.  Luke said that David was the son of Jesse (τοῦ Ἰεσσαὶ), the son of Obed (τοῦ Ἰωβὴδ), the son of Boaz (τοῦ Βοὸς), the son of Sala (τοῦ Σαλὰ), and the son of Nahshon (τοῦ Ναασσὼν).  The genealogy at the end of Ruth, chapter 4:18-22, goes from Judah to David.  Nahshon was a famous warrior prince of Judah, especially in Numbers, chapter 7:12.  Nahshon was the father of Salma or Salmon (Σαλμών), the direct male ancestor of King David, and all of the kings of the Kingdom of Judah.  Sala or Salmon was the father of Boaz with Rahab his wife.  Boaz was the father of Obed with Ruth his wife.  Obed was the father of Jesse.  Jesse had 7 sons with King David the youngest son.  Ruth was a Moabite non-Jewish widow.  She traveled to Israel with her Jewish mother-in-law Naomi.  There she then married Boaz in a beautiful love story in the biblical book of Ruth.

Oracle of Yahweh (Ob 1:1-1:1)

“Thus says Yahweh

Concerning Edom.

We have heard a report

From Yahweh.

A messenger has been sent

Among my nations.

‘Rise up!

Let us rise against it

For battle.’”

The Israelites had a long history with Edom because they believed that Esau, the twin brother of Jacob, had founded this country.  The Book of Genesis listed the kings of Edom in chapter 36.  The country of Edom was south of the Dead Sea, south of Moab and south of Judah.  It eventually stopped being a country with most of the people drifting into southern Judah.  Many of the prophets had spoken against the Edomites, including Jeremiah, chapter 49, Isaiah, chapter 34, Ezekiel, chapter 25, Amos, chapter 1, and Joel, chapter 3.  This was a report from Yahweh, since he had sent his messengers to the various countries.  They were to rise up and get ready for the battle.

The priests and the idols (Bar 6:48-6:52)

“When war

Or calamity

Comes upon them,

The priests consult together

As to where

They can

Hide themselves

With their gods.

How then can anyone

Fail to see

That these are not gods?

They cannot save themselves

From war

Or calamity.

They are made of wood,

Overlaid

With gold

Or silver.

It will afterward

Be known

That they are false.

It will be manifest

To all the nations,

To all the kings,

That they are not gods

But the work of human hands.

There is no work

Of God

In them.

Who then can fail

To know

That they are not gods?”

What happens when war or calamity comes to these priests and their idol gods? The priests consult together on where they can hide themselves with their gods. All can see that these are not gods. They cannot save themselves from either war or calamity, since they are made of wood, overlaid with gold or silver. Afterwards, everyone will know that these were false gods. It is will be clear to all the nations and all the kings that they are not gods. As they were the work of human hands, there is no work of God in them. This author asked the question, who would not recognize that these idols are not gods?

The actions of the Lord (Bar 2:1-2:2)

“So the Lord

Carried out

The threat

He spoke

Against us,

Against our judges

Who ruled Israel,

Against our kings

Against our rulers,

Against the people of Israel,

Against the people of Judah.

Under the whole heaven,

There has not been done

Like what

He has done

In Jerusalem,

In accordance

With the threats

That were written

In the law of Moses.”

The Lord actually did what he threatened to do to us. He carried out his threats against all the people of Judah and Jerusalem, including the judges, the kings, and the rulers. Something like this had never been done before. However, he was only following the threats that were written in the Law of Moses so that it should not have been a surprise.

The whole world (Jer 25:26-25:26)

“I went to

All the kings of the north,

Far and near,

One after another,

All the kingdoms of the world

That are on the face of the earth.”

Having mentioned all the known areas around Israel, Jeremiah now continues his world wide tour by actually going to all the kings to the north, far and near. He would go one after the other to all the kingdoms on the face of the earth.   Did he go to China or Asia? Did he go to southern Africa? Did he go to northern Europe? We are pretty certain that he did not go to North and South America or the Pacific islands, including Australia. The view of Jeremiah and his contemporaries was that the flat world was limited to what they knew.

The Jerusalem gates (Jer 17:19-17:20)

“Thus said Yahweh to me.

‘Go!

Stand in the People’s Gate!

The kings of Judah enter there.

They go out from there.

Stand in all the gates of Jerusalem.

Say to them.

‘Hear the word of Yahweh!

You kings of Judah!

All Judah!

All the inhabitants of Jerusalem,

Who enter by these gates.’”

Yahweh told Jeremiah to stand at the People’s Gate that is sometimes called the Benjamin Gate. Perhaps it refers to the gates in general around Jerusalem. Apparently the kings and the common people passed through this gate. However, it was not mentioned elsewhere. Jeremiah was to stand there and remind the people passing by about the word of Yahweh. This message was meant for the kings, the people of Judah, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, or anyone who entered or left through these gates.

The failure of the leaders (Jer 4:9-4:9)

“Yahweh says.

‘On that day,

Courage shall fail the king.

Courage shall fail the officials.

The priests shall be appalled.

The prophets astounded.’”

Yahweh, via Jeremiah, says that on that day of invasion and destruction the kings and officials will lack courage. The priests will be appalled, while the prophets will be astonished. Their leaders will fail their people.

The power of Jeremiah comes from Yahweh (Jer 1:17-1:19)

“‘You!

Gird up your loins!

Stand up!

Tell them everything

That I command you!

Do not break down before them!

Or I will break you before them!

I for my part

Have made you today

A fortified city,

An iron pillar,

A bronze wall,

Against the whole land.

You will be against

The kings of Judah,

Its princes,

Its priests,

The people of the land.        

They will fight against you.

But they shall not prevail against you.

I am with you

To deliver you.’

Says Yahweh.”

Jeremiah will have the power of Yahweh behind him. Yahweh tells Jeremiah that he must get ready for a battle against others by standing up for Yahweh. He was to tell them everything that Yahweh had commanded him to say. He was not to break down or Yahweh would break him. He was going to be as strong as a fortified city, an iron pillar, or a bronze wall. However, Jeremiah was going to go against the whole land, including the kings, princes, priests, and all the people of Judah. They were going to fight against him, but they would not prevail, because Yahweh was with Jeremiah. Yahweh would save and deliver Jeremiah.

The lurking disaster in the north (Jer 1:14-1:16)

“Then Yahweh said to me.

‘Out of the north,

Disaster shall break out

Upon all the inhabitants of the land.

For now,

I am calling

All the tribes of the kingdoms of the north.’

Says Yahweh.

‘They shall come.

All of them shall set their thrones

At the entrance of the gates of Jerusalem,

Against all its surrounding walls,

Against all the cities of Judah.

I will utter my judgments against them.

All their wickedness is in forsaking me.

They have burned incense

To other gods.

They have worshiped

The works of their own hands.’”

Once again Jeremiah presents how Yahweh spoke directly to him. Disaster was going to happen in the north, however, it had already happened a century earlier in the 8th century BCE, not the 7th century BCE of Jeremiah. All the kings of the north would leave their thrones at the gates or the walls of Jerusalem. They would leave some in the cities of Judah. They suffered this judgment because they had become wicked in forsaking Yahweh. They had sacrificed with incense to false gods that they had made with their own hands.

Vindication of Zion (Isa 62:1-62:2)

“For Zion’s sake,

I will not keep silent.

For Jerusalem’s sake,

I will not rest

Until her vindication shines out

Like the dawn.

Her salvation will be

Like a burning torch.

The nations shall see your vindication.

All the kings shall see your glory.”

Yahweh reassures his people in the first person singular that he will vindicate and save Zion. He was not going to be silent and rest until Jerusalem’s vindication was shinning like the dawn or its salvation like a burning torch. All the countries would see this vindication. All the kings would see this glory.